Truth of Mahabharat

By Dr. S. Balakrishna NASA

Dating Mahabharata War
Two Eclipses in Thirteen Days

Mahabharata war is considered by many to be a historical event. The epic states that a singularly ominous pair of eclipses occurred in “Thirteen days” some time before the war. Using modern astronomical software, this article shows that a number of “Thirteen day” eclipse pairs were visible in Kurukshethra.  Article suggests some candidate dates for Mahabharata war.


Mahabharata is a great epic, and is one of the pillars of present day Hinduism. The Mahabharatastory and its moral ethos have had profound influence on millions over many generations.Mahabharata war is said to have occurred before the transition of Dwapara Yuga to Kali Yuga. Dating the Mahabharata war and start of Kaliyuga has been elusive and going on for many centuries.

Aryabhata, is a famous early astronomer with contributions to science, whose estimate of p, and the time of moon revolution around the earth are so accurate, that his works are being extensively researched. Aryabhata (476-550 AD) stated that Kaliyuga started 3600 years before, when he was 23 years old, making the start as 3102 BC [Aryabhateeya ref-1]). It would dateMahabharata war to around circa 3130-3140 BCJ.

Surya Siddhanta [Ref 2], a document evolved from roughly same period, states that sun was 54 degrees away from vernal equinox when Kaliyuga started on a new moon day, corresponding to February 17/18, 3102 BCJ, at Ujjain (75deg47minE 23deg 15min N).

Varaha Mihira (circa 560 AD), another famous astronomer, stated that 2526 years before start ofSaka count (either Shalivahana saka starting in 79 AD or Vikrama Saka starting in 57 BC) [Brihat Samhita Ref-3] as per text below.

When Saptarishis (ursa major) was near Magha Yudhistira was king 2526 years before Saka time

Presently, traditional Sanatana Dharma followers consider that Kaliyuga started at 3102 BCJ, when Sri Krishna passed away, and that Mahabharata war occurred in 3138 BCJ. Millennium year 2000 AD is Kali 5102.

Like Homer’s Iliad, another epic poetry from Greece, different scholars have expressed opinions varying between the story of Mahabharata being either total fiction or true record of historical facts. It took efforts by Schliemann and others to show physical archeological evidence of existence of Troy in present day Turkey, and Homer’s poems having historical relevance.

Bharata has been continuously and relatively densely lived in for thousands of years and in Northern Bharata the archeological evidence is difficult to come by because of many 100’s of generations of people living in same area. Hence, it is usual to look for Puranic and Vedic(written and oral recitation) astronomical evidence to substantiate the time periods. As is true of all such documents like bible stories, Scandinavian, Chinese, Japanese, Egyptian and other documented local folklore, the historical truths are likely to be anywhere between absolute truth to vivid imagination. An objective analysis can help in determining the likelihood of folklore being a historical fact or not.

Mahabharata epic  story was written by, Vedavyaasa (or Krishna Dwaipaayana) after theMahabharata war. Vyaasa is also credited with codifying the existing branches of Vedas. It is perhaps the longest poem of its kind of such antiquity. The presently known oldest version ofMahabharata, based on its style, grammar and other features was probably written down before the Gupta period. This Mahabharata text does not refer to any Zodiac’s or Raashis (a western concept probably accommodated in to Jyotishya some time during 300BC to 200AD). The linguistic style of the oldest version of Mahabharata clearly cannot be the basis for determining if and when the events of Mahabharata occurred. It probably may have been rewritten/re-rendered many times as the mode of transference was by oral traditions as in the case of Vedic chandasprosody. The known oldest version has nearly 90,000 to 100,000 poems dominantly with 32 syllables Anushtup chandas, in 18 chapters called Parva’s [ref-4 and 5].

The Bhishma Parva and Udyoga Parva (specific chapters of Mahabharata) provide considerable astronomical/astrological descriptions and omens as the Mahabharata war was approaching. It describes a period of draught, with many planetary positions. Then there is this clear reference to pair of eclipses occurring on 13th day as shown below.

Fourteenth day, Fifteenth day and in past sixteenth day, but I have never known the Amavasya(New Moon day) to occur on the thirteenth day. Lunar eclipse followed by solar eclipse on thirteenth day is in a single lunar month etc…..

This reference to “Thirteen day” eclipse pair appears to be a unique astronomical observation.Mahabharata text also refers to retrograde motions of planets prior to war and provides their location with reference to 27/28 Vedic star locations. Mahabharata Drona Parva also refers toJayadhratha’s killing during a dark episode on 13th day of the war, which some consider as another short solar eclipse.

This document is basically concerned with analysis of all eclipses visible at Kurukshethra(Location where Mahabharata war took place, north of New Delhi, Longitude 76 deg 49 min East, Latitude 29 deg 59 Min North) from 3300 BC to about Buddha-Mahavira-Parshvanaatha time of about 700BC. Analysis of the time between successive eclipses, specifically time between end of one and beginning of other has been made, with a view to look at astronomical feasibility of back-to-back eclipses in 13 days, using modern astronomical computer software.

Another major issue of how did observers of the period define and determine period between eclipses when no clocks existed, has been addressed.


Lunar eclipse occurs when Earth’s shadow falls on the Moon. There are about 150 lunar eclipses per century. Lunar eclipses can occur only at full moon, and can be either total or partial. Further they can be umbral and or penumbral. Total lunar eclipses can last up to 2 hours, while partial lunar eclipses can last up to 4 hours. Any observer on dark face of earth can see when lunar eclipse when it occurs. During period 3500BC to 700 BC, nearly 4350 lunar eclipses have probably occurred. A good fraction of these would have been visible in Kurukshethra [ref-6].

Solar Eclipse occurs when Moon’s shadow falls on earth observer. About 240 solar eclipses occur every century. During period 3500BC to 700 BC, nearly 6960 Solar Eclipses have occurred. Solar can occur only at new moon. Solar eclipses may be total or annular. Total solar eclipses can last up to about 8 minutes, and partial solar eclipses can last up to 115minutes. The shadow of moon has a limited size of few thousand miles falling on nearly 8000-mile diameter earth. Hence, solar eclipses can be seen only in a limited range of longitude-latitude where the shadow falls. Elsewhere, even though sun is visible, eclipse will not be seen.

Eclipse evaluating computational software and its validation in present context
Astronomical calculations have been greatly improved since past 30 years, particularly with considerable amount of trajectory work conducted in Moon and other scientific projects. High accuracy computer models and software have been developed. These are validated against databases from US Naval Observatory’s Interactive computer Ephemeris, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. One such code is LodeStar Pro copy righted by Wayne C Annala in 1994 [Ref- 7]. The Lodestar Pro was checked for historical eclipses of 1000-2500 BC from clay tablet records of Mesopotamia area presently available with British Museum. Wayne Mitchell has analyzed this data [Ref-8]. Lodestar Pro provided excellent match with ref-8.

Eclipses at Kurukshethra
During the period of our interest, 3500BC to 700 BC, nearly 4350 Lunar Eclipses and 6960 solar eclipses have occurred on earth. Of these nearly 673 solar and lunar eclipses occurred in pairs of time gap of about nominal 15 days corresponding to roughly half lunar month. We need to search amongst these 673 for eclipse pairs visible in Kurukshethra, which occurred in “Thirteen” days.

A very detailed scan of all the visible lunar and solar eclipses for every year from 3300BC to 700 BC was made on the Lodestar software for Kurukshethra location. These are tabulated and plotted. Maximum eclipse time gap (end of one eclipse and beginning of next eclipse for naked eye observers) was found to be about 379 hours while the minimum was about 332 hours. A plot of time gap between back-to-back eclipses versus eclipse pair number is shown below. (This time corresponds to maximum to maximum – not end of one to beginning of next as in the future table).

The plot shows that during the period 3300BC to 700 BC, (Julian year corresponds to zero at 4712 BC- an imaginary date- Our range corresponds to 1412 Julian year to 4012 Julian Year) nearly 672 pairs of eclipses occurred on earth, which in principle may have been visible at Kurukshethra. Amongst these, nearly 32 pairs would be occurring for period less than 14 days. Many of these were found to be weak penumbral eclipses of moon, and solar eclipses had such low obscurity as to raise the issue whether any body could see them. Six pairs of “thirteen day” eclipses could be seen unambiguously.

Definition of Day and issue of timing determination

It is easy for us, in present time, to precisely analyze the eclipse times based on a 24 hour per day time clock. However many thousand years ago, such a time evaluation would clearly be irrelevant. Hence the count of the day and time had to be based on clear, natural and unambiguous events such as sunset to sunset or sunrise to sun rise. Hence in all the analyses, presented below, the time of relevant sun rise or sun set is indicated such that the eclipse beginning and end can be evaluated with reference to the sun rise or sun set. In modern day definition, the period from sunrise to next sunrise is never 24 hours except on equinox day. On all other days, the time will be either less than 24 hours (when day light time is shrinking) and more than 24 hours (when day light time is increasing). For people of ancient times, sunset-to-sunset or sunrise-to-sunrise would be the logical definition of a day. Using this definition, it is possible to determine whether an eclipse pair occurred in “Thirteen days”.

Kurukshethra eclipses and some planetary retrograde motions
The table below shows six pairs of eclipses, which can be analyzed further to determine whether Mahabharata war and events could occur then.

Six eclipse pairs visible at Kurukshethra occurring in less than or near 14 daysEvents in red not visible due to sun rise (Lunar) or sun set (Solar)
Year BC Eclipse Julian day Initial con Max End Sunrise Sunset end/start date
Year BC
End/Strt Dt
Aug 11

Aug 25


Jul 11

Jun 27

Nov 25

Dec 09


Dec 30

Jan 13


Mar 27

Apr 10

Jul 04

Jul 18


Location of Kurukshethra 76deg49 min East, 29deg 59min North

After serious analysis of all the eclipses, six eclipse pairs from 3129 BCJ, 2599 BCJ, 2056 BCJ, 1853 BCJ, 1708 BCJ and 1397 BCJ clearly are the best candidates for Mahabharatawar year from “thirteen day” eclipse pairs view point. There are others that have low obscurity for solar eclipse, or have dominant penumbral lunar eclipse content and hence do not constitute strong candidates for the Mahabharata war.

One typical eclipse pair of the six is illustrated using Lodestar Pro views of the relevant sunset/sunrise periods. The light/day transition is clearly shown in all the eclipse, which would form the only method of determining that the eclipses occurred in less than fourteen days, which has to be called thirteen-day eclipses. Planets Sani (Saturn) and Brihaspati (Jupiter), Shukra(Venus) in retrograde motion are illustrated for period around the eclipse pairs.

Solar-Lunar eclipse pair from Julian year 3129BC
 Fourteen days later at same time

Let us now look at how any observer can study these eclipses and conclude that the pair occurred in “Thirteen days”. The figures above show the pictures of day/night sky for a pair of Solar-Lunar eclipses, end of lunar eclipse being only 13 days and 20 hours before start of a solar eclipse. On Julian August 11 afternoon, a solar eclipse begins 20 minuets before sunset and it is still on going at sunset. Fourteen days later (On Julian August 25) in the evening at sunset a lunar eclipse is already occurring. It clearly suggests that eclipse started on the 13th day after the previous eclipse! Obviously the end of lunar and start of solar eclipses were less than 14 days period, or occurred in 13 days. This could be concluded without the benefit of modern clocks.

The dates of this eclipse pair are Julian 3129 and Julian month of August. In ancient Bharata, since the full moon occurred on Proshtapada, the month would be considered as Bhadrapada. Normally, this is the monsoon rainy season in North India. However, there are many occasions when monsoon fails. The epic states that draught like conditions existed. Even during normal monsoon the sky is occasionally clear for the eclipses to have been witnessed.

The two planets Jupiter, and Saturn are in motion (vakri) and these do occur during 3129 JBC as illustrated below. Motion of Angaraka or Mars is normal.

Items in red show retrograde or Vakri motion
Graha (Planet)
Mahabharata text
Brihaspati (Jupiter)
Sani (Saturn)
Angaraka (Mars)
Shukra (Venus)
U Phalguni
Poorva Phalguni
Ravi (Sun Solar)
U Phalguni

The location of the planets at the time of eclipse pair is shown in table above. Clearly, onlyBrihaspati, and Shukra are the only planets near locations indicated in the Mahabharata text. This date of 3129 BCJ is a serious candidate date for consideration of Mahabharata war.

Analysis of the Eclipse tables.

The first and oldest eclipse pair from 3129 BC is unique. Aryabhata estimated that Kaliyugastarted in 3102 BC. So does Surya Siddhanta. These fit the Puranic description that Sri Krishna passed away in 3102 BCJ, which is 27 years after the war. Our study confirms that Kaliyuga could have started in 3102 BCJ.

The second date 2559 BCJ is also unique in that Varaha Mihira stated that 2526 before start ofSakaYudhishtira was the ruling king. If it Saka was Vikrama it would make Yudhistira as king in 2583 BCJ, which is before Mahabharata War. Yudhistira was also king for a short time before war, before he lost it in a game of dice to Sakuni/Duryodhana. This date is also an excellent candidate for Mahabharata war. There is another event that occurs in 2559 BC. While the eclipse pair occurred in lunar month Shravana, there is another short solar eclipse in Pushya. On 13th day of Mahabharata war, it is said that Jayadhratha was killed when Sri Krishna covered the sun for a short time just before the sunset. This event could be looked upon as a solar eclipse. A study of year 2559 shows that another solar eclipse did occur in Pushya lunar month (Julian Dec 06, 2559) some 40 days before the winter solstice (Uttara ayana).

The third candidate is eclipse pair from 2056 BCJ. It occurs in Margashira/pushya months, the lunar eclipse occurring when moon is between Punarvasu/pushya nakshathra, and would be right in the middle of war. Hence is not a very serious candidate for Mahabharata war.
The fourth candidate is eclipse pair from 1853 BCJ. It occurs in month of Magha very near the winter solstice or Uttara Ayana. It is not a very good candidate for Mahabharata War.

The fifth candidate of eclipse pairs occurred in 1708 BCJ. This eclipse pair occurs in month ofPhalguna, just after Uttara Ayana and is a bad candidate.

The last candidate of eclipse pair occurs in 1397 in the month of Bhadrapada. It is a reasonably good candidate for Mahabharata war. Again, there was no solar eclipse during the period prior to Uttara Ayana.

The aim of this work was to analyze the unique statement that Mahabharata war took place when an ominous pair of eclipses occurred in “Thirteen days”. Initially, Mahabharata texts, contemporarily accepted as most authentic were reviewed and relevant data about Mahabharataand astronomical planetary observations have been presented.

Firstly, a search of all eclipses during the period 3300 BCJ to 700 BCJ visible at Kurukshethra, where Mahabharata war took place was made. Amongst nearly 672 possible eclipse pairs, the time from end of one to beginning of next eclipse was found to vary between 13.8 days to 15.8 days. Eighteen naked eye visible eclipse pairs with less than 336 hours (14days) of time gap were found.

The second issue was, what was the definition of a day, and how was the determination that eclipses occurred in “thirteen days” made, has been addressed. Day was taken to be the time between either successive sunrise or successive sunset. This is particularly important when clocks did not exist. Using this method, it was easy to demonstrate that observers from 3000 to 5000 years ago could identify accurately a “Thirteen-day” eclipse pair when they occurred.

Six pairs amongst these, found to be good candidates for Mahabharata war, have been illustrated, showing how any observer could conclude that the eclipse pairs occurred in less than 14 days or in “thirteen days”. The locations of Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Venus, Sun and Moon, during the eclipses were identified with reference to 27 star locations. The positions of all these planets during the eclipse pair do not totally agree with Mahabharata text, but some do agree.

Finally, it is found that two dates suggested by Indian astronomers Aryabhata, Varaha Mihira are credible dates for Mahabharata war. It would appear that 3129 BCJ is a first candidate for Mahabharata war followed by 2559 BCJ. Four other dates viz., 2056 BCJ, 1853 BCJ, 1708 BCJ and 1397 BCJ are other candidates which qualify as “ Thirteen day” eclipse pairs.

In conclusion, this article has tried to address the basic issue, whether “ Thirteen day” eclipse pairs are astronomically possible. The conclusion is that such eclipse pairs have occurred and observers could easily identify the duration using sunset/sunrise transitions. 3129 BCJ and 2559 BCJ dates appear to be very viable dates for Mahabharata war as are a few others. This study provides modern scientific support one critical astronomical statement made in Mahabharata Bhishma Parva that “Thirteen day” eclipse pair occurred in Kurukshethra before the Mahabharatawar.

References :
1.      Aryabhateeya by Brahmagupta, S.Shukla,New Delhi, INSA 1976

2.      Surya Siddhanta: Translation of an Ancient Indian Astronomical Text.

Translation by Bapudeva, Varanasi, 1860.
3.      Varahamihira’s Brihat Samhita- M Ramakrishna Bhat, Motilal Banarasidas Publications, 1981

4.      Ramashesha Shastry Bhagavata Mahapurana,

10th skanda, Upodghata (in Kannada script), 1930
5.      John Smith web page - Mahabharata Text checked by Bhandarakar Oriental Research Institute
6.      Eric Weisstien, World Of Astronomy web page
7.      Wayne Annala, Lodestar Pro Manual, 1994

8.      Wayne Mitchell

   Ancient Astronomical Observations and Near Eastern Chronology

   Journal of Ancient Chronology Forum, Volume3


The Mahabharat Chronology

By Dr.K.N.S. Patnaik

The present European calendar came into vogue around 7 A.D. India, since ancient times, has been following the lunar calendar. The Western calendar has undergone many variations and adjustments from time to time e.g., at one stage the first six months had 31 days each while the last six months were 30 days each.

Uptil the Mahabharat War the world had a single, unitary administration under Vedic sovereigns, which reckoned the day from sunrise to sunrise centering on India. Consequently, other regions of the world stuck to the Indian time schedule. Thus for instance, when the sun rose in India at around 5.30 am it used to be midnight hour in Britain. Therefore the Vedic administration in Britain calculated its date from midnight to midnight.

When in the course of time the world became divided into regional states resulting in mutual strife. The British ruled India for about 200 years uptil 1947 A.D. The midnight to midnight reckoning under British rule, emanated originally from the Indian sunrise time. Modern calculations based on that midnight time often result in a error of one or two years in timing.

Before proceeding to analyze the Mahabharat chronology let us first familiarize ourselves with the Vedic lunar calendar. In its cycle of 60 years, the names of successive years are :

1. Prabhava 2. Vibhava 3. Sukla 4. Pramoodotha 5. Pajothpatthi 6. Agnirasa 7. Srimukha 8. Bhava 9. Yuva 10. Dhata 11. Eswara 12. Bahudhanya 13. Pramadi 14. Vikrama 15. Vishu 16. Chitrabhanu 17. Swabhanu 18. Tharana 19. Parthiva 20. Vyaya 21. Sarvajittu 22. Sarvadhari 23. Virodhi 24. Vikriti 22. Khara 26. Nandana 27. Vijaya 28. Jaya 29. Manmatha 30. Durmukhi 31. Havilambi 32. Vilhambi 33. Vikari 34. Sarvari 35. Plava 36. Shubhakritu 37. Sobhakruthu 38. Krodhi 39. Vishwavasu 40. Paridhavi 41. Plavanga 42. Keelaka 43. Sowmya 44. Sadharana 5. Voridhikrutu 46. Paridhavi 47. Pramadicha 48. Ananda 49. Rakshasa 50. Nala 51. Pingala 52. Kalayukti 53. Siddharthi 54. Roudri 55. Durmati 56. Dundubhi 57 Rudhirodgari 58. Rathakshi 59. Krodhana 60. Akshaya

Months :

1. Chaitra 2. Vaishakha 3. Jyeshta 4. Aashadha 5. Shravana 6. Bhadrapada 7. Ashwin 8. Kartika 9.Margasheersha 10. Pausha 11. Maagha 12. Phalguna

Stars :

1. Ashwini 2. Bharani 3. Krutika 4. Rohini 5. Mruga 6. Ardra 7.Punarvasu 8. Pushya 9. Aslesha 10. Magha 11. Poorva 12. Uttara 13. Hastha 14. Chitra 15. Swati 16. Vishakha 17. Anuradha 18. Moola 19. Jyeshta 20. Poorvashadha 21. Uttarashadha 22. Shravana 23.Dhanishta 24. Satabhisha 25. Poorvabhadra 26. Uttarabhadra 27. Revati


Kaliyug started on Pramadi Chaitra Bright 1st day, Friday (BC 3102-2-20) at 2-27-30 P.M.


Mahabharat events preceded the Kaliyug:

1. Karna's Birth : Magha Bright half 1st day. It is said that he was older than Yudhisthira by 16 years.

2. Emperor Pandu reached Mount Saptashrunga in Paramodoota Ashwin Bright 5th day. Just one year after Yudhisthira was born.

3. Yudhisthira's Birth : Yudhisthira was born on Pajothpatti Ashwin Bright 5th day, in Jyeshta Star, in Sagittarius Lagna, at midday Abhijit Muhurta. That was just years. 127-5-25 prior to Kaliyug (roughly 3229-8-15 B.C)

4. Bhima's Birth : Bhima was born on Agnirasa Ashwin dark 9th day in Magha Star, after midday. He was younger than Yudhishtira by 1year and 19 days.

5. Arjun's Birth : Srimukha Phalguna Full Moon Day during the day in Uttara Star. Younger than Bhima by yr. 1-4-21

6. Nakula and Sahadev's Birth : Bhava Phalguna New Moon day, Midday, in Star Ashwini. Younger than Arjuna by yr. 1-0-15

7. Lord Krishna was born on Shrimukha Shravana Dark 8th day, just after midnight in Taurus Lagna.

8. Duryodhana's Birth : Just one day after Bhima's birth. From that day onwards everyday the rest 99 Kauravas and their sister were born. Similarly, Hidimba, Baka and Kichaka were born in the same period between Magha and Swati Stars.

9. Emperor Pandu expired on Sarvadhari Chaitra Bright 12th day in Uttara Star. Arjuna was then yrs. 14-0-7 days old. Yudhistira was then yrs. 16-6-7 years old.

10. Pandavas were brought in Hastina on Sarvadhari Chaitra Dark 13th day, that is, 16 days after their father's death. Death rituals lasted for 12 days from Sarvadhari Chaitra Dark 13th day to Vaishakh Bright 10th day. Yudhisthira was 16 years, 6 months and 28 days of age.

11. Pandavas stayed in Hastinapur for 13 years from Sarvadhari Vaishakha Bright 10th day to Plava Vaishakha Bright 10th day. Yudhisthira was yrs. 29-6-23 days old. They learnt archery under Drona.

12. Archery exhibition : Plava Vaishakha Full Moon Day.

13. King Drupada taken captive : Fight with Drupada from Plava Vaishakha Dark 5th day for a period of of yr. 1-4-5 days, that is upto Shubhakrit Bhadrapada Bright 10th day. Yudhisthira was yrs. 31-0-5 days old.

14. Yudhishthira ws made Crown-Prince on Shubhakrit Ashwayuja Bright 10th day when he was 31-0-5 days old.

15. Pandavas stayed at Hastinapur for yrs. 5-4-20 days, upto Plavanga Maagha New Moon Day. Yudhishthira was yrs. 36-4-25 days old.

16. Entered Varnavrata : Plavanga Phalguna Bright 8th Day. Yudhishtir was yrs. 36-5-3 days old.

17. The Lac Palace was set on fire on Keelaka Phalguna 13/14th Day night in the third Jhamu or Quarter. ( A day consists of 8 prahars, 4 during day time and 4 during night.) Pandavas crossed river Ganga on Keelaka Phalguna New Moon Day morning.

18. Demon Hidimba was slain : on Sowmya Chaitra Bright 1st Day. 

19. Ghatotkacha was born on Sowmya Ashwin Bright 2nd Day, and he grew up as an adult immediately.

20. Pandavas stayed in Salihotashramam for 6 months, that is from Sowmya Ashwayuja Bright 2nd Day to Sadharana Chaitra Bright 2nd Day. Yudhishtira was yrs. 38-5-7 days old.

21. Panadavas lived in Ekachakrapuram for 6 months from Sadharana Chaitra Bright 2nd Day to Ashwayuja Bright 2nd Day.

22. Demon Baka was slain : on Sadharana Bright 10th Day. Yudhisthira was yrs. 39-0-5 days old.

23. Pandavas stayed in Ekachakrapuram for 1 month 10 days more, upto Sadharana Margashirsha Dark 5th Day. Then they headed for Panchal Kingdom, and in 3 days reached Dhoumya's Ashram. They stayed there for 15 days, and on the 18th day, reached the capital of Panchal Kingdom, that is, on Sadharana Pausha 7th Day.

24. Princess Draupadi's Swayamvaram took place on Sadhrana Pausha Bright 10th Day.

25. In Panchala Kingdom, Pandavas stayed there for yr. 1-0-15 days, that is, tiil Virodhikrithu Pausha New Moon Day. Yudhishthir was yrs. 40-3-25 days old.

26. Pandavas were recieved in Hastinapur on Virodhikrithu Maagha Bright 2nd Day and were granted half-Kingdom. They stayed in Hastinapur for 5 years and 6 months, upto Pingala Shravana Bright 2nd Day. Yudhishthira was yrs. 45-9-27 days old. Indrapratha City was being built during this period.

27. Yudhisthira was coronated on Pingala Ashwayuja Bright 10th Day. He was then 46-0 years old.

28. Arjuna went on pilgrimage for 12 years. He started in Kalayukthi and returned in Pramodhoota. He married Subhadra on Pramodhoota Vaishakh Bright 10th Day. Abhimanya was born in the year Pramodhoota.

29. Draupadi had one son each from her 5 Pandava husbands. 

30. The Khandava Forest was burnt down after Pramodhoota Shravana Bright 2nd Day. Yudhishtira was yrs. 58-10-15 days old. Mayasabha took yrs.
1-2-0 days for construction.

31.Panadavas entered Mayasabha on Prajopatthi Ashwayuja Bright 10th Day. Yudhisthira was years 60-0-5 days old.

32. Rule in Indraprastha for 16 years, upto Sarvajit Ashwayuja Bright 10th day. Yudhishthira was yrs. 76-0-5 days old.

33. Wrestling started between Bhima and Jarasandha on Sarvajit Kartika Bright 2nd Day. It continued for 14 days, and Jarasandha was killed on 14th evening.

34. The Rajasooya Yadnya began on Sarvadhari Chaitra Full Moon Day. Yudhisthira was yrs. 76-6-15 days old.

35. Dice plays : The two Dice plays were played between Sarvadhari Shravana Dark 3rd Day and 7th Day. Yudhishthira was yrs. 76-10-2 days old.So Pandavas ruled for a period of yrs. 36-6-20 days from Virodhikritu Maagha Bright 2nd Day to Sarvadhari Shravana Dark 7th Day.

36. Forest Life : Forest life started on Sarvadhari Shravana Dark 8th Day. Yudhisthira was years 76-10-18 days old. Demon Kimeera was killed on the 3rd Day, that is, Dark 10th Day. 12 years forest exile ended on Sarvari Shravan Dark 7th Day.

37. The 13th year of anonimity ended on the Plava Shravan Dark 7th Day.

38. Kichaka was killed on on Plava Ashadha Dark 8th Day at night. His brothers were killed the next day, Dark 9th Day.

39. Since these are lunar years, there were two Adhik Masas every 5 years, and in 13 years there were 5 Adhik Mases and 12 days. But these were merged in the lunar years as Adhik Mases. Tithiwayas and likewise, Bhishma and Yudhishthira followed this calculation as correct, but Duryodhana insisted on anonimity solar years, which was unacceptable in those days.

40. Since the period was over the previous day, Arjuna declared his identity. Arjuna was carrying his bow Gandiva for 30 years from Pramodoota to Sarvari, and he told Uttara that he will carry it for another 35 years. The next day, on Dark 9th Day, Pandavas declared their identity. Yudhishthira was yrs. 89-10-9 days old.

41. Pandavas stayed in Upaplavyam for yr. 1-2-17 days. During these days, consultations, marraige between Uttara and Abhimanyu in Shubhakrit Jyeshta month, marshalling of armies, Peace talks by Draupadi's Purohit and Sanjaya took place. In Aswayuja month, there were lunar and solar eclipses, portending evil and destruction.

42. Shri Krishna's Peace talks : Shri Krishna started on Shubhakrit Kartik Bright 2nd Day, in Revati Star, reached Hastinapur on the 13th Day, and held peace talks upto Dark 8th Day. On his last day, His Vishwaroopa was shown. Since talks failed, he started on his return journey the same day in Pushyami Star, told Karna that in 7 days, on New Moon Day in Jyeshta Star, all should assemble at Kurukshetra for the Great War, and returned to Upaplavya.

43. So Pandavas stayed in Upaplavya for yr. 1-2-17 + 15 days = yr. 1-3-2 days.

44. Both the Pandava and Kaurava armies marched to Kurukshetra on the New Moon Day. The period from Margashirsha Bright 2nd Day to 12th Day, was taken up by installation of tents, arranging Army rehearsals etc. etc.

45. The Great Mahabharat War started on Shubhakrit Margashirsha Bright 13/14th Day, Tuesday in Bharani Star. Yudhishthir was yrs. 91-2-9 days old. Just the previous day 11/12th Day, when armies were rehearsing Vyuhas, Arjuna fell into a gloom, occasioning Lord Krishna's famous BhagavadGeeta discourse with Arjuna.

46. Bhishma's Fall : On Margashirsha Dark 7th Day.

47. Abhimanyu's Death : Abhimanyu was killed on Margashirsha Dark 10th Day. He was aged 32 years (From Pramodoota to Shubhakrit). Since marraige was in Jyeshta month, he led only 6 month's family life, and Uttra was 6 months pregnant.

48. Saindhava's Death : Saindhava was killed on Margashirsha Dark 11th Day. The battle was continued even into the night. Drona was killed on Margashirsha Dark 12th Day at noon.

49. Karna's Death : Karna was killed on Margashirsha Dark 14th Day. Salya was killed on Margashirsha New Moon Day at noon.

50. Duryodhana's Fall : He fell on Margashirsha New Moon Day/Pausha Bright 1st Day in the evening. He died the next morning on the Bright 1st Day.

51. Balrama started on pilgrimage on Kartik Dark 5th Day, in Pushyami Star. So, date-wise and star-wise also, pilgrimage took 42 days.

52. Ashwatthama murdered Pandava's sons during the same night on Margashirsha New Moon/Pausha Bright 1st Day night, and conveyed the dire information to the dying Duryodhana on Bright 1st Day early morning. Defeat of Ashwatthama : on Pausha Bright 1st Day.

53. Pandava Armies 7 Akshouhinis = 551,33,83,260 Kaurava Armies 11 Akshouhinis = 866,38,87,960

Total 18 Akshouhinis = 1417,72,71,240

Except Pandavas, Krishna. Satyaki and Yuyutsu on Pandavas side, and Kripa, Krutavarma and Ashwatthama on Kaurava's side, all were killed. Yudhishthira told Dhritarashtra that Great Warriors (MahaRathis) killed in the War, were more than 94 crores.

No clear details are available in the Epic, how Pandava Warriors disposed off kaurava armies. Abhimanyu on the 13th Day, killed more than 0.50 Akshouhini army, and Arjuna on the 14th Day killed 5 Akshouhinis.

54. Attacking Pandavas side,
Bhishma killed nearly 1.27 Akshouhinis = 100,00,00,000
Drona killed nearly 1.00 Akshouhinis = 78,76,26,180
Karna killed nearly 2.37 Akshouhinis = 186,28,78,540
Salya killed nearly 0.29 Akshouhinis = 22,60,46,000
Ashwatthama killed nearly 0.09 Akshouhinis = 7,20,24,400
Rest of the warriors 1.98 Akshouhinis = 156,48,08,140

Warrior-Warrior fights
(Sankula-Samara) TOTAL 7.00 Akshouhinis = 551,33,83,260

55. Yudhishthira's age was yrs. 91-2-27. Pandavas observed 12 days mourning from Pausha Bright 1st Day to 13th Day. Mass cremations were done on the 14th day, and the same evening, Pandavas proceeded to Hastinapur.

56. Yudhishthira was crowned on Shubhakrit Pausha Full Moon Day. Yudhishthira was yrs. 91-3-10 days old.

57. Pandavas called on Bhishma (who was prostrate on a bed of arrows) on Pausha Dark 2nd Day, stayed upto 8th Day, listened to Bhishma's advisory discourse, returned to Hastinapur, stayed for 15 days and went to Bhishma again on Maagha Bright 8th day. On 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th day, Bhishma was in meditation. He renounced his mortal coil on 12th day. Hence 8th-12th of Pausha Dark Fortnight is called Bhishma Panchakam. Bhishma fell prostrate on Margashirsha Dark 7th Day. From 8th Day to Maagha Bright 11th Day, 48 days elapsed. "AshtaPanchasatam ratryassayana syasyama gatha" that is, Bhishma said that he completed 58 (10+48) days on the battlefield. " Sarashu nisitagresu yatha varsha satam tatha" meaning, by lying on pointed arrows, it appeared although it was 100 years. " Tribhaga seshah pakshyam suklo" meaning, it is Bright Fortnight, and still 3 parts remained. ( By dividing Bright Fortnight into 10 parts, 7 parts = 10.5 days or 11th day is in progress, and still 3 parts = 4.5 days remained upto Full Moon Day.)

58. Ashwamedha Yadnya began on Shobhakrit Maagha Bright 12th Day. Just earlier, Parikshit was born to Uttara as posthumas premature, still born male baby at 8/9 months, but was revived by Krishna. 15 years later, in Kartik month, Dhritarashtra left for the forest. 3 years later, Pandavas went to the forest to see Dhritarashtra etc. Vidura's death. After 1 month, Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and Kunti got killed in a forest fire.

59. Thirty six years after the Great War, that is in Bahudhanya year, evil omens in Dwaraka were observed. Samba became pregnant and a iron rod (musalam) was born.

60. Yudhishthir ruled for yrs. 36-2-15 days. From Shubhakrit Pushya Full Moon Day to Bahudhanya Pushya Full Moon Day, it was 36 years and adding 0-2-15 days, it was Pramadi Bright 1st Day, when Kailyug started and Shri Krishna finished his Avatar. (B.C 3102-2-20 at 2-27-30 P.M)

61. Seven days later, on Bright 7th Day, Dwarka city was submerged by the Ocean. Saptarishis were in Magha Star, 75 years prior to Kaliyug and remained there for 25 years after Kaliyug.

Yudhishthir Shaka started from his coronation day that is, Krishna finished his Avatar in Yudhishthir Shaka yrs. 36-2-15.

62. Pandavas started for their Final End after 0-6-11 days, that is, on Pramadi Ashwayuja Bright 12th Day. Yudhishthir was aged yrs. 128-0-6. Parikshit, 36 years old, was coronated on the same day at Hastinapur.

63. Swargaarohanam is not clearly stated in the Epic. It may be 26 years afterwards. Sage Veda Vyas dictated the Great Epic to Ganapati only after Swargarohanam of the Pandavas, that is, after 26 years of Kaliyug.

64. Parikshit ruled for 60 years, coronated his 25 year old son Janamejaya, and died.

65. So, Bhagavatha was written by Sage Veda Vyas soon after Mahabharat was over, and before the 60th year of the Kaliyuga.

66. In Dwapara Yuga, human beings lived upto 400 years. There are four stages in life - Balya, Youvana, Koumara and Vriddhapyam. In Dwaparyug, Balya stage was upto 40 years, Youvana stage upto 120 years, and later Koumara and Vriddhapyam stages. But now in the Kaliyuga, Balya stage is upto 15 years, Youvana upto 45 years, Koumara upto 60 years and Vriddhapyam beyond 60 years.

All this data has been gathered from the Great Sanskrit Epic Mahabharat and commentaries on it by various authors

Mahabharat: A Myth or a Reality

By Prasad Gokhale

Underwater Worlds 3 Ancient Aliens - Dwaraka by Yahn25
It has been believed by some historians and laymen that Mahabharat is just a fictitious fable emerged from the fantastic brain of the Sage Ved Vyas. It has been contended that such a 'war' could not have occured owing to the detailed description of various facets of the 'epic'. However, tradition as well as many Bharatiya scholars have all along maintained that Mahabharat did actually occur and is a complete reality.

Mahabharat is not just a story, but the detailed account of a event occured in the past. The few points are noted below that indicate a few differences in what is 'reality' and 'myth'.
    1. It has been written in the epic from time to time that Mahabharat is a "itihas" which exclusively means "thus occured". The words "Puraan" and "Itihas" were specifically coined by the Arya people to catagorize the "ancient" and "recent" events. Both the words denote history that has occured at different times.

    2. It is mentioned in Aadiparva, Adhyaya 62 that the annals of the Bharat-Dynasty are recorded in the work.

    3. It has been clearly stated in the Aadiparva, Bheeshmaparva etc. that this is "itihas". If the intentions of the writer were to write a poem or a work of fiction, he would have stated it to be a "mahakavya" or "katha".

    4. It would to absurd to say that the Mahabharat is not a "itihas" due to its poetic nature. It was a custom in those days to write everything in poetic form.

    5. Ved Vyas had decided to write down the "itihas" even before the initiation of the Mahabharat War. Therefore during the course of the War, Vyas meticulously noted down all the possible details. If it were a work of fiction, why would a person like Vyas want to fill his work with such minute and unnecessary details ?

    6. A number of dynasties with their lond lineage of kings have been presented in the work. More than 50 kings from King Barhi to the Pandava King have been recorded. Additional information about the King, his wife, his scions, his relations, etc. have been accounted in great detail. If it were just fiction, only 4-5 kings would have sufficed to build the story on. Then why such mind-boggling details ?

    7. The dynasties recorded in the Ramayan and the Mahabharat concur without a difference. Even the relations between different kings and their dynasties in both the great "epics" match with each other. If both were mere "epics" written by two entirely different at two different times, why would everything match even upto minor details ?
Mahabharat is of a later date than the Ramayan. Why would the author of the Mahabharat borrow the same ideas and characters as those of the author of Ramayan ?
    8. Usually, the story of any "Maha-Kaavya" circulates about one or two main characters. If this were the case with Mahabharat, who would then be considered the "hero" of the drama ?

    9. Many events mentioned in the Ramayan and Mahabharat are the same. Eg.: The mother of (latter) King Sagar was poisoned by his step-mother so that her child would be aborted. But the child was born nevertheless, who was therefore named Sagar.

    10. The cities established by certain kings has been noted in detail.

    11. All the characters in the "epic" are well-portrayed. Even single facet of their character and important events in their life have been recorded. Are such detailed accounts important in a "Maha-kavya"?

    12. The weapons mentioned in the Ramayan and the Mahabharat are somewhat same. Infact, some weapons in the Ramayan are not mentioned in the latter "epic". (eg. Soorya'stra, Yamya'stra, Shoolva'stra..etc.) [ Considering the true occurance of the two great events, the above mentioned weapons might have disappreared in the era in-between the two events took place].

    13. If it were a poetic fiction, such comprehensive account of the events on the battle-field would'nt have been given. For a poem, it is far-fetched. It will only serve the purpose of boring the reader to death!

    14. The description of such myriad of characters is astonishing. It is impossible for one single-mind to be the genesis of that number of personality-types. It could only be true if the Mahabharat is the recording of a real-life drama.

    15. The time and place of events have been accurately recorded. All such recordings are redudant for a "Maha-kavya".

    16. Not much poetic description of the flora-and-fauna is given. Such description in ornate language is only used in fictional works and not while recording history.

    17. Vyas mentions to have written this "itihas" after the death of King Dhrutarashtra. Why would he write so ? Did Shakespeare say that he wrote "Hamlet" after the death of Hamlet himself ?

    18. The Greek historian Megasthenes has stated that Chandragupta Maurya was the 138 King in the lineage of Shri Krishna. This means that Shri Krishna did exist in the bygone era and that Mahabharat did really occur.

    19. It was a custom to keep a track of the Kings lineage. The Chinese traveller confirms the above. Manahbharat being a true account of a occured War, such lineages are seen to be recorded.

    20. Archaeological excations has discovered the submerged city of Dwaraka. This is the same Dwaraka as mentioned in the Mahabharat. [ The city of Dwaraka has been reckoned to have drowned in between 2000-3000 B.C.]

    21. The astronomical recordings in the Mahabharat "epic" and other scriptures (Bhagwat), given the correct positions of the planets and stars during that time. How could a work of fiction be proved using mathematical tools ? 
KARNA was a SUTI OR SAUTI, (Suta-putra,) the son of a Suta (ADHIRATHA), which meant he was inferior to a Suta. Karna was a suta-putra, the son of a Suta, which meant he was below the rank of Suta. Because, Suta was born to a Kashatriya and a Brahman; and the Suta-putra was the offspring of Suta parents. Karna, all his life endured taunts, insults and humiliation for being a Suta-putra. That hurt him grievously.
To mention some of the Sutas, Sanjaya (the son of Gavalgana who also was in the service of the kings of Hasthinapur) the charioteer who was temporarily bestowed long-distance-vision of the happenings on the battle fields of Kurukshetra; and who narrated the war events to his blind king Dhritarashtra was a Suta.
Ugrashrava (meaning one blessed with high or loud voice) was often addressed as Sauti (the son of a Suta). He was the son of a Suta Lomaharsha or Lomaharshana or Romaharshana(because of his delightful and thrilling manner of narration). Lomaharshana Suta is the one who narrated the Srimad Bhagavata purana to the sage Saunaka and other at Naimsaranya – a forest named after the king of the yore Nimi. His son Ugrashrava recited in verse the entire epic story of Mahabharata, also to the sages in Naimsaranya Ugrashrava was revered as one well versed in all puranas.

At the time of Mahabharat society was divided into four classes according to the occupation people followed: the learned ones the brahmins , the warriors, the craftsmen and the Shudras or Dalits.
In today's context Shudras would be equated to scavengers or people who did not fall in the above three classes.
Karna was Kunti's son born out of wedlock. It was never known as to who the father was. Hence Kunti abandoned him at the time of birth.
Karna was adopted by a charioteer and grew up as his son. Charioteers were considered to be people from lower rung of society. But Karna was a warrior by profession. But a person’s caste is determined by his father's. We can call Karna a Dalit. Even Draupadi out of ignorance had mocked him for that.


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