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Myth of Ramayan

Lord Rama myth or truth
By Dr. Vivek Arya

Rama - The Role Model Recently issue of Ramsetu is in vogue.  Government filed an affadavit before supreme court stating that Rama has never existed on this earth. However, on strong opposition by other political parties and Hindu activist they withdrew the affadavit. Hindu organization like Vishwa Hindu Parishad etc claim that question relating to existence of Rama cannot be simply resolved by scientific or historical findings.

Existence of Rama is basically a question of faith for millions of people. Therefore no Government can deny existence of Rama. But these greatest advocate of Hindusim did not show guts to take on Government/Karunanidhi and proved that Rama is as historical fact and not a myth.

Neverthless , they got support from unexpected quarter i.e Hurriyat conference from Kashmir. Hurriayat also claimed that scientific or historical evidence are not yardstick to judge various issues related to religion.

Hence, whether Rama existed or not cannot be decided on base of scientific or historical findings. This is basically associated with religious sentiments of millions of people therefore government interference is unwanted.

In the mean time some of the scientists, based on astronomical data, have propounded that Rama existed around 5044 BC. In such a perplexing situation it becomes very difficult for common masses to arrive at any conclusive view regarding the existence of Rama.  Hence, before deriving any conlusions we have to first analyse various facts regarding Rama and his epic Ramayana.

This article will put forth various facts which will help in resolving the issue of Rama‘s existence and will strongly conclude that Rama was an historical Mahanayaka and not any mythological character.


Maharishi Valmiki wanted to write an historical epic which can act as guiding principle for future generation. He was in dilemma over this issue. When he consulted Narada Muni. Narada Muni then suggested Valmiki to write about Rama, son of Dasratha who was born in the clan of Raghu. Here one should remember that Valmiki wrote Ramayana long after the period of Rama . This facts goes contrary to the prevalent legend that Valmiki wrote Ramayana before Rama was born. This fact has been very well stated in Valmiki‘s Ramayana.

Similarly Mahakavi Kalidas wrote Raghuvansham. This books throws light on lineage of Raghu and also states various kings who ruled after Rama. So, now the point of argument is that if Rama was a mythological character than how Valmiki could provide history of forefathers of Rama ?

Whereas in Raghuvansham how Kalidasa has provided details of forefathers of Rama and his various Santatis(successor) who ruled after him. In present times various books dealing with stories of Rama are prevalent in India and around the world. We will throw light on this issue in the latter part of this article.

(based on Valmiki‘s Ramayana)

The burning topic in present times is, when was Rama born ?

Before dwelling on this point, first of all we have to understand that our great Maharishies has systematically divided period of shristi in Manvantars. Each Manvantar is furthur divided into chaturyugis. Each chaturyugis consist of Krita(satyuga), traita, dwapar and kaliyuga. Present Manvantar is Vaivast Manvantar. Already 27 chaturyugies of this Manvantar have passed. This is the 28th chaturyugi and first charan(period) of this chaturyugi is in continuation.

It is well known fact that Rama was born during the latter part of traita. Hence, if we assume that Rama was born in the present chaturyugi then it means he was born at least 10,00,000 years ago.  The period of his birth may be more then this.

However, Vayu purana provide us the correct chronological period of Ramayana. If we take Vayu purana period into consideration then period of Rama goes to atleast 1,80,00,000 years back. Hence we can easily conclude that period of Rama is atleast 10,00,000 years to 1,80,00,000 years(this issue will be resolved in another topic “Blunders of Indian History”) .

This view is also supported by the fact that when Hanuman went to Lanka in search of Sita, there he saw elephants having four teeth .  Hence this is now for archeiologist/biologist to ascertain when did such elephants existed on earth ? (The calculations of chaturyugies will be dealt in another topic “Age of present shristi”.

Whereas difficulties encountered in establishing chronological correctness of historical events for period before Christ will be dealt in “blunders of history” ). Another interesting fact that has been mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana is that the paternal home of Bharat and Shatrughan was in a country where mode of transportation was vehicle being carried by dogs or deer. When both the brothers returned to Ayodhya from their maternal home they crossed many places covered by snow and were wearing wollen clothes. Which place does this episode points to has to be ascertained.

By our logic it is Russia, as phonetically Russia sounds like misnomer of Rishi (this has been established in our article blunder of Indian/World history) Above mentioned facts clearly give us an insight into the period when was Rama born. So those who claim that Rama is only a mythological character we are providing them some more proofs which will establish that before the advent of Christinity and Islam Rama was revered throught out the world as an international cult figure.



The Deccan Herald, dtd 15 dec 1972, at its front page gave a news which state that in Elista, capital of Kalmyk in Russia, story relating to Ramayana had been published. The news furthur state that various legends of Ramayana are popular among people of Kalmyk.  Various version of Ramayana are already stored at libraries in Kalmyk. The news clearly state that legends of Ramayana are very popular since time immemorial. Domodin Suren, a Russian writer, has compiled various legends popular among Mongolian and Kalmyk peoples.  Prof C F Glostunky‘s manuscript ‘Academy of sciences’ is stored at Siberian Branch of erstwhile U S S R. That book deals with various legends popular along the coast of Volga river. This manuscript is in Kalmyk language. In Leningrad also various books dealing with stories of Ramayana in Russian and Mangolian languages are preserved.

2)          RAMAYANA IN CHINA:-

In china, collection of Jatak stories relating various events of Ramayana, belonging to 251 AD. were complied by KANG_SENG_HUA .  Another book, of 742 AD, relating story of plight of Dasratha after Rama was ordered to go for Vanvasa is still found in China.  Similarly in 1600 AD, His-Yii-Chii wrote a novel with title Kapi (monkey) dwelling on the stories of Ramayana, predominantly that of Hanuman.


Naresh Kumar Dhatusena alias Kumardasa, who ruled Srilanka in 617 AD wrote ‘Janakiharan’. This is the oldest Sanskrit literature available in Srilanka. In Modern times C Don Bostean and Jhon d‘silva have written stories based on Ramayana. Till today majority of population adore and revere Rama and Sita.


Various rock inscription belonging to 700 AD are found in Khmer region of Combodia. These rock inscription are based on stories of Ramayana. Various temples constructed during the reign of Khmer dynasty depicts the story of Ramayana on their wall. The temples of Ankor are very famous for the stories of Ramayana and Mahabharata.  These temples belong to the earlier part of 400 AD to 700 AD. One astonishing fact in these engraved pictures is that Hanuman and rest other Vanars are not shown with tail as against the popular belief of masses. (Wether Hanuman etc are monkeys, this issue will be dealt latter)


According to De Casperis, there was temple named ‘Chandi loro jongrong’ which have stories of Ramayana engraved on its wall. This temple was of 9th century AD. In Indonesia another version of stories of Ramayana named Kakavin is very popular. This story was bit different from that of Prambanan . Besides that various other version of Ramayana stories were very in early centuries after christ which itself proves that Ramayana was very popular among Indonesian people before advent of Islam. It is also an astonishing fact that first international convention on Ramayana was organized in Indonesia few years back.

6)          RAMAYANA IN LAOS:-

Local people when pronounce Loas in their language it phonetically sounds like the name of one of the son Rama. Besides temple of Vat- she-fum and Vat-pa-Kev remains depicts the story of Ramayana on their walls. Whereas temples of Vat-pra-kev and Vat-sisket are having books containing epic of Ramayana. Lafont, French traveler translated story of ‘Pa laka-Pa lama’ in his book named P‘ommachak in french. This book also deals with story of Ramayana popular among masses of Laos.


Stories of Ramayana are still very popular among masses. In early centuries after Christ many kings has Rama as either prefix or suffix in their name ruled this country. Just like as in India we organize play of Ramayana, similarly various dramatic version or Ramayana are oraganised in Thailand till today. Similar dramatic version of Ramayana are still organized in various sout east asian countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Combodia etc.


In Malaysia till today plays are oraganised based on the stories of ‘HIKAYAT SERI RAMA’ ,written in 14 century AD,. Dalang society organize nearly 200-300 plays relating to Ramayana. Before commencement of the play people conduct various prayers and abulations revering RAMA and SITA.

9)          RAMAYANA IN BURMA:- King Kayanjhitha who reigned during 1084 –

1112 AD; regarded himself as desecendant of clan of Rama. Various books relating to the stories of Ramayana as earlier as 15 century AD are still found in Burma. Books like ‘Kavyadarsh’ , ‘Subhasit Ratanidhi’ are based on the stories of Ramayana. Zhang-Zhungpa, commentary of Ramayana was written by Taranath, which is not available in modern times. In Burma also various form of plays are conducted based on the stories of Ramayana.

10)          RAMAYANA IN NEPAL:-

Oldest version of Ramayana, belonging ot 1075 AD is still found in Nepal.


Effect of stories of Ramayana can easily felt in the customs, traditions and legends of majority of masses. Prof Juon R Francisco found that in Marineo Muslims, legend based on Ramayana is popular, in which Rama has been depicted as Incarnation of God. Similarly among Magindanao or Sulu folk Muslims also various legends based on the stories of Ramayana are popular.

12)          RAMAYANA IN IRAN:

In Hyderabad city, capital of Andhra Pradesh, there is museum name Salarjung. There one portrait which is depicting a burly monkey having a very big stone in its hand. This portrait reminds one of Hanuman holding Dronagiri. Similarly Marco Polo in his book (translated by Sir Henry Yule in English) wrote at page no 302, vol II about a peculiar belief among Muslims, spread from Afganistan to Morocco and Algeria. These Muslims believed that members of imperial house of Trebizond were endowed with short tails while mediavel continentals had like stories about Englishmen as- Mathew Paris relates…. ; .
We are of the belief that if one seriously start investigating various legends prevalent, before advent of Islam and Christianity, in Arabic countries and European countries than existence of Ramayana and Mahabharta can be proved. Due to barbaric and dogmatic acts of these peoples wide range of literature and buildings of historical importance has been wiped out.

13)          RAMAYANA IN EUROPE:

In Italy, when excavation were carried out in the remains of Astrocon civilization, then various houses were found having peculiar type of paintings on their wall. These paintaings, on closure investigation, seems to be based on the stories of Ramayana.  Some of the paintings shows peculiar persons having tails along with two men bearing bows and arrow on their shoulders, while a lady is standing besides them. These paintings are of 7 century BC. It should be remembered that once Astrocon civilization was spread over 75 pct of Italy.
Sir Henry Yule in his translation of works of Marcopolo has refered to the belief prevalent among Medival Europeans that there Ancestors were having small tails. The same fact has been referred by Maharishi Dayanand in his magnum opus ‘Satyarth Prakash’. There Swamiji state that people of Europe were called as Vanaras (monkeys) ,due to their appreance in our epic like Mahabharta, Valmiki Ramayana etc. If we a analyse this statement in present context, then how we are going to define various statements like kangaroos(Australian team) meet men in blue(Indian team) at Calcutta.
Similar sort of epithets were used during World war to describe armies of different countries or else we see that we have helicopters named cheetah etc. As these words(epithets) are just a way to describe different set of people, arms etc, similarly world like Rakshas, Vanaras etc were used in our legends. These facts clearly indicates that legends of Ramayana are not work of fiction and were very popular around the world .


People of Ethiopia call themselves as descendents of Cushites. This word Cush is basically phonectic misnomer of Kush, the son of Rama.  This fact is verly established by Satpath Brahamans, commentary on Vedas. These Brahamans while explaining various mantras of Vedas uses many histrorical events to elucidate the topic.
Astonishingly in Satpath Brahaman we find reference regarding the rule of King Bharata (predecessor of Kaurav and Pandavs) in Rhodesia .
Besides many inconsistent legends inspired by epic of Ramayana are prevalent in African Communities and they basically refers to various activities of vanars.
Egypt basically derives its name from Ajpati which is one of the name of forefather of Rama. If analyse various legends prevalent in Egypt there we will found references of Dasratha(father of Rama).  These facts can be very well established from various historical refernces of Brahamans.(for the proof of it see our article Blunders of Indian/World history)


Before Columbus discovered North American continent European people were not knowing about it. However A DE QNATREFAGES in his book, THE HUMAN SPECIES, categorically says that Chinese people were aware about the American continent and the use to have trade relations with them America was referred as Fad-Sang. Similarly in Japanese people it was known as Fad-See. Similarly, if we refer to various historical reference in Mahabharata, Valmiki Ramayana etc we will find that American continent has been reffered as Patal Desh(Patal means below foot). If we geographically see then we will find that American continent is just below the Indian Subcontinent. We will throw greater light on this issue in our topic, 


But for your reference we are providing you some prevalent legends.

a)   beautiful girl in Mexican tribal area till today are called as Ulopy. If we see in Mahabharata we find reference of Arjuna marrying girl named Ulopy who was daughter of King of Patal Desh.
b)   W H Prescott in his book , ‘ History of conquest of Mexico’, provides various reference which prove that earlier civilization of American subcontinent have major similarities with that of Indian (Aryan) civilization.

However here we are providing you one reference which clearly state that Ramayana is not mythological epic but it bears historical testimony. According to writer of the book there is popular legend in Aztec community which state that a beautiful person named Quevtsal Katal came there from east and taught them various aspects of advanced civilization as a result his period was treated as golden era. He then went back to his original homeland because of persecution by some divine creature. This legends surprisingly does not throw light on the reasons why he returned.

Another interesting fact that has been stated by Prescott is that this legend is available in documented form. Now, none except Indian tradition can claim that they bear root to this legend. The same story has been narrated in Valmiki Ramayana, in uttarkand where it is mentioned that Salkantak Rakshas who dwelled in Lanka were persecuted by Vishnu. Due to this persecution they left Lanka and went to Patal Desh. The leader of this group was Sumali. According to Ramayana they lived in Patal Desh for long time. When they found condition congenial they returned to their homeland.

It is for readers to decide when such conclusive proof are there to establish that epic of Ramayana is not mythological legend but it is historical evidence which bears testimony to various legends prevalent around the world. Till today play named Ramasitotav is played in various communities of Mexico. To our amazement Rama has been mentioned in Bible, new testament, Mathew ch 2/18, where it is mentioned “ his voices was heard in RAMA”. Rama is proper noun there, now it is for biblical society to define who was Rama and why he has been mentioned in Bible.
Even the name of Dasratha and Ayodhya are there in Bible. We will be referring to these facts in Blunders of Indian/world History.

Now we would pose some tickling questions to the historians:

1)   Why month of fasting among muslims is called Ramadhan ?
2)   Why place in Gazastrip is called Ramallaha ?
3)   Why place in London is named as Ramsgate ?
4)   Why capital of Italy is known as Rome(misnomer of Rama)

We can provide various examples where word Rama has been used as suffix or prefix with the names of various historical places/persons or misnomer of Rama has been used as name for historical places/persons. None of the historical evidence provides conclusive answer to these facts unless we take Indian historical evidences into account.

In our article ‘ Blunders of Indian/World history ‘ we will provide proof for it. We also believe that if barabaric religion like Christinity and Islam have not gained popularity than we would have more datas to prove our point conclusively. These two semetic religion have inflicted unparrelled havoc on historical datas and buildings. They destroyed all the libraries/monuments of historical importance which does not confer their beliefs.

Still we have lot with us and we can recreate correct chronological data of world history. It is widely accepted that the King Alexander invaded India. It really sounds ironical that we are accepting this theory without any historical evidence, on the other hand we go on to deny existence of Rama despite various historical evidences are there to prove that he was not mythical but a historical Mahanayak.

These historians inorder to defy Rama‘s existence are ridiculously harping the same old tone of theory of evolution which does not have any scientific proof.(why and how theory of evolution gained importance will be dealt in our article How the universe is created.  The only thing of significance regarding theory of evolution, we want to state here is that it was a tool which was invented to challenge the anarchaic/draconian supremacy of church. The church use to claim that this world was created by God out of nothing and the age of this Univerese is not more than 10000 years. By the help of evolutionary theory scientific world challenged the supremacy of churh and overcame the clergy.)

This is for readers to decide by themselves how they are going to treat Rama. We think that we have provided lot of food for thought.  Those who are illogically biased may still refute the existence of Rama while those who are logical and believe that mythological character can never gain such world wide respect/reverence will start looking upon Rama from wider historical evidences.

Here we want to clarify following points:

1)   Rama was not an incarnation of God but he was Mahanayak, a legendary person who lived a pristine life and is an example to be emulated till today.
2)   Ramasetu, on which lot of controversy is being created, might not be built by Rama as the period of Rama is at least 10,00,000 years.  During this time geographical conditions has changed drastically.
3)   Valmiki Ramayana is not fiction but an epic based on historical evidence. We can analyze the issue of Ramasetu only on the basis of environmental/economical viability.

For those who are questioning existence of Rama, let them first justify wether their forefathers ever existed, by using the same yardstick which they are using for existence of Rama.

Hidden Truth of Ramayan

Ramayana:untold truths/deliberately 

hidden truths

Here are few facts about Rama 'the avataar of  lord Vishnu'.
Rama was cruel to lower caste:

Shambuka was slain (by Rama) because he was making penance which was forbidden to him by Vedas as he was a "Shudra". (Uttara Kandam, Chapter 76). Looking at his hand Rama said the Sanskrit slogan "Oh right hand, you kill this Asche Shudra unhesitatingly as killing this Shudra is the only way to get back the life of the deceased Brahmin boy. 

Are you not one of the limbs of Rama?" (Valmiki Ramayanam) 

Contrary to what is  shown, Rama was non vegeterian:

When "god" Rama was told to go to the forest, he mournfully revealed to his mother: It has been ordained that I have to lose the kingdom, forego the princely comforts and the tasty MEAT-DISHES. (Ayothia Kandam, 20 Chapter).

Did Rama Respected his father:

Rama called his father "a FOOL, an IDIOT", mentally challenged. (Ayodhya Kandam, 53 rd Chapter). 

Rama followed caste system,did not believe in women and was a brahmin Appeaser:

While telling lakshmana about the duties of a king 
"Women should not be trusted" and that "Secrets should not be confided even to the wife". (Ayodhya Kandam, Chapter 100).Also he puts vedas,brahmins at top in the same chapter.

 Kukuvavathy, sister-in-law of Rama, said to him -

 "Oh Elder! How you love Sita more than you love yourself! Come with me and see what really is in your lovely wife's heart. Still she could not forget that fellow Ravan. Drawing a picture of Ravan on a hand-fan and pressing it closely to her bosom. She is lying on your bed with eyes closed thinking on and rejoicing at Ravan's glories. Rama sighed and went out to Sita's house. There she was found sleeping pressing to her breast the hand-fan on which Ravan's picture was drawn. (This is found in pages 199, 200 of the Bengali Ramayana written by Mrs. Chandravathi). 

Dr. Charles claims 

that Ramayana contains much pornographic material and cannot be read in public. He gives the following examples: Ravana's description of Sita's beauty which is lewdly detailed (refer to C.R. Srinivasalyengar's translation of Aranya Kandam - chapter 46). 

In Kiskind Kandam, Rama explains to Lakshmana of his sexual experience with Sita. According to Ramayana, the Aryans (Brahmins) used to drink liquor (nine different kinds), eat meat, marry many wives and prostitution was an accepted way of life amongst the priests and gods. 

Ramayana also recounts the "story of King Dasharatha who, in order to have a baby son, made a big sacrifice (yaham) of sheep, cattle, horses, birds and snakes.By this means, the King was able to have his sons - (Bala Kandam, Chapter 14. For more details on yaham, refer to the book "Gnana Surian", published by Kudi Arasu Press). 

Rama is a historic man and the Valmiki Ramayana is a true history. 
 Date : 13-9-2007
by Dr. Padmakar Vishnu Vartak,

M.B.B.S., F.U.W.A.I., Ph.D. (Lit)[Washington DC]
521 Shaniwar peth, Pune, 411030

Rama is a historic man and the Valmiki Ramayana is a true history.

It was painful to read the news on 13-9-2007 that the central Govt. of India submitted an affidavit in the Supreme court that there was no historical and scientific evidence to establish the existence of Rama and the Ramayana. The Archaeological survey of India stated that the contents of the Valimiki Ramayan cannot be a historical record, because there is no proof to the characters and events, depicted therein.

            This statement is agonizing because there is ample evidence in the Valmiki Ramayana to prove that it is history. I say so because I have studied the Valmiki Ramayan for many years and have done lot of research on it.

            Valmiki was contemporary to Rama and he wrote the history. He says at 1-3-9 that he searched for the information and then wrote the history. When Seeta was abandoned by Rama, she came to Valmiki’s hermitage. Therefore Valmiki could gather a lot of information from her. In spite of this statement, if the Govt. does not want to believe, then how could it believe in the existence of Jesus and Mohamad Paigambar? Why the Govt. declared holiday on the birth date of Mohamad, which is not known to any book, historical or other.

            The Ramayana is a true history, therefore Valimiki has given 73 ancestors of Rama and recorded which Prince married which princess. The ancestry of Rama and Seeta both is recorded by Valmiki. It is not so in case of Jesus and Paigambar. Even then the Govt agrees with them and not with Rama. Why?

            If Rama was an imaginary character how should he be referred to by hundreds of books for hundreds of years? The imaginary characters are not at all referred to by other books. For example, Tarzan and Sherlock Homes are not at all referred to by other authors. The generators of those characters have not mentioned even the father and mother of their heroes. It is not the case with Rama and Seeta.

            Seeta is referred to again and again, place to place, even in Lanka, which is at least 1500 miles away from the residence of Rama and Valmiki. Many places in Shri Lanka bear the names connected to Seeta. There is a place called as ‘Diwurungaha’ in Lanka, which means the tree, where Seeta took an oath of chastity. Why all historical stories are told in Shri Lanka? Only because, they are true historical facts.

            In search of Seeta, Vanaras went to the east. Sugreeve told them to search for Seeta to the end of the east, which is demarcated by a golden, three branched, Tala tree, which shines from the top to bottom, carved on Uday Mountain. Kishkindha 40/53,54 describes this Tala tree having three branches. Valmiki wrote this true fact around 7292 years BC, and after 1965 AD such a three branched tree is discovered in the South America, on an offshoot of Mount Andes, near the Bay of Pisco. It is 820 feet tall, has three branches and it glitters like gold, when seen from the sky. Does this discovery not prove the Ramayana, authored by Valmiki, as true history? This one evidence alone is sufficient to prove the Valmiki Ramayana as true history.

            Tulasi Ramayana is not a history, it is written in devotion, 7700 years after Rama’s demise. I have proved by astronomical mathematics that Rama’s birth date is 4th December 7323 BC. He married to Seeta on 7th April 7307 BC. Rama was to be coroneted on Thursday, 29th November 7306 BC, but had to go in to exile. Rama fought with Ravana from 3rd November 7292 BC to 15th Nov. 7292 BC. On Phalgun Amavasya, on 15th Nov. 7292 Rama killed Ravana. Valmiki has recorded Thursday and calculations show that it was the Thursday on 29th Nov. 7306 BC. This proves the Valmiki Ramayana has a true history.

            Hanuman entered Lanka on1st Sept. 7292 BC and returned with information of Seeta on 3rd Sept. Rama moved his army to the south on 2nd October, reached the south sea on 22nd Oct. Nala built a temporary bridge in 5 days from 26th to 30th Oct. 7292 BC. Rama-Ravana war took place from 3rd Nov. to 15th Nov. 7292 BC. On 15th Nov. Phalguna Amavasya Rama killed Ravana. I have discovered the dates of almost 45 incidents from the  Valmiki Ramayana. I used astronomy, which is a science.

            Around Delhi it is supposed that Rama killed Ravana on Vijaya Dashami; this is absolutely wrong. Valmiki has clearly stated that it was Amavasya. (Yudh 92/64)

            The Govt. depended on Archaeology, which is not a perfect science. During 1971, when I showed that Dinosaurs were present around Dwaraka during the Mahabharata era, around 5561 BC., the Archaeologist laughed at me saying the Dinosaurs never existed in India. But now existence of dinosaurs is well proved near Ahemedabad. Archaeologists did not approve my date of 5561 BC for the Mahabharata and 7323 BC for the Ramayana. They opined that there was no culture in such a remote past. But now a well-developed city is found submerged under the sea, in the Bay of Cambay, near Gujarath, which has water and drainage systems. It proves that the opinions of the Archaeological Survey are not believable.

            It is true that the Rama Setu never existed. Valmiki calls it Nala Setu, so also Vyasa in the Mahabharata calls it Nala Setu. It was erected by one engineer Nala. Valmiki has written in clear words that Nala erected the Setu using trees. Valmiki never says that the rocks floated on water. On the contrary he states that big rocks were cut with machines and thrown in to the sea, which sank and on that foundation a Setu of wood was built. Valmiki wrote a true history, but later it was perverted by devotional writings like that of Tulasidas, in the 15th century AD.

            Valmiki is keen to state the sea, there, was shallow and so boats could not go in to the sea. Today it is proved that the sea is shallow, proving the Ramayana as true history. How could Valmiki at least 1500 miles distant from the south sea write so exactly? Because he wrote history after gathering information from Hanuman, Seeta, Rama etc. Those were true characters
            The Govt should not say that the Ramayana is not a history and Rama never existed. There is no evidence to say that. BJP, VHP, and others should also not say anything untrue. Why should they say it as Rama Setu? Why should they hold that the Setu was built with stones? Why should they suppose that the stones floated on water? It is all false. Valmiki was a truth abiding sage. He wrote the truth and truth only. Hindu should stick up to the truth.

            The true fact is that there was a row of rocks, which made the sea shallow. Nala intelligently filled up the gaps in that row, with wood and made a temporary bridge. It was prepared 9299 years ago. How can it be present now? What is present is a natural row of rocks, which can be safely broken to prepare a way for ships. That way will save lot of fuel, time and money. It should be done. Nobody should oppose it and obstruct the national benefit. The Govt. too should avoid talking nonsense. The Govt. should abide by the truth. Rama was a true historic person and Valmiki has written a true history, though he used the form of poetry.

            I am ready to help the Supreme Court and the Govt. to show the truth. I have already published a book in Marathi, “Vastava Ramayana”, which shows the true historicity of the Ramayana, fixing the dates of almost 50 incidents in Rama’s life.

Exploring the truth in Ramayana

Indians (read, Hindus) need to reaffirm their faith in their tradition and scriptures. Indian history needs to be freed from the grasp of the flag bearers of westerm interest and its blind followers.

Vindicating traditional historiography: Ramayana accurate portrayal of ancient India

Come Carpentier de Gourdon
10 Sep 2012

A fundamental feature, but also an enduring flaw of the modern scientific method is that it strives to ignore ancient data in order to set up a cultural “tabula rasa” on which it may carry out research and build its own edifice. Traditional annals are regarded a priori as inaccurate,  due to the positivistic prejudice that people in the remote past were far less knowledgeable than us, and had access only to primitive intellectual and material tools to investigate and record data.

In the case of India, the florid, allusive, metaphorical and dithyrambic emphasis of the style used by ancient bards convinced their western readers that there was little factually accurate information (at least as far as geography and chronology were concerned) to be gleaned in the old epics and poems. The cosmic resonance given to the heroes’ actions further demonstrated in their view that the haze of legend impenetrably wrapped what little factual core there might have been to the tales told. The fact that Valmiki’s Ramayana is a Kavya stood as proof in skeptical eyes that it was not in fact Itihasa – a record of real happenings.

In recent decades however, the progress in various scientific disciplines has led to a reevaluation of that supposedly “rationalistic” appraisal, and the Ramayana for one is being rediscovered as an “odyssey” that is a periplum of ancient India which is not only topographically informative but chronologically accurate to a degree which modern techniques to resuscitate the past on the basis of some archeological and epigraphic fragments could never reach.

It is strange indeed that the academic community tends to reject a lot of information contained in ancient texts which it does not understand, or does not wish to seriously consider, while it takes pride in reinventing a lost world on the basis of inevitably hazardous detective work on a few tiny indices, “recreating a skeleton out of one retrieved tooth” so to say, in the manner of Sherlock Holmes. Conan Doyle was a novelist, but one often wonders if many paleontologists, paleo-anthropologists, archeologists and ancient historians do not create fiction – or at least “faction” i.e. more or less informed guesswork or speculation – which they wish all to regard as proven fact and are very reluctant to revise even when newly discovered evidence should force them to.

Coming after many other convergent theses, the book by Saroj Bala and Kulbhushan Mishra “Historicity of Vedic and Ramayan Eras” (Scientific Evidences from the Depth of the Oceans to the Heights of the Skies, I-SERVE, 2012) enshrines a valuable array of scientific testimonies backed by hard proof, gathered by some of the best specialists in their respective fields, many holding senior posts at various national agencies of the Government of India. It argues and persuasively demonstrates that the chronological records of ancient India were reliable, at least in some cases, and that the claims of traditional scholars about the antiquity of their scriptures are correct.

Thus, the Indian royal annals quoted by Megasthenes and subsequently by other Greek writers, find support in recent findings and must be far closer to truth than the rather arbitrary attempts at reconstruction made by Western archeologists and linguists on the basis of superficial bookish information in the last hundred and fifty years. The 19th century western approach to the origins of Indian civilization was initially informed by the underlying biblical belief that the world had been created about 4000 BC and then it got influenced by the theory of evolution which saw most of mankind as slowly emerging from savagery in the last four millennia, to find its way to rational knowledge and progress in Greece around 600 BC. Such a conditioned, narrow and deterministic worldview could not harbour the data gathered from little known disciplines in which ancient Indians excelled, such as astronomy, agriculture and botany.

What are the main data provided in Bala’s and Mishra’s book, first presented at a seminar in July 2011(inaugurated by former President APJ Abdul Kalam), that are supported by many other results gathered over the last decades:

1] The Ramayana tells a story which took place in the sixth millennium BC, between 5114 BCE (Sri Rama’s birth, according to the astrological theme given by Valmiki, on Chaitra Shuddha Navami of Punarvasu Nakshatra, date when Rama Navami is celebrated to this day) and 5075 BC (the year he ascended the throne as 64th king of his “Solar” dynasty), in an area encompassing much of its modern territory, from the Ganga basin (Ayodhya and Prayag) to Sri Lanka. Many of the places and sites mentioned in the Epic (more than 250) have kept the same names and vivid traditions connected to the passage of the royal and divine trinity. They retain most of the physical and climatic features noted by Valmiki. The least that can be said is that the author or authors of the kavya were well acquainted with all those locations, personally or through the reports of other travelers.

The dates recorded for the various events narrated in the story (astronomical coordinates that can be recreated with the help of planetarium software as well as, in some cases, eclipses are listed which have been found to be factual for those dates and regions) are also internally and sequentially consistent with the unfolding of the plot. Either the expedition of Rama was chronicled by a contemporary witness who was also a skilled astronomer, or a historian (perhaps Valmiki himself) not too long later was able to reconstitute the zodiacal map out of the dates he was given or personally remembered. That seems like a remarkable achievement, but it would be in keeping with the astronomical proficiency evinced by several ancient civilizations in Asia, Africa and Meso-America, among others.

2] Although it is impossible to establish the date when the Ramayana was composed, since the oldest extant manuscript, preserved in Nepal, is “only” a thousand years old, it stands to reason that knowledge of the topography, vegetation, population and astronomical configuration at the time, of the diverse locations described, implies that the initial account dates back to the period when the narrated events took place

Indeed, absent a computer and sophisticated software, it would have been exceedingly difficult for any poet flourishing many centuries later to “turn the zodiacal clock” back to the time when he wished to situate the story, not to mention that he had no need to do so if he was writing a work of fancy or an imaginative reconstruction. There is no escaping the conclusion that initial records at least were kept during the course of Rama’s journey (as was the use for the lives and deeds of kings) and inserted in the later epic at whatever time it was composed, but there is plenty of literary and artistic evidence that Valmiki’s classic was well known for centuries before the advent of the Common Era. 

Intriguingly, as Pandit Narayan Aiyangar pointed out, there are mentions of Rama and Sita in certain Richas (hymns) of the Vedas (1) whose astronomical references has allowed Bala, Mishra and their team to date it between the ninth and fifth millennium BC.

3] On the other hand, archeological, paleo-botanical, oceanographic and remote sensing findings all coincide in the recognition that settled, refined agricultural civilisation with elaborate art and craft techniques – in wood, textiles, stone and metal – existed in large parts of India from about 8,000 BCE and possibly earlier, at the beginning of the Holocene period which, following the end of the last glaciation, ushered in an era propitious to the development of agriculture, and hence to demographic growth and cultural progress.

Evidence for it is concentrated in the Indus-Saraswati-Ganga-Yamuna river system between  present-day Afghanistan and Iran and the modern state of West Bengal (Mehrgarh, Kot Diji, Naushero, Dholavira, Lahuradeva, Jhusi, Takwa, Hettapati et al). Some regions covered by that civilization were in contact with and active at sea, as the Rg Veda repeatedly indicates, from at least the fourth millennium BCE (i.e. the port of Lothal and others, some of which have been located submerged under the sea). There is also archaeo-agricultural evidence that rice, wheat, barley, grapes and many other food crops (up to 29 kinds of grains, pulses, fruits and vegetables) were cultivated by the seventh or sixth millennium BC.

4] While the permanence of poetically embellished historical memories is significant to any cultural anthropologist or historian immersed in the local Indian cultures, the estrangement of western “armchair” scholars of centuries past from the facts on the ground, both geographical and chronological, explains why they generally ignored traditional references, preferring to speculate about unprovable linguistic derivations and suspected origins of the “Indo-European” Rama whom they did not wish to place earlier than 1200 BC (assuming he had ever existed) in order to make him fit in with the supposed date of the Aryan invasion, set by them three hundred years earlier, in an era comfortably less ancient than the Biblically hallowed Chaldean and Egyptian archaic dynasties.

Yet it turns out that if we follow the zodiacal data provided in the Ramayana and check out with the help of modern scientific capabilities, we find Rama’s life is much more accurately recorded – in some cases down to the day and time, such as the hero’s birth, his departure for exile, the death of the “monkey-king” Bali in Kishkinda, the slaying of Ravana in battle and Rama’s victorious return to Ayodhya for his coronation – than those of many axial figures of “western” civilization, beginning with those in the Bible and Greek Epics which, however, appear relatively recent by comparison. Needless to say, the planetary and astral relative positions noted in the Ramayana do not recur for many thousands of years, so that there is little uncertainty about the period in which they took place.

5] It is also archeologically borne out that the wooded and forested areas of Central India where Sri Rama, his consort, and his brother dwelt and traveled during their 14-year exile, were haunted by tribes and dotted with ashrams or spiritual/educational colonies headed by rishis, proficient in various branches of knowledge.

For example, the Ramayana refers to Rishi Agastya, who is traditionally held to have lived at the very tip of South India near Cape Comorin where several places are named after him, and to have had his ashram near modern-day Nasik where he gave Rama, on his way to Lanka, some spiritual and material weapons to fight Ravana. Agastya (whose name etymologically is said to mean “calmer of the ocean” or “mountain thrower” but which may in fact come from a Tamil euphemism for the soul: “he who belongs inside”) gave his name to the star Canopus because he was the first to observe it and Canopus became visible over the horizon in the Northern Deccan and the Vindhyas only from about 5100 BCE, thereby providing one more internally coherent zodiacal reference.

Legend has it that Agastya was born in a pitcher and that he was the head of the Vellalar clan of South India. Coincidentally or not, Canopus (Kah Nub in Egyptian, which means “golden earth” and applied to both the star and the town) was the name given to a port city in the Nile Delta, famous for its clay vases with a human head that represented a local icon of Osiris (Oser-Isvar), seen as god within a pitcher. The Indian Agastya, like the Egyptian Canopic god, was associated with the sea and ships and in “western” astronomy Canopus, also known as the Southern Pole Star, is part of the Argo Navis constellation. For the Chinese and Japanese, Canopus is the Old Man’s Star, a clear reference to the Vedic spiritual master.

6] The Ramayana also describes several caves, some inhabited, and indeed in the Central mountainous belt stretching from the Western Ghats to the Bay of Bengal innumerable rock dwellings and sanctuaries display many types of art, from Paleolithic parietal paintings to monumental Hindu, Jain and later Buddhist sculptures and cave architecture. Central India appears to have been, as the Ramayana and the Vedic texts describe it, a wilderness where scholars, hermits, students and ascetics took refuge and built hermitages away from the densely populated and urbanized northern plains.

7] The picture that is emerging out of geological, paleo-climatic and oceanographic findings is that between 12,000 years BCE (when many ancient annals record the great floods that marked the end of the glacial period) and 5000 BCE, the melting of glaciers gradually raised the level of the oceans by a stupendous 80 meters in the Indian Ocean/Arabian Sea region (according to a report by Dr. Rajiv Nigam, head of the paleo-climate project at the National Institute of Oceanography quoted in the book), submerging huge tracts of land and releasing mighty rivers that flowed down from the Himalayan massif towards the sea.

The Puranas indicate that two of Rama’s royal ancestors, more than twenty generations earlier, undertook large scale projects to channel the water from the Shivalinga glaciers eastwards towards the Bay of Bengal in order to control the floods in the Punjab-Rajasthan area. The chroniclers attributed the rise of the ocean around that period to the release of large amounts of fresh water thereby engineered. The same scriptures also refer to a number of tribes or nations that migrated from the subcontinent in the same era (around 6000-5500 BC) towards West and North Asia.

We can also conclude from that that Rama lived considerably earlier than the era when the “Indus Valley” civilization port of Lothal was built, as archeological evidence shows, since the Arabian Sea level was higher than it is now between 6000 and 4000 years ago. From that latter date the port had to be abandoned as the coastline had changed following a new drop in sea level which probably enabled Sri Krishna to build his capital at Dwarka on reclaimed land, according to the Mahabharata. 

Coincidentally, it has been convincingly established that a similar rise in the level of the North Atlantic submerged the so-called Doggerland, the “British Atlantis” which encompassed what is today the United Kingdom as well as Scandinavia. That vast and densely populated Greater Europe gradually sank under the water between 18 and 5500 BCE. An exhibition entitled “Drowned Landscapes” on the discoveries made in this area by a collective of Scottish, English and Welsh Universities is currently taking place at the Royal Society, since July 2012.

At the time Rama and his army reached the southern tip of India at the place since known as Rameswaram, the sea level was still about 3 meters below the present one, and indeed, the bridge reportedly built by the architect Nala for the king of Kosala and his troops is still visible less than 3 meters below the surface.

According to the Geological Survey of India’s research, that bridge or causeway is an artificial construction. Specifically its report says: “Ramasethu is a natural formation, the top portion of which appears to be man-made” as it consists in part of stones and rounded coral pebbles that were obviously transported and put there. This observation tallies with the Ramayana’s description of the way the causeway was built by connecting many islets and shoals strung along the Palk Strait, filling in the gaps and building a road on top. Considering that this structure is over 30 kilometers long, its construction ranks as one of the most stupendous achievements of archaic mankind.

The Indian Ministry of Earth Sciences further noted: “There are some raised Teri formations that supported a vast assemblage of Mesolithic, microlithic tools indicating the presence of strong human habitation and activity as early as 8000 to 9000 years before present and as late as 4000 years ago”.

8] The Ramayana describes Sri Lanka, which has kept its original name since, as a part of the “Aryan” civilisational area. Its King Ravana, from the Rakshasa tribe, a descendent of Visravas, was a brother of Kubera, the lord of wealth also euphemistically called the “king of the world”, monarch of the northern quarter (Uttarakurus), beyond the Himalayas, who ruled the yakshas (from where the god Thraco-greek Iacchus-Bacchus and the Tibetan Yaks seem to have taken their name) and gandharvas (Gandhara – Gedrosia for the Greeks – is modern day Afghanistan and Northern Pakistan). The name of Kubera is etymologically related to Siberia, if we keep in mind the sata/centum dichotomy – which is not split by a clear East/West divide, contrary to the original theory – among Indo-European languages. The Shubras or Shubrians for instance were a Middle Eastern, probably Iranian people, settled in Eastern Asia Minor who were conquered and assimilated by the Assyrians from the 8th century BC onwards.

Ravana, Kubera’s brother and Rama’s foe is also said to be descended, like all Rakshasas, from Rishi Pulastya and to be a great devotee of Shiva (3) so that his cultural kinship with both the “Aryan” Rama and the “Dravidian” Agastya is attested, over and above the conflict. A common origin for the peoples of the subcontinent from North to South was hence recognized and anthropology vindicates that belief as both the Sinhalese and Tamil inhabitants of Sri Lanka belong to the greater Indian genetic family.

The authors of the book under review have visited various sites in Sri Lanka and identified various sites described by Valmiki rather precisely, including the caves opening on four sides of a hill that led to Ravana’s rock-hewn fortress, in the region of Nuwara Eliya, the island’s central massif. The tradition of building palaces on top of steep rocky hills, surrounded with terraced gardens and harbouring deep caves used for habitation, defence and worship, remained alive until medieval days in Sri Lanka as can be seen in the renowned sites of Sigiriya and Dambulla.

8] Over and above the fact that hominid bone remains and tools found in the Indian subcontinent date back to more than two and a half million years (4), DNA research yields the definitive conclusion that the Indian population is overwhelmingly homogenous since some 55,000 to 60,000 years when it is believed to have moved in from Africa. Strangely (but is it?), some traditional Puranic chronologies situate the beginnings of civilization with the arrival of the first Manu of this cycle some 56,000 years ago. In Southern Siberia, recent genetic tests have shown that an earlier human population, known as Denisovian, sharing many traits with Melanesians and Australian aborigines, mingled with homo sapiens newcomers before vanishing as a separate genus, probably migrating from the South, about  50,000 years ago.

The Greek historians after Megasthenes quoted the Indian royal annals as beginning with the first sovereign of the Solar Race whom the Greeks called Bacchus or Iacchus (Ikshvaku in Samskrit), in 6776 BC (5). That fits chronologically with the nomenclature of 63 kings who ruled Kosala before Sri Rama as listed in Valmiki’s opus (whereby Ikshvaku would have lived some sixteen to eighteen centuries before Sri Rama), and indeed, since about 7000 BC at least all scientific data confirm that an autochthonous civilization experienced consistent development, displaying increasing sophistication and expanding far and wide even beyond the subcontinent. Royal annals further assert that Rama’s two sons and the sons of his brothers and half-brothers, eight in all, ruled as many kingdoms, spread from the Eastern Gangetic plain to the confines of Afghanistan (Taxila and modern-day Peshawar).

9] From a climatic point of view, it is logical to assume that the first settlements of homo sapiens in the subcontinent were located in the South, closer to the Equator and less affected by glacial ages. Indeed, there are traces of prehistoric villages in Tamil Nadu which predate the Toba’s explosion in Indonesia, as shown by the volcanic ashes that covered them around 60,000 years ago. The first Indian civilization should thus have taken root in the South before moving northwards and settling in the riverine plains in the shadows of the great Himalayan chain, well after 12,000 BCE. If that is so, Ravana and his Sri Lanka kingdom would have belonged to an elder branch of the Indic ethnic family.

10] Contemporary developments in linguistic archeology, however disputable those may be, reveal at least according to P. Foster and A. Toth (2003) (6) that Indo-European languages are probably derived from a common ancestor that was already spoken more than 10,000 years ago. From about 5000 to 3500 BCE there are traces of the expansion of that linguistic  family throughout Eurasia, from Urals and the Volga to Central Asia. J Greenberg (7) has gone further back in time and tried to show the existence of a common Eurasian macro-family that includes non Indo-European ones, such as the Uralic, Altaic (Turkic) and Afro-Asiatic languages, formerly known as Semito-Hamitic as well as Elamo-Dravidian. His thesis connects with the Nostratic theory in its various interpretations, which generally propose the existence of a common proto-Nostratic source in the Epipaleolithic Age, towards the end of the last glaciation.

There is much common ground as well with the hypothesis of Paleolithic Continuity or PCC (8) which India’s pre-history and history, corroborated by human genetics, illustrate with great clarity as this report shows. Bomhard estimates that 5000 BC (Rama’s age) was when the Proto-Eurasiatic linguistic family divided into Indo-European, Proto-Uralic and Proto-Altaic branches.

The academic school which seeks to prove since Colin Renfrew, that there is an Anatolian origin (in modern day Turkey) for all those “Paleolithic” languages, has not made its case beyond doubt so far, and there might well have been a common linguistic motherland spread over a wide area comprised between North-Western India and Eastern Asia Minor.

Atkinson’s phylogeographic attempt (sciencemag, August 23, 2012 by Nicholas Wade) to establish the common forebear of all Indo-European languages by using a computer to mimic in reverse the evolution of 103 languages of that family, yields Anatolia as the urheimat some 8 to 9500 ago; but its conclusion is disputed by other experts who continue to believe that the westward Indo-European expansion began only in the fifth millennium BCE, either from Asia Minor or from the Black Sea steppe region. However, it is not even clear whether the Kurgan culture, the supposed ancestor, beyond the fact that it was Eurasiatic, was Indo-European or Uralic; so a lot of controversy remains. Further, the now confirmed existence of an epipaleolithic civilization in submerged “Doggerland” even before the dawn of the Holocene throws in disarray all the other theories about human migrations.

The motherland of Eurasiatic or Nostratic languages more than 12000 years ago remains undetermined and could as well as been located in South Asia as in Anatolia.

11] The evidence of a steep but gradual sea level rise in the first five millennia of the Holocene force us to consider the possibility that many settled and populated areas were swallowed by the ocean, and that only those populations which moved to higher grounds were able to survive. That accounts for the traditions preserved in South India about the vanished continent of Kumari Kandam that some have identified with legendary Lemuria, and also for the discovery of extensive urban ruins, more than 8000 years old, under the water of the Gulf of Khambat and Arabian Sea off the coasts of Gujarat and Saurashtra. Tamil civilization traces its origins back to the once emerged lands which now lie beneath the Indian Ocean to the west of Sri Lanka, and the earliest known Dravidian royal dynasty, the House of Pandya, claimed to have ruled over Kumari Kandam and that could only have been before the sea level rise, i.e., prior to the seventh millennium BCE.

Coincidentally Plato recorded that Atlantis, which he located beyond the pillars of Hercules, sank into the Atlantic Ocean sometime after 9600 years BCE, probably as a result of the post-glacial sea level rise around the time when “Doggerland” also became submerged in various stages.

12] There are many “supernatural” elements in the Ramayana (as in all ancient epics, such as the Iliad, Odyssey, Mabinogion, Beowulf et al) which have made scientifically minded scholars wary of lending any credence to the story as a whole. However, the insertion of prodigious characters and miraculous events seems to have been a required feature for heroic tales and records of the ancient world on all continents. The interpretation of those epics need not be literal. In the Ramayana, the vanaras, monkeys who formed Rama’s army along with other wild animals may be regarded as forest dwelling tribesmen which had the langhur or macaque as their totemic animal and emblem, just as the crest of Kosala was the two fishes that have remained in the arms of the successive dynasties of Awadh (Ayodhya) (9) until the present. 

It is a universal tradition in fables and legends to lend animals many of the moral and physical features of human beings and involve them in the story as equal protagonists. The vanaras may well be Central India’s pygmies cited by Ctesias, who reported that they were experts in archery and provided soldiers to various kings. They also may be at the source of Greek reports about India’s kalystroi or cynocephali, a dog-headed, monkey-tailed population of mountain-dwelling hunters and herdsmen with a reputation for honesty and justice. Jatayu, the giant eagle that tried to rescue Sita from her abductor in the Ramayana appears to be a mythified vulture identified in ancient travellers’s accounts with the fabulous griffins, semi-human birds of prey which kept watch over gold mines.

13] There remains however an enigma which is harder to unravel. One is the repeated and detailed mention of sophisticated weaponry, quite out of character with the technology of that pastoral age, and of flying vehicles, including the golden puspaka vimana (shaped like a flower or lotus and also alluded to as a cloud in the sky) which Rama took from the slain Ravana in order to fly back to his capital city in a few hours, after taking many months to complete the onward journey on foot. Analysing this aspect of the story is another subject, which “Historicity of Vedic and Ramayana Eras” does not address. But we can only wonder whether Ravana and his Rakshasas, as the oldest branch of the post-glacial population in the subcontinent, closer to the submerged land of Kanya Kumari, had kept or gained access to an advanced scientific knowledge that their northern cousins long settled in the Sapthasindhu region had lost. That would account for the semi-divine or supernatural status they were given in the cosmography of the day.

The inevitable conclusion of this review of available facts, old and new, is that civilization in India – as in other parts of the world – is much more ancient than archeologists generally think, and that most sites excavated so far in Sumer, Iran, Anatolia, Egypt and the Indus Valley, are more recent, by several thousand years, than the cities and settlements described by Valmiki.

 India’s civilisation can only be compared in terms of antiquity with the contemporary societies of Egypt, the Levant, Asia Minor, Iran and Central Asia whose early, often monumental remains, found at Gobekli, Catalhoyuk, Jericho, Zarzian, Hissar and Keltiminar date back to the age of the Vedas. As Valmiki’s masterwork indicates, Rama and his India were the heirs of a very ancient indigenous culture rooted in the pre-holocene glaciation period.


1] Aiyangar notes that the Rig Veda mentions Rama Margaveya who first pressed the soma sacred brew, whereas the Yajur Veda dedicates four stanzas to Sita, daughter of Prajapati. The author, who also notes that Rama Jamadagni or Parasurama is an older avatara of the Sri Rama archetype, gives an astronomic interpretation of most Indian myths and epics and equates Rama with the god Indra and with the Sun, while Sita is the star Betelgeuse, and Ravana the moon. This however, does not contradict the original human history as it is common for legends and their characters to assume a cosmological dimension. For instance, the fact that George Washington owed his given name to an Indo-European dragon-slaying Spring God (Georges) similar to Indra does not make the father of American independence less historically real.

2] In Northern Pakistan, Kashmir and Uttarakhand, skeletal fragments and lithic tools date back to 2,5 -2 million years before present. Proto-Hominid remains in the Kalagarh basin of Uttarakhand (Ramapithecus) are about 10 million years old.

 3] Shiva, one of the many names or euphemisms given to Rudra “The howler” or the “Red One”, seems related to the Thracian Evoe, (Iahweh?) used both as an invocation and a surname of Bacchus or Iacchus. In Indian languages certain names lost their initial s consonant, as in siddhi (samskrt) to iddhi (pali).

4] The Greek interpretation of the first Indian king’s name as Iacchus translated as Dionysos suggests that it was derived from the Vedic Ikshvaku who came second after Manu in the traditional chronology. The Greeks generally equated Iacchus-Bacchus with Shiva as both were said to dwell in the mountains (Kailash, the Caucasus or Zagros respectively) surrounded by wild animals and to induce a sacred intoxication in their followers. The wedding of Bacchus and Ariadne, a foster daughter of the Cretan bull, also has connections with Nandi-riding Shiva’s betrothal with Parvati. Vishnu on the other hand was identified by them with Herakles-Hercules who also carried the mace, wore a lion skin (Narasimha?) and was celebrated for twelve heroic feats reminiscent of the Indian God’s ten world-saving avatars.

5] P. Foster and A. Toth “Towards a Phylogenic Chronology of Ancient Gaulish, Celtic and Indo-European” PNAS, 100 (15), 9079-9084 (2003). They conclude that Indo-European languages took shape in 8100 BCE (between 9600 and 6600 BCE) and that Celts reached Britain about 3200 BCE.

7] “Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language Family” (2 vols, 2000-2002)

8] The Paleolithic Continuity Theory or Paradigm expounded by Mario Alinei in his book Origini delle Lingue d’Europa (1996) holds that Indo-European languages in Europe are indigenous and developed during the Paleolithic period, but it is disputed also on genetic grounds as recent mitochondrial DNA research (B. Bramanti, has shown in 2009 that a large influx of farming people in Europe at the beginning of the Neolithic provided the ancestry of most modern Europeans by supplanting the earlier Paleolithic hunter-gatherers (see Arrredi, Poloni, Tyler Smith’s The Peopling of Europe in Michael Crawford’s Anthropological Genetics (pp. 380-408)).

9] Note that according to his astronomic birth chart, Dasaratha was born with the Sun in Pisces (Meena). His son and heir Rama was born under the sign of Aries (Mesha the Ram), which follows Pisces in the zodiacal cycle. There are parallel cosmological, symbolic and historical dimensions in the epic.

The author is Convener, Editorial Board, World Affairs Journal. In 1999, he co-founded the Telesis Academy in Switzerland, dedicated to the study of the ancient wisdom of East and West in the contemporary scientific context. He has been associated with the Nuclear Disarmament Forum and the Foundation of Global Dialog in Switzerland.

The Ramayana – Myth or Fact

The Ramayana constitutes the epic literature of India along with the Mahabharata and Puranas. Its been deeply influencing the Indian social religious and moral thought as well the Indian literature.

To quote Swami Vivekananda “the Ramayana and Mahabharata are the two encyclopedias of the ancient Aryan life and wisdom portraying an ideal civilization which humanity has yet to aspire after”.

MacDonnell says “probably no work of world literature secular in its origin has ever produced so profound an influence on the life and thought of people as the Ramayana.”

As all the other literary forms the origin of epics can be traced to the Vedas. The Samveda hymns styled as ‘ancient ballads’ by Winternitz are supposedly the source of both epics (developed from the narrative) and drama (developed from the dramatic elements of the ancient ballads.)

The ‘gatha narasamsis’ were songs in praise of men, ‘akhyans’ were narratives, ‘itihas’ was the legend or history and puranas were ancient tales in the Brahamanas and their recital formed an essential part of religious ceremonies at the sacrificial and domestic rituals, they supplied real parallelisms with epic poetry thus carrying on further the development of epic literature. In due course of time these developed from short extent and simple subject matter to lengthy ballads and song cycles of intricate plots. The Ramayana is a fine example of this it must have had an intermediate stage too but as a finished product had many subplots and story lines. Another thing to be kept in mind is that the Vedic literature evolved among the priestly section of society and was confined to it whereas the epics though may have originated in the same class was meant for transmission to the general public as they were taken up by the sutas [professional bards] who were instrumental in popularizing them amongst the masses. These sutas or bards could be Brahmins sages or the reciters of Puranas or could be progeny of pratiloma marriage. Later they served as charioteers also and gave vivid first hand descriptions of wars and battles as they were a witness to it.

The earlier literature comprised praises of deities, sacrificial details and high philosophical speculations; the epics described the deeds of kings and heroes, wars socio moral patterns of society and practical philosophy once these epics came into the hands of the sutas they reached a large circle of the populace.

The traveling singers or Kusilavas also played a significant role in this phenomenon.

The Ramayana takes pride in calling itself a ‘kavya’ an ‘aakhyana’ and an ‘itihas’ and also deals with ‘dharm, arth and kaam’.

The Valmiki ‘Ramayana’ literally means ‘ history of Rama ‘ comprises 7 books of 24000 stanzas.

Though the whole story of Ramayana is a unit in itself, various scholars from time to time have declared Ramayana to be an amalgamation of two three or four elements – namely the palace intrigue resulting in Rama’s banishment, abduction of Sita, legends about Hanuman and ape worship, about Ravana and his final downfall and death. It is said only one element had a historical basis and that

was Rama’s banishment.

According to Lassen who is said to be a pioneer of Ramayana studies, Ramayana developed in four stages, suggesting that it is an allegorical representation of the Aryan conquest of the south. He says original version of this poem was just till banishment of Rama to the Himalayas and factors that led his wife and brother to accompany him. Then a revision must have followed that changed the place of banishment to Godavari and Rama providing protection to hermits from aboriginal onslaughts the next revision described the attempts to subdue the inhabitants of the Deccan and the final amplification described Rama’s invasion on Lanka which must have been incorporated by Hindus’ learning about island of Ceylon.

Weber is another scholar who has discussed the problems of the Ramayana comprehensively. He concludes that the ‘ Dashratha Jataka ‘ is the source of Valmiki’s Ramayana. The idea has been conflicted by many scholars including Bulcke on grounds that Dashratha jataka is a later work based on oral tradition in Ceylon, witnessed centuries after the Ramayana. However Dashratha jataka is also silent about Sita’s abduction and fight details. Weber promulgated his theory of Valmiki’s indebtedness to Homer which has been assailed by subsequent scholars like Telang, Jacobi, Vaidya, Hopkins and Bulcke.

Jacobi is credited with comprehensive and systematic treatment of several topics in his ‘Das Ramayana’. He believes it’s a mix of history and allegory. Exile and palace conspiracy have historical basis but the second part Sita’s abduction and ‘Ravan Vadh’ has its source in RigVeda -terrestrial events based on mythological elements from Rig-Veda. Sita is the goddess of agriculture in Rig-Veda in Ramayana she’s the daughter of earth and finally disappears into her mother’s arms. Her husband would then represent Indra and his fight with Ravana symbolises the Indra Vratra conflict. Significant use of name ‘indrashatru’ is referred to by Jacobi an epithet of Vratra in RigVeda, in the Ramayana its Ravana’s son Indrajeet. Rama’s chief ally is Hanuman or Hanumat whos called the son of maruti or Marutinandan hinting Indra’s association with the storm Gods. A witch Sarma crosses the river rasa in search of captured cows for Indra and she occurs in the Ramayana as the demoness who consoles Sita. Jacobi thus believes there is a blend of history with Rigvedic myth.

Winternitz calls Julian V Negien’s attempts to discover outline of Rama Sita legend in the Vedas ‘fantastic expositions’.

D.C.Sen on the other hand traces the origin of Valmiki’s Ramayana to three principal sources:

Dashratha Jataka, cycle of legends from south India about a great and noble Brahmin hero called Ravana and a floating group of legends about ape worship once popular in India. Valmiki, Sen maintains welded together material from these three sources into an immortal poem.

The introductory portion of Valmiki Ramayana deserves special mention. It’s said Valmiki questioned Narada about the qualities of a perfect man. Narada narrated to Valmiki the story of Rama from the Ikshvaku dynasty in reply. Valmiki thanked and honored Narada duly and went to a river for daily absolutions. He saw a pair of Kronch birds together and was a witness to the killing of the male bird by a hunter and the female’s cries of mourning. He was seized by deepest pity and uttered in that psychological state a shloka. Sorrow felt by Valmiki found perfect expression in his perfect shloka. Its said then Brahma appeared and asked him to compile the story he was told by Narada assuring him of a clear vision of all events outward and inward visible and invisible open and secret connected with Rama’s life. Valmiki then composed a poem with all relevant details he also taught Rama’s twin sons Lava and Kusha born to Sita after her abandonment in Valmikis hermitage and were bred there.

Both the young bards sang the poem called the ‘Ramayana’ to the accompaniment of a lyre for the first time in the distinguished assembly at Rama’s horse sacrifice.

The traditional account thus invests the text with a historical character.

According to Bulcke in Dashratha Jataka there is no mention of Sita’s abduction or Hanuman or even the Rama-Ravana fight. In fact Bulcke’s critical examination of Das jataka and Ramayana proves that the former is a perverted form of the Ramayana story. Hence idea of Ramayana being split into many elements on basis of Das jataka does not hold water and also Das jataka was just an account of a bereaving son at the death of his father, hence no need of Seeta and Rama episode.

Bulcke’s investigations confirm the view that Ramayana is a complete unit and a historical story with a few inevitable scenes of divine intervention and a little artistic exaggeration necessary for effect. The story of Valmiki Ramayana creates an impression that it is factual and all of it may have happened in those wonderful days of yore as tradition maintains.

Aarttee Kaul

Ramayana of Valmiki

This article originally appeared in the UK Valmiki community’s monthly newsletter named The Service [Editor Mohan Lal alias Gardash Bharti] in the early 1980’s under the title “Bhagwan Valmik Ji – Our Pathfinder.” The original article was subsequently published on; but unfortunately the publication contained a number of spelling and other errors. It has also been felt that this article needed to be updated in the light of latest discoveries in India history. The late Julia Leslie in her magnum opus Authority and Meaning in Indian Religions – the Case of Valmik1; based entirely on Hindu theological texts, surprisingly come to very similar conclusions as this article, which was written a couple of decades before her work. We are grateful to Mr Mohan Lal for permission to edit and publish this article. [Editor]
The life and times of  Guru Valmik Ji are shrouded in history. Ancient Indian history, lacking authentic recorded material and frequently archaeological artefacts, present us with a particular problem when analysing the period of Aryan expansion into India. History, if one can call it history, was 'recorded' by the victorious Aryans who naturally depreciated the indigenous non-Aryans. 'Recorded' is not perhaps the right phrase, as most of the Hindu texts were first orally transmitted and later after hundreds of years, written down with many layers, distortion, mythical symbolism and sometimes with inverted truth. There is much chaff and little wheat in the classical Hindu texts but nevertheless it is still possible to piece together the life and mission of Guru Valmik JI from fragmentary evidence of the ancient texts as well as modern archaeological and historical discipline  
Yoga Vasishtha -Scriptures or Science?
Guru Valmik is traditionally famous for two major works; the Yoga Vsistha and the Ramayana. These two works in their present forms bear only a little resemblance to their original form. We knew for a fact that parts of Ramayana were later deleted, distorted and added to by the inventive Brahmin priests and writers. As an example in all Brahminical texts, Brahmins are naturally asked to be honoured even though they should be without merit. This too was the opinion of the medieval Hindu holy man Tulsi Das who did not want the  Sudra to be honoured even though the Sudra had merit. Nevertheless Guru Ravidas took the opposite viewpoint to that of Tulsi Das. Guru Ravidas’s utterance was in line with what had been said in the Yoga Vsistha many centuries previously, which was that a child with truth was to be believed and even Brahma was not to be believed if untruthful. According to the Moksopaya Project in Germany who have examined a number of Yoga Vsishta manuscripts, a number of Buddhist ideas had been removed from the subject texts. If this is correct, then a philosophical link between Guru Valmik, Buddha and Guru Ravidas is clearly established, notwithstanding the fact that Guru Ravidas can certainly be linked to the Buddhists via the Natha Sidha tradition.
From the late Lekh Raj Manjdadria’s précis about Yoga Vshistha2:
 Firstly there is the introduction of frame stories that emphasises the "orthodox" brahmanical ideology, this particular feature is absent in the MU (Moksopaya) and as such considered not to be the works of the orthodox tradition. Secondly there is the insertion of chapters emphasising Rama- bhakti, whereas the original ethos indicates Rama Bhaktas are nothing but lazy fools (Nirvana, Purvardha, 127-128) as they do not rely on their own power of ‘manly-ness’ (parusa). Thirdly there is an attempt at reversing the meaning of passages that are specifically directed against Sruti, the Vedas and rituals, by changing the original wording. Fourthly, there is the obvious and complete deletion of particularly Buddhist terminology. Fifthly, there is what can be described as the numerous tendentious changes of plural-forms of nouns and verbs to the singular. This indicates the originator of the MU used a public sermon mode. Finally, there is without doubt what is considered as the vedanticizing of the text. The MU teaches monism (advaita) which is characteristically different from that of Sankara’s Advaita Glossary Link Vedanta. On some of these wilful changes I shall expand a little more on later.
The original author endorses his authoritativeness on the contents of his works that claim a human authorship (pauruseyam idam sastram) and dismisses any authoritative scripture that lacked reasoning (vicara) and rational arguments (yukti). Here the text makes clear reference that the reasoned statements of even a child or women where preferred to revelations of Rsis and gods. "Even if it were of human origin (every) Sastra has to be accepted provided it instructs by means of arguments. Any other, even composed by Rsis, should be dismissed. … The word of even a child must be accepted, if it is based on reasonable arguments. Any other should be dismissed like straw, be it even taught by Brahma (II 18, 2-3)"
Another example of Brahminical distortion is that Valmik himself praised Ravana on several occasions- 'Ravana was a great and good man. He was magnanimous and handsome. But he (Ravana) chastised Brahmins whenever he saw them performing Yagarns and drinking Soma juice.'3
 But in Brahminical Ramayana, Ravana is described as a notorious demon king, while Valmik mentioned Ravana as a great learned man a great saint, a master of scriptures. Ralph T.H. Graffith, translator of the important work of Valmiki Ramayana in English writes in the introduction of Ramayana of Valmik, 'There is every reason to believe that the seventh book (Uttar Kanda) is later addition’.4
 Hence the original Ramayana of Valmik Ji is some what older and altogether different from Brahminical texts. Ramayana is essentially the story of the Aryan expansion into Central, Eastern and South India. This expansion was facilitated by the use of iron tools and weapons and his use of iron in North and Central India was introduced round about 1000 BC +/-250 years. In the Valmiki community there is a tendency, from self respect viewpoint; to ascribe, after a Hindu fashion, as older a date as possible for Bhagwan Valmik Ji, but this thinking can only discourage the younger generation from learning about their culture and history and hence for the sake of science and history, such myth making has to be avoided.
Valmik - Historical Setting
Around about 1500 BC the nomadic barbarian Aryans entered N.W. India and overran the remnants of an already ancient, and decayed civilisation later known in the 20th century as the Indus Valley Civilization. This civilization was renowned for many features it gave to the Indian society e.g. international trade, architecture, drainage system, water-locks, trade, system of standard weights and measures, granaries, written script, astronomy (the nakshatrya system) medicine, Lokayata philosophy etc. The first 10 mandalas (chapters) of the Rigveda are filled with descriptions of battle between the Aryans and the non Aryans people. Historians remain divided on many issues surrounding the post Indus society but it is accepted that the Aryans originated from outside of India and that they subjugated north India by military means.
 The society that emerged from these battles was a fusion of the two cultures although the pure Aryan way of life and the autochthonous6 Indians way of life survived side by side for a long time. This is testified by the fact that the modern Hinduism retains many aspects of the Harappa culture, Aryan arrogance and a large tribal population on its periphery. Scholars have seriously suggested that some indigenous Indians may have been even bi-lingual. It is mentioned above that the use of iron was responsible for Aryan expansion into the unploughed land. Aryans themselves may have relied on the indigenous metalworkers such as the Bir Asur who have been currently describes on as
“A tiny tribe threatened with extinction. Traditional iron smelters and metal workers. Ancient metal relics discovered from Asur sites in modern times. Still carrying out hunting, gathering and shifting cultivation.”  It seems likely that at least this particular tribe moved between the settled and the unsettled community. This would point to a stage in history where some of the indigenous people not only had access to Sanskrit language but also to iron technology. This would be similar to native-Americans getting access to firearms, horses as well as Spanish or English language. If this is the case then it would not come as a surprise if the following statement in the original article could be claimed as probably correct.
“Valmik was a fighter against oppression. He was a great scholar, the first Indian to codify music and much more.”  The last sentence would be difficult to refute as the roots of Indian music lie in tribal society.
 Was there one Valmik or many? To many devotees this would be an odd point to raise but the question is a valid one. Valmik is a patronymic, like Vasudeva in Krishna Vasudeva, Vasudeva title was inherited. Hence the possibility that there were many Valmiks in the fashion of  Sikh Gurus with each succeeding Guru signed himself off as Nanak the nth, can not overlooked. This could explain the tradition of why the community initially put up a successful fight against the Aryans, but were eventually overpowered. Just as the line of Sikh Gurus ended with the Tenth Guru, although it is claimed by the British historians that Banda Bahadur was described as the ‘Banda Gooro’, there may have been many Valmiks each with his own specific contribution.
 Ramayana - A continued process of Hinduisation of the Indian tribal society
 Ramayana portrays the story of the first aggressive Aryan expansion into central, east and south India. Rama is not a pure Aryan but from a mixed parentage. There are other reasons for believing that there was a fusion of two cultures in Rama's own family. Sita, his wife is born out of a furrow when king Janak (he of the people) ploughed the land in order to stop draught! This alone links her to earth Mother Goddess which incidentally swallows Sita at the end of the story. This points to a matrilineal society, a society in which the man has right to a property by the virtue of him marrying the woman to whom the property itself being transmitted through the female line. A large part of India was matrilineal in character at one time7,8. The Nairs were matrilineal in the past. The present Khasi tribe is still matrilineal. The reason for the Kaikayi's insistence that her own son Bharata should inherit the kingdom after Dasratha is perfectly in line with the matrilineal tradition! Dasratha had made promise to her, on their marriage, that her son would inherit the kingdom. The fact that Bharata was brought up in his maternal grandparent’s home also points to Kaikeyi's matrilineal background. Hence the so called Aryans expansion into Central, Eastern and South India was not an expansion of Aryan ‘race’ but the spread of a new mode of living. This mode was plough-based, cattle rearing agricultural production based, patriarchal, monarchical, more class and caste ridden and hence much more exploitative. The copper age autochthonous population with their matrilineal tradition, were not so backward or less civilised but the Aryan culture was more aggressive and assisted by iron, it spread, motivated as it was for more land and people to rule. Some section of the indigenous people also started to practice the Aryan way of life. Here archaeology and ethnology agree well with tradition.
Riddles of Ramayana
According to Valmik, Rama is not a re-incarnation of the God Vishnu. This idea was later introduced in the Ramayana. Rama is an ordinary mortal who lies, cheats, has no scruples, double crosses and uses people where convenient for his own ends. Upper caste Indian scholars admit that the killing of king Valin was against all laws of morality. Anyone who thinks that Rama was an ideal man should read The Ramayana (A True Reading. by Periyar E.V. Ramaswami who has laid bare the underlying contradiction running in the whole length of Ramayana. Dr B R Ambedkar in his controversial Riddles in Hinduism9questions the many contradictions surrounding both Rama and Krishna. Valmik in the true fashion of an epic poet was accurately describing the changes that were taking place but he would not be able to save his epic poem from the Brahaminical contamination. The Brahmins deleted portions of Ramayana, added to it and introduced spurious elements in parts of it to suit their own slave/feudal ideology. No wonder Hanuman is considered by the Hindus to be a shining example of loyal and faithful servant. The tribesmen of Western Orissato this day consider him a traitor! And so he was, to Bali, his rightful king.
Where was Ravana's Lanka?
But question may be asked what connection tribesmen of Western Orissa have with Ramayana? It can be safely concluded that  Lanka of Ramayana is not theSri Lanka, Ceylon of the present day. Ceylon used to be known as Singhla. Markande Puran, Kathasaut Sagar, Mahabharta, Badmavada Kavya all refer to Lanka and Singhla separately. The astronomer Varaharmihira refers to Singhala and Lanka as two different places. In early literature Ravana's country was referred to as Tamraparni or Singhla. In Bal Ramayana itself on the occasion of Sita's marriage the king of Lanka and the King of Singhla were present. Ceylon or Sri Lanka has no folk memory of Ravana or Rama! So where was the Ravana's capital?
 One of the candidates for a typical Lanka is at Sonepur in Western Orissa. Recently stone inscription dating back to 1703 A.D. found in Bastar revealed that the Dandakaranya forest mentioned in the Ramayana was near the kingdom of Raja Bhanjdeo and that the territory of Lankeshwara- Ravana, by another name - was close to Dandakaranya. Also Rama's sojourn began in Chtrakut and all through the routes from Chitrakut to Bastar Rama's folk tales are very popular among thr tribals. A copper plate found at Sonepur refers to Somshwar Deva, a prince calling himself the lord of Pashchim lanka (Western Lanka). According to Valmik himself Lanka was close to Mahendra Giri Hill which is in the Ganjan district of Orissa11. The Ramayana mentions sal tree which flourishes in Orissa but one does not find any such tree in Sri Lanka previously Ceylon. One further point. In the Sonepur area of Bihar the tribal tradition has contempt for Hanuman. Every year his effigy is burnt, crushed, and finally thrown into the river as a mark of disrespect. While Sri Lanka previouslyCeylon has no folk memory of Rama or Ravana the Binjhal tribe in Sambhalpur have several such tales about Lanka. Women of Orang tribe sing folk songs about Pradesh claim that they are descendants of Ravana! Entering the words ‘Gond’ (tribe)and ‘Ravana’ into an internet search engine is likely to throw many thousand of entries.
Archaeologists at Sonepur excavated a fort running nearly two kilometers along the bank of the river Tel Among the relics they discovered were two massive pillars each 27 feet high one containing the skeleton of a horse and another of a baby. A quantity of arms were also unearthed at this place. The provisional date of this place is 600-700 B.C.
The Asurgarh site in Sonepur Orissa found at12http:// the following characteristics which could be relevant to any site which may be considered a candidate for prototype Lanka.
“The site is very ancient, with the continuation of culture from very old times. Asurgahr was also known as Udit Sagar and had unique water management system. Water was used for multiple purposes e.g. agriculture and defense. Control of water made it possible for considerable progress in social, economic and political power. Related to this was the religious life based on worship of the female principal. Female fertility figurines had been found at site and the site was probably a center for Sakta cult. Asurgarh also controlled trade routes. A river flowed to the side of the fort and in times of emergency the area external to the fort could be flooded drowning the enemy soldiers."
The name Asurgarh means the fort of demons. Bir Asur people were also associated with iron technology as we have seen before and hence the defenders would not be overpowered without a great deal of effort on the part of intruders.
 It is also possible that there was not a single Lanka but any hydraulically defended stronghold could be described as such especially if it was situated on the high ground.
 So it appears that Ravana far from being a demon was probably a prototype ruler of the autochthones. Valmik himself extols the virtues of Ravana.  According to the Ramayana, Ravana was a brave fighter, chivalrous, sincere and well learned. We know how the Aryan seers labelled the indigenous people as monsters and demons. If we accept Sita at her face name i.e. furrowed and crown land then the fight was not for a human female but for land; not any land but cleared and fertile land which could be put under the plough. Therefore the characters in the Ramayana are not historical but prototypes; an excellent example of history being passed off as itihas (meaning history as opposed tomithhas meaning a mythunder a thick veneer of theological mythology.
A short article such as this can not possibly do justice to Ramayana and its analysis but needless to say that while analyzing its contents it is well worth remembering history, archaeology and past and present sociology of the places in question. It is also worth remembering that Valmik was not writing for people of 3000 years in the future but for the near future generations The Brahminical distortions have also contributed a great deal about the confusion. Only scientific and historical disciplines can lighten our path and guide us and we must remember this when discussing even Valmik!
Relevance of Valmik to Dalits
So what is the importance of Valmik to twenty first century Dalits? People who forget their past are fated to repeat their past mistakes. The ruling intelligentsia in the form of Brahmins tried their level best to destroy our literary and historical past so that we may not take pride in the history of our struggles. The caste system was thrust upon us as divinely originated. Krishna, another alleged incarnation of Vishnu, declare in Bhagvad Gita that he had created the caste system? Valmik challenged the monarchical class/ caste system by stopping Rama's Ashavmedh Yajna. Later Brahmin writers would try to hide the facts that Rama himself may have been defeated by Valmik. Valmik’s protégés Lav and Kush were not defeated by the imperial army. According to Julia Leslie, Valmik was accused of being at least a Brahmin killer. Most prominent scholars agree that last Khand of Ramayana appears to be a forgery which has neither the literary merit nor the style of the bulk of the rest of Ramayana. The Brahmins tried to vilify Valmik by calling him a petty bandit who achieved salvation by inadvertently reciting the name of Rama! This cheek is in line with the Brahminical process of inverting the truth.
 People who have no sense of the history cannot create their own future. Adopting an unhistorical outlook can lead one astray as detailed on the following website13 in which the natural coral between Sri Lanka was seized upon as the mythological Ram Setu bridge, something that even NASA was forced to deny. But at least one pious Dalit website fell into the high caste trap  and ended up linking this ‘bad history’ with the name of Valmik.
 Valmik is a part of our own history. We need to learn about our past, about Valmik but in a scientific manner, in order to check our future course. Valmik stood at the beginning of a class/ caste society. We stand near its end, but our struggle is the same. Valmik was fighting a defensive battle against the very existence of his community. It was the UK Valmiki community’s effort in opposing the Brahminical propaganda that Guru Valmik was a reformed bandit, that the community rediscovered its long lost identity. This led to Julia Leslie’s monumental work seeing the light of day and putting, UK Valmik community on the map.
References :
1. Authority and Meaning in Indian Religions – Hinduism and the Case of Valmik -Julia Leslie - Ashgate UK 2003
3. Ravan Ki Lanka - Chandras Parsad Yagyasu 4. Valmiki Ramayana - Griffiths R.T.H.
7. Mother Right [ Mutterrecht]- J J Bachofen 8. Mother-Right in India - Baron Ehrenfels
9. Riddles in Hinduism – B R Ambedkar.
10. Ramayana – Myth and Reality – S D Sankalia
11. Digging up a new Lanka - India Today April 16-30 1981

Rama, Ravana & Sita: Road to Ramayana
By Sirancee Gunawardene, Prof. of History , Colombo

There are many places in Sri Lanka associated with the Indian epic poem Ramayana. The Ramayana was written in Sanskrit about 2000 years before the commencement of dynastic history of Sri Lanka which is calculated with the coming of Vijaya in 544 BC. It tells us of places far back in history in pre- Vijayan times.

The emotionally charged legend of Rama and Sita, the much loved Indian Princess and her abduction by Ravana, the Rakshasa king of Lanka, is well known. When Ravana abducted Sita it led to a war, which somewhat resembled the Trojan-Greek war, which was fought over Helen of Troy. It is said that in this pre-Vijayan period King Ravana ruled over the indigenous people of Sri Lanka, the Naga and Yakshas.

It is also noteworthy that 200 million years ago, geologically Sri Lanka was linked with India, Madagascar, Australia and Antarctica, in a land mass known as Gondwana.

The earth's surface before seismic earthquakes, ocean currents, winds and drifts changed the land forms into different countries, was one land mass. During the geological changes, sections of the land mass were propelled in different directions and formed continents and countries. South India drifted northward and the Himalayan mountains emerged from the sea with the gigantic up thrust. Sri Lanka separated into a land mass known as Lanka Dvipa (Island of Lanka), and part of the land submerged into the sea. According to the Ramayana epic this took place because of the misdeeds of Ravana, but this seismic happening is confirmed by modern science.

The stretch of coast on the North West, North and South of Mannar could easily be reached from India, as is quite evident today. The Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar and the buried city of Kundiramalai were used from pre-Vijaya times by nomadic bands of people. This is probably the route taken by Hanuman who rescued Sita, after Ravana had crossed over to India and disrupted the idyllic romance of Rama and Sita in a sylvan forest glade in the Himalayas. It is also the tip of Mannar referred to as Adam's Bridge, the causeway which consisted of the coral reefs and shifting sand dunes which Rama used to bring his huge army. He is said to have stopped at the shrine dedicated to Shiva or Iswara before going to battle. When the causeway which Hanuman undertook to finish in a month was being built, it is said thousand of squirrels came to help him. They rolled on the sandy ground and shook off the sand on the bridge and effectively filled the crevices and gaps in the causeway. Rama in appreciation stroked them and conferred the dark stripes on their body.

Down the southern coast coming on to Galle is another interesting place associated with the Rama and Sita legend. It is a mountain called Rhumassala Kanda. From the top of this mountain you get a panoramic view of the Galle harbour and its environs. On a clear day you could even see Adam's Peak, Sri Pada.

Rhumassala Kanda seems strangely out of place when you look at the rest of the landscape. According to legend when Lakshman, the brother of Rama was injured in battle, Rama is said to have sent his faithful emissary Hanuman to the Himalayan Mountain to get a medicinal herb to cure him. Hanuman however forgot the name of the herb and so tore off a huge chunk of the Himalayan Mountain which was well known for medicinal herbs. The chunk of mountain terrain he later dropped and this is reported to be Rhumassala Kanda. Rhumassala Kanda has a wide variety of medicinal plants.

Ravana, the Rakshasa king who reigned in Sri Lanka had his capital in Ravana Kotte, which can be identifed as part of the Southern Bases on the south eastern coast. Here, he is said to have had a strange fortress with battlements where he held the beautiful Sita prisoner. She remained here unbending and upright. Now waves cover this area, but a part of the fortress could be seen form time to time.

Later, Ravana took Sita from Ravana Kotte for greater security to the smallest plateau of Nuwara Eliya and to a locality known as Asoka Aramaya a pleasure garden which had beautiful scenery and dense of forest surrounding it. Asoka trees flowered there. Sita Eliya on the outskirts of Nuwara Eliya is associated with Sita. Hanuman also came here looking for Sita.

When Rama's army was approaching, Ravana again moved Sita to a dense forested area. In Uva, at the base of a mountain crag 4500 feet above sea level is the Ravana Ella cave. Ella is 7 miles from Bandarawela and is a beautiful place to visit. At the base of a precipitous ravine is the Ella gap which you can see if you go to the Ella Rest House. This is the famous cave where Ravana hid Sita. There is thick jungle here and wild and unspoiled mountain wilderness.

The picturesque Ravana Ella falls is a little distance away. It is one of the wildest looking water falls. The water falls in torrents down the Ella gorge and cascades down a forest glade. Sita is said to have roamed around in captivity in this area and bathed in a pool within a rock by the swirling waters of the Ravana Falls.

Ravana's place is said to have been at Maligawa Tenna, near Welimada. It is now a paddy field but ancient stone work, brick and granite slabs have been found here.

The epic battle would have taken place in upper Uva on the mountain side. This area throbs with the majesty of the wilderness and some point to dents on the boulders where Rama's firearms struck.

The place where Rama stopped before leaving Sri Lanka with Sita is a temple on a dune known as Ganakamadhana Hill, where there was a gold lingam said to have been donated by him.

These are interesting places to visit when conditions are more peaceful. 

(Sunday Times)

The first signs of human inhabitants in Sri Lanka date back to the Stone Age, about 1.750.000 million years ago. These people are said to have come from the South of India and reached the Island through a land bridge connecting the Indian subcontinent to Sri Lanka named Adam's Bridge. This is related so in the epic Hindu book of Ramayana.

Rama's Bridge, chain of shoals, c.18 mi (30 km) long, in the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka. At high tide it is covered by c. 4 ft (1.2 m) of water. A steamer ferry links Rameswaram, India, with Mannar, Sri Lanka. According to Hindu legend, the bridge was built to transport Rama, hero of the Ramayana, to the island to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.

Quoting from Brahamgupta's Brahamsiddhanta, Alberuni wrote:

"Several circumstances, however, compel us to attribute globular shape to both the earth and the heaven, viz. the fact that the stars rise and set in different places at different times, so that, e.g. a man in Yamakoti observes one identical start rising above the western horizon, whilst a man in Rum at the same time observes it rising above the eastern horizon. Another argument to the same effect is this, that a man on Meru observes one identical star above the horizon in the zenith of Lanka, the country of demons, whilst a man in Lanka at the same time observes it above his head. Besides all astronomical observations are not correct unless we assume the globular shape of heaven and earth. Therefore we must declare that heaven is a globe, and the observation of these characteristics of the world would not be correct unless in reality it were a globe. Now it is evident that all other theories about the world are futile."

The Problem of Mapping and Dating Ramayana-

On seeing the names like this Yavana, Shaka etc. some hold the view that Ramayana was written more later to Greek's invasion on India. Max Muller in his 'What Can India Teach Us?' says: 'If I call the invasion which is generally called the invasion of the Shakas, or the Scythians, or the Indo-Scythians, or Turushkas, the Turanian invasion... who took possession of India, from about first century BC to the third century BC...' and again classifying Sanskrit literature he says 'we divide the whole of the Sanskrit literature into there two periods, one anterior to the great Turanian invasion, the other posterior to it, we may call the former period as ancient and natural, that of the later modern and artificial...' thus Ramayana belonged to the modern and artificial literary period and Veda-s to ancient, according to him. According to Indians the Turushkas are not the Scythians but Turkish and the Yavanas, the clearly the Greek. Michelson in his 'Linguistic Archaisms of the Ramayana...'adds another phase called Epical period. Thus, there are three, Vedic, Epical, and the rest of it is modern and artificial, At the same time Max Muller says: 'That at the time of Solomon, there was a channel of communication open between India and Syria and Palestine is established beyond doubt, I believe, by certain Sanskrit words which occur in the Bible such as ivory, apes, peacock, and sandalwood, which, taken together, could not have been exported from any country but India...' So Solomon, Bible, Turanian invasion, Ramayana... all occasioned at one time, i.e., around 0 BC. So many professors so many researchers have not said a date agreeable to Indians as well as to the world.

At one place, it is said that there was a rapport among these places India-Syria-Palestine and even up to Egypt, but at other place, the Indian thought, that the Indian had Greeks and Greeks had Indians, is dismissed. What prevents to agree that both hold up mirror to almost the same culture, though diverse in its practise, right from the belief of Greeks, viz., 'the sense of many gods are there near at hand' to various gods, to their names, to the epical literature, and also to myths and legends and dramas etc, is unknown. But when it comes to dating and mapping 'the earliest date known for certain in Indian history is the invasion of Alexander in 326 BC...' and 'The chronology has been built up form the identification of Sandracrottus of Greek writers with Chandragupta Maurya... yet it is said 'In the seventh century BC India was divided into sixteen Mahajanapada-s...' as per "An Historical Atlas of Indian Peninsula", Oxford. Peculiarly those sixteen Janapada-s did not contain the names of Yavana, Shaka provinces in atlases.

HINDU RAMAYANA's XXX Reality - Sita's Naked Body

Arnold H. Baker

Sita's Virtually Illicit Birth
In the Valmiki Ramayana, King Janaka (Sita's father) recounts the virtually  illicit birth of Sita (Lord Rama's wife):
"[Janaka:] 'Now, one day when I was in the sacrificial grounds, I saw the  ultimate celestial nymph, Menaka, flying through the sky, and this thought  came to me: 'If I should have a child in her, what a child that would be!'  As  I was thinking in this way, my semen fell on the ground. And afterwards, as  I  was ploughing that field, there arose out of the earth, as first fruits, my  daughter, who has celestial beauty and qualities, and can only be won by one  whose bride price is his manliness. Since she arose from the surface of the  earth, and was born from no womb, she is called Sita, the furrow.' " --  Ramayana 1:65 (Devanagari manuscript w-1455).  [O'Flaherty, Wendy D.   Textual  Sources for the Study of Hinduism.  Pub.: University of Chicago Press.  ISBN  0-226-61847-1.  p.59].
The name Sita literally means 'furrow.'  In Hinduism, Sita is the ideal  model  of behavior for women.
By the way, does Sita possess 'celestial beauty' as indicated in King  Janaka's  description above?  The demon Ravana apparently thought so and kidnapped  her;  the following is Ravana's detailed description of Sita:
"[Ravana:] 'Who are you, golden woman dressed in garments of yellow silk,  wearing a lovely lotus garland, and like a lotus pond yourself? Are you the  goddess Modesty or Fame? Are you Sri or lovely Laksmi or perhaps an apsaras,  lovely lady? Could you be Prosperity, shapely woman, or easygoing Pleasure?  …  Your hips are full and broad, your thighs smooth as an elephant's trunk. And  these, your delightful breasts, how round they are, so firm and gently  heaving; how full and lovely, smooth as two palm fruits, with their nipples  standing stiff and the rarest gems to adorn them.' " -- Ramayana 3:44:15-19.   [Pollock, Sheldon I.  The Ramayana of Valmiki: an Epic of Ancient India.  Aranyakanda (vol. 3).  Pub.: Princeton University Press.  ISBN  0-691-06660-4.   p.180].
There is no shortage of vivid descriptions of Sita's body in the Valmiki  Ramayana.  It is not only the evil Ravana, but even Sita herself has a  polluted mouth as well.  When the fictitious 'news' of Rama's death (a trick  by Ravana) reaches Sita who is held hostage in Lanka, she laments that her  body is no longer of any use because her husband has been slain; however,  Sita  also mutters about all the voluptuous features of her body:
"[Sita:] 'Those marks that are pronounced infallible by those versed in such  knowledge, on Rama being slain, are nullified in me. My hairs are fine,  equal,  and blue; my eye-brows touch each other; my hips are devoid of down and  round;  and my teeth are close. My temples, and eyes, hands, feet, ankles, and  thighs  are equal. And my fingers are furnished with round nails, and are plump and  even in the middle. And my breasts are close and firm and developed, and  have  their nipples sunk. And my navel is depressed, with high sides. And my chest  is swelling.' " -- Ramayana 6:48.  [Dutt, Manmatha Nath.  The Ramayana:  translated into English prose from the original Sanskrit of Valmiki.   Calcutta: Deva Press, 1889-94.  Vol. III.  pp.1240-1241]

Obscenity in Shiva-Linga? Know the Truth

Is Shivalinga not disgusting? Women worshipping private organ of a male kept upon private organ of female (Yoni). And putting milk on it! How vulgar!
Vulgarity lies in your mind that is desperate to project your own perverted mindset on whatever you see. Especially Hindu symbols, because bashing Hindus is more fun than playing video games.

Shiva means Kalyan (blessed happiness for all). There is no word parallel to it in world dictionary. Hindus want happiness for all. That is why they recite “Om Namah Shivaya” – I humbly surrender to the Supreme who blesses all with happiness. No other philosophy in world apart from Hinduism is rooted in seeking well-being for all without discrimination.


Linga means a sign. Streelinga means something that can be symbolized as female. It can be an actual female or a thing that can be considered as female. For example, Nadee (river), Lataa etc.
Pullinga is something that can be symbolized as male.


Shivalinga means something that can be symbolized as Shiva (something on which we can associate our emotions of seeking blessed happiness for all.)
Why male private organ as symbol?
Now what can be that symbol? In Vedas, Supreme Lord is often referred to as a pillar (Skambha) that supports all goodness. That is the link between mortality and immortality, ordinariness and greatness.
hat is why you will find pillars constructed in so many Hindu temples and architectures.
People who see male private organ in Shivalinga would see the same in every pillar, lamp-post, iron rod, saria. This is a psychiatric disorder that can be treated with high intensity electric shocks.
Additionally, Yog Sadhana also recommends practicing focus on flame. Again comes straight from Vedas.
Shivalinga is nothing but representation of that cosmic pillar on which we can concentrate (like on flame) and attribute our Shiva-emotions. That is why it is also called Jyotirlinga. Jyoti – light that takes away the darkness inside you. The path of enlightenment that leads to divine brilliance. (Adityavarnam Tamasah Parastaat – Full of light, not darkness whatsoever).

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It works phenomenally well. It has worked wonders who followed this approach to Yog Siddhi. That is why Shiva is called Source of all Yog Siddhis.
Why female private organ (Yoni) at bottom?
Again a perversion of thought. Yoni means a home. Not a house, but a home. Like your permanent address. That is why different species are called Yonis. When someone does something disgusting, we curse, “You will take birth in Suwar (pig) Yoni.” I don’t want to curse you this. But if you mock Hindus on their noble beliefs, this is what you deserve.
The Deepak is also Yoni of flame. Deepak provides the stable base on which flame burns. The cosmic pillar (stambha) also needs a solid base that is foundation. Else pillar will fall. The pillar must be powerful and be able to provide stability in most adverse situations. Without a solid foundation on earth, the dream of heavens would be nothing but hallucinations of virgins and wine in seventh sky.
That is why, we say Shiva needs foundation of Shakti (power).
Shiva is the Linga. Shakti is the Yoni.
This is the core of Shiva-Shakti relationship.
Multiple interpretations
Vedas have a basic rule: Yat Pinde Tat Brahmande (What rules apply in the system under your observation, apply elsewhere as well.)
Thus same Shiva-Shakti relationship forms foundation of every constructive (and even destructive) things happening in world. When Shiva and Shakti merge, it is construction. When they disperse, it is destruction.
This applies in all aspects of life. People created symbolic stories out of this to show its interpretations in these different aspects. The source is Vedas. Practice is in Yoga. Purans and other texts provide different types of symbolisms, allegories etc.
Shakti is female because that is what we see in world. Woman provides stability and nurture. You must have got that nurture from your mother as well. Man ventures out because he has stability. This is symbolic.
If this symbolism appeals to you, take benefit out of it. Use it to master your mind and then soul. This is what Yogis do.
If you do not find this symbolism appealing, choose something else. The Infinite God is represented through various models that have worked beautifully for many. If nothing appeals, find something of your own. If that is also impossible, enjoy your brand of communism and narcissism. But do not insult something just because you do not understand.
What about vulgar stories in Shiva Mahapuran?
What about stories in Hadiths, Quran, Old Testament etc? What about private lives of your communist legends? What about depression and frustration of your atheistic icons?
Challenge the concept of Shiva from Vedas – the source. Or what a common Hindu does? Does that offend you in any way? Does he say, “I hate those who do not put milk on my Shivalinga?” He does not even invite you and prefers to keep his beliefs private to those who respect it. Then why poke the harmless? And cry foul when he retaliates?
Shiva Mahapuran contains lots of stories symbolizing Shiva – Shakti relationship. Also historical stories. Some are good. Some are difficult to understand. Some may be later adulterations. That is why Purans say: “Accept what makes sense as per Vedas. Ignore the rest.” That is what Hindus do.
True, Hindus need to understand Shiva-Shakti Upasana better. They need to know Vedic source and strengthen their belief further. But that does not mean they are doing any crime today by not seeking your permission before celebrating Shivaratri.
What about wastage of milk over Shivalinga?
The people who talk most about it are those who drink Pepsi, wear high-end fashion, enjoy night-life, live an Aiyyash life. Even makers of “Oh My God” – preached tragedy of milk over Shivalinga. But they themselves are among most Aiyyash people of nation. If all pigerals start wearing clothes stitched by local tailor instead of Gucci and you would save more than what is wasted in milk over Shivalinga. Practice before you preach.
For devotees: Vedas have a concept of Sahasradharaa (Atharva Veda 10.10). Thousands of streams of Amrut that sustains the Skambha. Cow is considered source of this Sahasradhara as per same Mantra. The milk is poured over Shivalinga as symbolic to that. And also a commitment that we will offer our best to this Shiva-Shakti union. It also comes from basic framework of Dev-Maanav relationship (See Karmayoga chapter of Gita). Deva give us. And we return back. Shiva-Shakti give us blessings and stability. We give back our thankfulness through whatever they gave us.
The whole Shiva-Upasana fills mind with Bhakti, activates dormant aspects of personality, super-charges you and ensures you are in right path.
Shiva is also depicted as Rudra. If you try to cheat Shiva, it will come back as wrath on you. Shiva gives us Sahasradhara of happiness in life. We offer it back. Cycle continues.
You waste your money, energy, resources in Aiyashi. We utilize it in liberating ourselves from animalism and thanking Mahadev. And because we keep our minds pure in this way, we are able to generate more resources to feed the needy ones. There is no study to prove that offering milk on Shiva causes more poverty than eating beef, or wasting petrol, or wearing Gucci, or thousands of other things people do for enjoyment and status symbol.
Hindu view is that wealth is infinite. Always think of using wealth for purpose that liberates or helps others. And in process generate more wealth.

Pornography In Ramayana 
Dr. Charles claims that Ramayana contains much pornographic materials and cannot be read in public. He gives the following examples.
    Rama's description of Sita's beauty which is lewdly detailed (refer to C.R Srinivasa lyengar's translation of Aranya Kandam - Chapter 46). 
  In Kiskind Kandam, Rama explains to Lakshmana of his sexual experience with Sita. 
Brahmins as beef-eaters 
According to the Ramayana, the Aryans (Brahmins) used to drink liquor (nine different kinds), eat beef, marry many wives and prostitution was an accepted way of life amongst the priests and gods.
"Sura" means alcoholic drink. All the Aryan gods drink "sura" and hence they are called suras as against a suras wo don't drink. Ravana was an asura. Periyar E.V.Ramaswamy, a great Hindu leader of Tamil Nadu, was a worshipper of Ravan because Ravana was a Dravidian.
Ramanaya also recounts the story of king Dasaratha who, in order to have a baby son, made a big sacrifice (yagam) of sheep, cattle, horses, birds and snakes. He then delivered his three wives Kaushaliya, Sumatirai and Kaikeyi to three priests. These holy men, having fully satisfied their carnal desire, returned the ladies to the king. By this means, the king was able to have three sons-Ram, Lakshman and Bharat (Bala Kandam, Chapter 14. For more details on yagam, refer to the book "Gnana Surian", published by the kudi Arasu Press.)
Does it mean Rama was born to a Brahmin?
The Ramayana tells us much about the unlawful relationship of incest but we do not feel it appropriate or decent for ut to go in details (Please refer to Aranya Kandam, chapter 45 verses 122, 123, 124, & 125).
The following Aryan practices will reveal how immorality and indecency are sanctified in the name of Hinduism. 
Lingam and Yoni in Sanskrit means the male and female sexual organs respectively. Hindus are allowed to worship anything - including sexual organs. It is not unknown for them to name their children as Shiva Lingam (God Shiva's sexual organ) or Rama Lingam (God Rama's sexual organ), (in some places in Karnataka, the gods demand both male and females to pray naked together). 
The Devadasi system was set up, according to a Times of India report (10-11-87), as a result of conspiracy between the feudal class and the priests (Brahmins). The latter, with their ideological and religious hold over the peasants and craftsmen, devised a means that gave prostitution their religious sanction. Poor low-caste Hindu girls, initially sold at private auctions, were later "dedicated" to the temples. They were then initiated in to prostitution Even to this day this religious prostitution blessed by Hindu religion is still alive in Karnataka and Maharashtra. 
The Bharat Natyam is a dance performance which, because of the Brahmin media, has gained much recognition as a form of art. The celebrated Bharat Natya expert, Rukmini Devi, admits in National Geographic video program, that the Barahta Natayam was really the art of Devadasis (temple prostitutes) to please their audience and admirers. This is the reason why you might have seen various Baratha Natyam postures in Hindu temples. May be like the art of KARATE of the Japanese, the BHARAT NATYAM is a national art to the Brahmins and very much part of their culture. 
\Brahmins has also created Kamasutra - a set of instructions on how to have sexual intercourse. Some of the postures detailed in Kamasutra are so complex that they can only be performed with the help of one or more ASSISTANTS! 
Some Hindu temples have stone carvings of Kamasutra sexual poses and Hindus worship them. 
UNI. - TIMES OF INDIA - 10th Nov 1987: confirms that the practice of dedication young Harijan (Hindu) girls (Mahars, Mangs, Dowris and Chambhar) at childhood to a goddess, and their initiation into prostitution when they attain puberty continues to thrive in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and other parts of South India. This is largely due to social backwardness, poverty and illiteracy, according to a study by two doctors of the India Health Organization.
The report clearly indicates that the Devadasi system was the result of a conspiracy between the feudal class and the priests (Brahmins) who with their ideological and religious hold over the peasants and craftsmen, devised a practice which acquired religious sanctions. They noted in their study on - "Devadasis" - "the link between religious culture and child prostitution".
The study revealed that girls from poor Hindu families were sold after puberty at private auctions to a master who initially paid a sum of money to the families ranging from 500 to Rs. 5,000.
The study, made during health camps organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the Devadasi populated areas, revealed that the dedicated girls formed 15 percent of the total women involved in prostitution in the country, and as much as 70 percent of the prostitutes in the border districts of Karnataka and Maharashtra. 
Many of the yogis of Kashi (Banaras) lived naked and beg for their living. They live in dirty, unhygienic conditions, and drug addiction is rampant among them.
Our so-called leaders and intellectuals have all contributed to the superstitions beliefs and they have helped these saints to thrive and practice deceptive methods to cheat the public.. It is an utter shame that among the worshipers of such naked god men, there are a number of high court judges, advocates, engineer, doctors, professors, politicians, cinema actors and actersses. Even the Prime Minister & President of India.
For more details on these Hindus and yogis, watch the documentary video - 'SHOCKING ASIA" - which is available from the following addresses: 
  Atlas International Film GMBH, Munich, W. Germany. 
  Reply Video, London, G. Britain. 
  Distribution First Film Organization, Hong Kong.
Dr. H. Narasimhaiah, a devoted Hindu and a former Vice Chancellor of Bangalore University, was dismissed for waging a war against Satya Sai Baba's hypnotism advertised as godly powers. He may be contacted at the National College, Basavangudi, Bangalore - 4 (India). 
News Agency reports on 23-9-87 said that at Kurushetra (India) about 1,000 NAKED Hindu "Sadhus" (saints) plunged themselves into the river during a solar eclipse, claiming this to be a "holy dip" Over one million pilgrims, naked and semi naked, both male and female, also followed into the river. The largest of the pools is brahmasarover, and is said to accommodate 10,000 bathers at a time There was still no room for everyone in the water at one time and there was much pushing and shoving. The huge crowds waiting on the banks barely had space to turn around. People crowded the shore waiting for their chance. This is the position of "holy dip" everywhere in India. A harayana Government spokesman said that they posted 20,000 policemen to avoid misuse of this mixing opportunity for perverted reasons.
In addition to this spectacle the pilgrims also look directly at the sun with the naked eye. Scientists and doctors strongly advised against this as it is likely to cause blindness. 
According to the Hindu Holy Books, God Brahma arranged the marriage of God Shiva to goddess Paravthi When they went around the fire as per Hindu religious ritual, god Shiva looked at the thighs of goddess Parvathi and ejaculated his semen into the fire and they became Rishis (preists). According to Hindu Puranas this "god" can do such a filthy act! 
In many Hindu temples there are sculptures depicting men having sex not only with women but also cows What is the meaning of this? Is not the cow sacred? If it is, then it should be worshiped, not sexually assaulted.
Hindus born to cows? : Hindus are told by Brahmins that a cow is go-mata, meaning their mother. So Hindu is prohibited from eating beef. But in Kerala, even Hindu hotels sell beef-fry and Hindus eat it even when told it is their mother's flesh. Are not the Kerala Hindus born to cow? 
Dr. Charles claims that the Ramayana is nothing but the culture and way of life of the Aryans (Brahmins) which is still having a great impact on persent-day India. According to the Ramayana, the Aryans (Brahmins) used to drink liquor, used to eat beef, used have many wives, and prostitution was a way of life to the Rishis, priests and even the gods.
Ramayan(More about Ramayana)
We have heard about the two great oldest epics of Indian History. Ramayan And Mahabharat. Most of them may read especially Indians. Ramayan and Mahabharat is very famous epics written in olden days. Brahmins are high class people who use to learn this epics thoroughly.
Ramayan is written by Valmiki Guru.Ram is hero of the story.Sita is the heroine.Villan is Ravan the king of srilanka. As this story moves on it includes many more charaters, this is story is very interesting and has many good things to learn.These are some overview of the subject. Thats it nothing else.
Coming to main point. We have seen many proofs of dinosaurs lived thousands of years back. Till today they have find some proofs and clues. They have preserved this. Do we have proof for the Ramayan and Mahabharat???  Is this really true??? The  question arise. These question running around the scientists head. They made many research to find the proof.Spent many days , many nights were passed. They have struggled a lot . Did they succeeded???????
Hmmmm mmm yes the answer is yes they have succeeded in this mission. Some proof has been collected and this has been proved by the scientist that ramayan epic is not just the story of Rama and Sita. But its really a true story.
I have attached some of the photos where i got these photos through emails sent to me. I was really got suprised how come this happen. Its really a good to hear and we are proud to be an Indians.
The photo which i have attached is all about Ramayan. The place where sita was kept by Ravan. The bridge built by Hanuman.Just have a look at the photos.You will be surprised. They also collected the stones where hanuman used this stones to build bridge between Lanka.
Some people dont even believe this. But its true You cannot say no to satellite image which shows bridge between srilanka and India.
If you have seen this please look at this. Tell your friends to view this proof. 

दिवाली खास: … तो रावण को राम ने नहीं, लक्ष्‍मण ने मारा

दिवाली रावण को मारने के बाद राम के वनवास से अयोध्‍या लौटने की कहानी से जुड़ी है। लेकिन जैन रामायण के मुताबिक रावण का वध राम ने किया ही नहीं था।

पूजा पिल्लई
नई दिल्ली | November 10, 2015 

जैन रामायण के मुताबिक रावण का वध राम ने किया ही नहीं था।
दिवाली रावण को मारने के बाद राम के वनवास से अयोध्‍या लौटने की कहानी से जुड़ी है। लेकिन जैन रामायण के मुताबिक रावण का वध राम ने किया ही नहीं था।
एक वक्‍त की बात है। एक राजा हुआ करते थे। उनका नाम श्रेणिक था। उन्‍होंने जैन धर्म अपना लिया था। रामायण में बताई गई बातों को लेकर उनके मन में काफी शंकाएं थीं। इनके समाधान के लिए उन्‍होंने जैन गुरू गौतम को बुलाया। राजा जानना चाहते थे कि आखिर वानर जैसा जानवर समुद्र पर पुल कैसे बना सकता है और रावण जैसे शक्तिशाली राक्षस को हरा सकता है? कैसे कुंभकर्ण छह महीने तक सोया रह सकता है? और नींद भी ऐसी कैसे हो सकती है कि शरीर के ऊपर हाथी गुजर जाने, कान के पास बाजा बजाने और कानों में खौलता तेल डालने पर भी नहीं खुले? राजा को ये सब हैरान करने वाली और सच से परे बातें लगती थीं।
राजा की शंका का समाधान करने पहुंचे गुरू गौतम ने कहा कि उनका शक जायज है। ये तमाम बातें गलत हैं और बेवकूफों द्वारा फैलाई गई हैं। उन्‍होंने अपनी ओर से रामायण की कहानी शुरू की। दावा किया कि सच्‍ची कहानी यही है। उन्‍होंने बताया कि वानर असल में बंदर नहीं थे। वे देवताओं के अवतार थे। उन्‍हें विद्याधर कहा जाता था। वे किष्किंधा नगर में रहते थे। उन्‍हें वानर इसलिए कहा जाता था, क्‍योंकि वे जो ताज पहनते थे वह देखने में बंदर जैसा लगता था। इसीलिए उन्‍हें बंदर या वानर कहा गया। बंदर उस इलाके में पाया जाने वाला बहुत ही आम जानवर था।
यह कहानी विमलासुरी द्वारा लिखे गए पद्मचरितम के शुरुआती अध्‍याय में ही है। हालांकि, इसमें समय का जिक्र नहीं है। अनुमान लगाया गया है कि विमलासुरी पांचवी सदी के पहले ही रहे होंगे। जैनियों के बीच रामकथा के अनेक पारंपरिक स्रोत हैं। पद्मचरितम इनमें से एक है। यह सबसे पुराना और प्रचलित है।
बेल्जियम की घेंट यूनिवर्सिटी में पढ़ाने वाले जैन धर्म के एक्‍सपर्ट डॉ. इवा डि क्‍लार्क कहते हैं, ‘राम कथा जैनियों के बीच काफी लोकप्रिय है। पूरे भारत में जैन लेखकों ने इस बारे में दर्जनों रचनाएं लिखी हैं। ये संस्‍कृत, प्राकृत और अपभ्रंश में हैं। साथ ही, कई स्‍थानीय भाषाओं (कन्‍ननड़, गुजराती और हिंदी) में भी इन्‍हें लिखा गया है। जैनियों की कहानी की किताबों (जैसे- वृहत्कथाकोष) में भी राम कथा लिखी गई है। जैनियों का पारंपरिक इतिहास बताने वाले जैन महापुराणों में भी इस बारे में विस्‍तार से बताया गया है।’
जैन रामायण की खास बात है रावण के बारे में इसमें लिखी गई बातें। जैन विद्वान और अहमदाबाद में इंस्‍टीट्यूट ऑफ जैनोलॉजी के मैनेजिंग ट्रस्‍टी डॉ. कुमारपाल देसाई कहते हैं, ‘जैन रामायण में रावण को बड़े महान और अच्‍छे शासक के साथ-साथ विद्वान और जैन भक्‍त के रूप में चित्रित किया गया है।’ इसके मुताबिक रावण राक्षस नहीं था। हनुमान और दूसरे वानरों की तरह विद्याधर था। जैन रामायण में रावण के प्रति काफी सुहानुभूति दिखाई गई है। बस उसकी एक कमजोरी बताई गई है- लालच।
जैनियों के पारंपरिक इतिहास के मुताबिक कई शाक्‍यपुरुष और चक्रवर्ती सम्राट हुए। बलदेव, वासदुव और प्रतिवासुदेव भी इन्‍हीं में थे। राम (जिन्‍हें पद्म के रूप में भी जाना जाता है), लक्ष्‍मण और रावण क्रमश: बलदेव, वासुदेव और प्रतिवासुदेव थे। ऐसे नायक हर युग में होते हैं। वासुदेव और प्रतिवासुदेव हमेशा एक-दूसरे से लड़ते रहते थे। तो इस तरह रामायण के जैन वर्जन के मुताबिक रावण को राम ने नहीं, लक्ष्‍मण ने मारा था

रामायण का सच

इस बार आप सभी सोच रहे होंगे कि आखिर इस बार दशहरे पर भीम संघ ने कोई पोस्ट क्यों नहीं डाली। तो दोस्तों बात यह है कि हम देखना चाहते थे कि मूलनिवासी इस बार दशहरे पर क्या क्या करते है? आखिर मूलनिवासी समाज दशहरे या रामायण के बारे क्या विचार रखता है। पिछले दिनों हमने देखा लाखों मूलनिवासी रावण के अनुयायी बन गए है और कई दिनों से जय रावण जय रावण चिला रहे है। अपनी मनगढंत कहानियां बना बना कर रावण को महान और महात्मा साबित करने की पूरी कोशिश हो रही है। रावण एक महात्मा था, अपनी बहन का रक्षक था, मूलनिवासी राजा था, राम पापी था और ना जाने क्या क्या। एक ऐसी काल्पनिक घटना को सच साबित करने की कोशिश हो रही है जो ना कभी घटी और ना जिसके कोई प्रमाण मौजूद है। आखिर आप लोग बाबा साहब के बताये रास्ते पर कब चलाना शुरू करोगे? बुद्धि और तर्क का रास्ता, सचे ज्ञान और अन्धविश्वास से दूर ले जाने वाला रास्ता, हमने देखा मूलनिवासी भी आज पूरी तरह ब्राह्मणवादी होते जा रहे है। कोई भी बाबा साहब के दिखाए रास्ते पर चलने के बजाये खुद के ब्राह्मणवादी प्रभाव से बनाये रास्ते बना कर उन पर चल रहे है। आज मूलनिवासी समाज भी पूरी तरह से ब्राह्मणवाद से ग्रसित हो चूका है। सबसे बड़े ब्राह्मणवादी तो वो लोग है जो रामायण जैसी काल्पनिक कहानी को सच मान कर जय रावण जय रावण चिला रहे है। दोस्तों एक मिनट के लिए रुको अपने दिमाग को सोचने का मौका दो और सोचो, क्या आप भी रामायण के रावण को महात्मा बता कर, लोगों को उसका अनुयायी बना कर, एक तरह से ब्राह्मणवादी काल्पनिक कहानियों को सच साबित करने में ब्राह्मणों का सहयोग नहीं कर रहे हो? जो किसी भी तरह से मूलनिवासी समाज के लिए उचित नहीं है। आप लोग कहोगे कि आपके पास क्या प्रमाण है कि रामायण एक काल्पनिक कहानी है? तो दोस्तों हम आपके लिए कुछ प्रमाण भी देंगे कृपया उन प्रमाणों पर गौर करे और सही बात को समझे। ब्राह्मणवाद आप चाहे किसी भी तरह से अपना लो, उसके खलनायकों का सहयोग करो या विरोध करो दोनों प्रकार से मूलनिवासी समाज के लिए जहर के समान है जिससे मूलनिवासी समाज की मृत्यु निश्चित है।
ramayaआइये आपको बताते है कि आखिर रामायण क्या है। रामायण पुष्यमित्र शुंग के राजकबि वाल्मीकि की कल्पना से लिखी गई एक मनगढंत कहानी है। जो पुष्यमित्र शुंग को भगवान का अवतार स्थापित करने के उद्देश्य से लिखी गई थी। जिसका उद्देश्य मूलनिवासी समाज के लोगों के मन में एक बार फिर देवातावाद या अवतारवाद का डर बैठाना था। ब्राह्मणों के विष्णु भगवान और ब्राह्मणवाद का अस्तित्व भारत में बौद्ध धर्म के उदय के बाद पूरी तरह समाप्त हो चूका था। लोगों ने विष्णु को भगवान और ब्राह्मणों के अवतारवाद को मानना बंद कर दिया था। गौतम बुद्ध ने जो क्रांति की मशाल जलाई थी उसके प्रकाश के आगे ब्राह्मणवाद हर प्रकार से मूलनिवासियों को दबाने में असफल हो चूका था। लोग काल्पनिक कहानियों को मानना छोड़ कर सच, समता, न्याय और बंधुत्व के मार्ग पर चलने लगे थे। उस समय वाल्मीकि नाम के एक ब्राह्मण ने फिर से ब्राह्मणवाद को स्थापित करने और मूलनिवासियों के मन में अवतारवाद का भय बिठाने के लिए रामायण जैसी ब्राह्मणवादी और काल्पनिक कहानी को लिखा। रामायण लेखन पुष्यमित्र शुंग की एक चाल थी जिससे मूलनिवासी धर्म के नाम से डरे और ब्राह्मणवादी सामाजिक प्रणाली वर्ण व्यवस्था को अपना ले। ब्राह्मण वाल्मीकि के रामायण लिखने का प्रभाव यह हुआ कि भारत के सभी लोगों ने पुष्यमित्र शुंग को राम समझ कर भगवान मानना शुरू कर दिया और बृहदत्त जो भारत के महान मूलनिवासी बौद्ध राजा अशोक का पोता था उसको रावण समझ कर समाज पर कलंक और बुरा समझना शुरू कर दिया। पुष्यमित्र शुंग के समय से ही ब्राह्मणों ने चतुराई पूर्ण ढंग से, धर्म के नाम पर पाखंड करके और आडम्बर को बढ़ावा देकर रामायण को हमेशा सच साबित करने की कोशिश जारी रखी, मूलनिवासी समाज के अनपढ़ और भोले भाले लोग ब्राह्मणों की चतुराई को समझ नहीं सके और आज भी किसी ना किसी तरह से रामायण को सच मानते है और रामायण जैसी काल्पनिक कहानी का सही तरीके से विरोध ना करके ब्राह्मणों के दिखाए रस्ते पर चल कर किसी ना किसी तरह से रामायण को सच साबित करने में लगे हुए है।
असल इतिहास के मुताबिक़ भारत में 1000 इसवी में भारत पर बौद्ध राजा बृहदत्त शासन था और पाटलिपुत्र बृहदत्त की राजधानी थी। उस समय पुरे भारत अर्थात पाकिस्तान, भारत, बंगलादेश, चीन, भूटान, नेपाल और श्रीलंका में बौद्ध धम्म अपने चरम पर था। मूलनिवासी राजा महाराज अशोक जो गौतम बुद्ध के अनुयायी थे ने गौतम बुद्ध की शिक्षाओं के अनुसार शासन करते हुए पुरे भारत को बौद्धमय बना दिया था। लोग जातिवाद और ब्राह्मणवाद के विरोधी हो गए थे। ब्राह्मणों द्वारा बनाई वर्ण व्यवस्था को भारत के निवासियों ने नकार दिया था। सभी भारतवासी समता, समानता, न्याय और बंधुत्व के आधार पर स्थापित बौद्ध धम्म को मानने लगे थे। ब्राह्मणों के बुरे दिन शुरू हो चुके थे भारत के निवासियों ने मंदिरों में जाना बंद कर दिया था। दान, कर्मकांडों और पूजा पाठ आदि की व्यवस्था भारत से लुप्त होती जा रही थी। जिसके कारण ब्राह्मणों के भूखे मरने और मेहनत करने के दिन आने लगे थे। अर्थात ब्राह्मणों के सभी प्रकार के मुफ्त में धन और सम्मान हासिल करने की प्रथा के बंद होने के कारण ब्राह्मणों को भी मेहनत करनी पड़ रही थी। भारत के निवासी ब्राह्मणों के धर्म गर्न्थों, प्रथाओं और परम्पराओं के विरोधी हो गए थे और ब्राह्मण धर्म पूरी तरह खतरे में पड़ गया था। उस समय ब्राह्मणों ने पुरे भारत से ब्राह्मणों को बुला कर एक सभा का आयोजन किया। सभा में मूलनिवासी महाराजा बृहदत्त को मारने और भारत में फिर से ब्राह्मण धर्म को स्थपित करने की साजिश रची गई। षड्यंत्र के मुताबिक़ मूलनिवासी बौद्ध राजा बृहदत्त को मारने का कार्य पुष्यमित्र शुंग नाम के एक सैनिक को सौंपा गया जोकि महाराज बृहदत्त की सेना में एक सिपाही था। पुष्यमित्र शुंग ने योजना के मुताबिक एक दिन बृहदत्त को भरे राज दरबार में तलवार से पेट पर वार करके मार डाला और पाटलिपुत्र पर कब्ज़ा करके खुद को देश का राजा घोषित कर दिया। पाटलिपुत्र का नाम बदलकर अयोध्या रख दिया गया। जिसके प्रमाण इतिहास में आसानी से मिल जाते है, इतिहास के मुताबिक़ पाटलिपुत्र वही पर था जिसको आज अयोध्या कहा जाता है। अयोध्या का शाब्दिक अर्थ भी “बिना युद्ध के जीती गई राजधानी” ही होता है। अयोध्या को जीतने के लिए पुष्यमित्र शुंग ने कोई युद्ध नहीं किया था बल्कि षड्यंत्र से हासिल किया था। बृहदत्त की मृत्यु के बाद पुष्यमित्र शुंग ने सम्पूर्ण भारत से बौद्ध धर्म को समाप्त करने की योजना बना कर बौद्ध भिक्षुओं पर तरह तरह के अत्याचार करने शुरू कर दिए। बौद्ध भिक्षुओं के घर, मठ और रहने के स्थान जला दिए गए, बौद्ध भिक्षुओं के द्वारा स्थापित विद्यालयों को भी आग के हवाले कर दिया गया जिससे बुध भिक्षुओ द्वारा लिखी गई लाखों किताबे आग में जल कर स्वाह हो गई। लाखों बौद्ध भिक्षुओं को मौत के घाट उतार दिया गया और देश में फिर से वर्ण व्यवस्था को स्थापित किया गया। जिन मूलनिवासी लोगों ने सीधे बिना किसी विरोध के ब्राह्मणों की गुलामी और वर्ण व्यवस्था को मानना शुरू कर दिया वो लोग आज के भारत में ओबीसी के नाम से जाने जाते है। कुछ लोगों ने पुष्यमित्र का विरोध किया और नगरों से भाग कर दूर जा बसे। उन लोगों में से कुछ लोग भूख, प्यास और बदहाली की जिंदगी से परेशान होकर पुष्यमित्र शुंग की शरण में जा पहुंचे। उन्होंने भी ब्राह्मण धर्म और वर्ण व्यवस्था को स्वीकार किया जिनको आज के भारत में एसटी के नाम से जाना जाता है। लेकिन जो मूलनिवासियों का समूह ब्राह्मण धर्म और वर्ण व्यवस्था के खिलाफ नगरों से दूर रहता था उस समूह ने पुष्यमित्र शुंग के खिलाफ युद्ध शुरू कर दिया। लेकिन ओबीसी और एसटी नाम के आधे मूलनिवासी पहले ही पुष्यमित्र शुंग के साथ होने से मूलनिवासियों के उन योद्धाओं के समूह को युद्ध में हार का सामना करना पड़ा। युद्ध में हारे हुए उन योद्धाओं को आज के भारत में एससी के नाम से जाना जाता है। उसके बाद पुष्यमित्र शुंग ने अपने राजकवि वाल्मीकि को एक ऐसी कहानी लिखने का आदेश दिया जिससे पुष्यमित्र शुंग सदा के लिए इतिहास में अमर हो जाये। मूलनिवासियों के मन में सदा के लिए ब्राह्मणवाद और अवतारवाद का डर बैठ जाये, भारत में हमेशा के लिए वर्ण व्यवस्था स्थापित हो जाये। पुष्यमित्र शुंग के आदेश पर वाल्मीकि ने रामायण नामक एक काल्पनिक कहानी की रचना की और पुष्यमित्र शुंग ने ब्राह्मणों को आदेश देकर इस काल्पनिक कहानी को भारत के कोने कोने में पहुंचा कर सच साबित करने में लगा दिया। ना तो कभी रावण हुआ, ना कभी राम हुआ और ना ही रामायण जैसी कोई घटना घटी लेकिन पुष्यमित्र शुंग के षड्यंत्र में फंसे लोग आज भी रामायण को सच मानते है।
रामायण 1000 इसवी के बाद लिखी गई इस के बहुत से प्रमाण मौजूद है। उदाहरण के लिए यहाँ एक प्रमाण दिया जा रहा है जो भाषा के विकास से सम्बंधित है। विज्ञान के मुताबिक किसी भी भाषा के लिपि तक के विकास में कम से कम 800 से 1000 सालों का समय लगता है और अगले 1000 सालों में वह भाषा समाप्त भी हो जाती है। अर्थात एक भाषा की उम्र 2000 साल होती है। यह भी सर्व मान्य है कि आज से 2000 साल पहले किसी भी भाषा की कोई लिपि नहीं थी और यह बात विज्ञान ने भी प्रमाणित की है। अर्थात संस्कृत की 800 इसवी तक कोई लिपि नहीं थी। जिस भाषा की कोई लिपि ही ना हो उस में किसी भी प्रकार के साहित्य की रचना असंभव है। 800   इसवी में संस्कृत भाषा की बुनियादी लिपि बनी और उसके विकास में भी कम से कम 200 से 300 सालों का समय लगा। तो रामायण की रचना भी 1000 इसवी के बाद ही की गई है।
यहाँ एक बात और जिसको यहाँ कहना बहुत जरुरी है अगर आप रामायण, महाभारत, गीता, वेद, पुराणों आदि काल्पनिक धर्म शास्त्रों में विश्वास करते है। उन पर बहस करते है तो आप भी एक ब्राह्मणवादी हो जो काल्पनिक कहानियों के चक्कर में फंस कर किसी ना किसी प्रकार से ब्राह्मणवाद को बढावा दे रहे हो। जय रावण बोलकर हमारे समाज का उद्दार नहीं हो सकता। क्योकि इसका सीधा अर्थ है आप वाल्मीकि की काल्पनिक कहानी को सच मानते हो। अगर रामायण को सच मानते हो तो आपको उसमें दी गई शिक्षाओं और वर्ण व्यवस्था को भी सच मानना पड़ेगा। और आप एक ब्राह्मणवादी साबित हो जाओगे। हमराप सभी को सची रामायण नाम की किताब को पढ़ना चाहिए जो हाई कोर्ट द्वारा प्रमाणित किताब है। जिस से आपको रामायण की असलियत समझने में आसानी होगी। रामायण असल में एक कथा है एक कहानी है जिसके नाम पर पाखंड और आडम्बर करके ब्राह्मणों ने मूलनिवासी लोगों को गुलाम बना रखा है।
आज के बाद जय रावण नहीं सिर्फ “जय भीम। जय। मूलनिवासी।।”

13 Unfair Rules That Were Made To Torture The Women Of Ancient India In The Name Of Duty & Responsibility

  •    Mar 24, 2017
13 Unfair Rules That Were Made To Torture The Women Of Ancient India In The Name Of Duty & Responsibility

Unjust rules that women of ancient India went through
The history of Indian culture in terms of how women were treated is quite mesmerising. Rig Veda states that women of their times enjoyed a status that was at par with men. The Haritasmrti mentions a class of women called 'Brahmavadinis' who remained unmarried and spent their lives studying.
But in the post vedic society, discrimination started showing its head. Arthashastra, written by Acharya Chanakya, imposed several stigmas on women and dismissed their liberation. Women were not allowed to go anywhere without their husband's permission.
The Islamic invasion from the West worsened the situation. The intruders brought with themselves a society that bred inequality against women and the horrors of rape. Thus, instances of Sati (women would rather die than surrender themselves to rape by intruders) and Purdah system (wherein strangers could not see the face of married women) came into existence.
Sadly, as the years passed, these were converted into a tradition and forced on women. Hence, women's social standards started deteriorating in every religion. In the name duty and responsibility, they were subjected to many uncomfortable situations on a daily basis.
Can you imagine a woman standing until her man sits down, or even eating her dinner after everyone else in the family had finished theirs?

5 Controversies Around Sita That Make Ramayana A Debatable Epic

  • Mar 24, 2017
5 Controversies Around Sita That Make Ramayana A Debatable Epic

Sita in Ramayana
Sita is one of the principal characters in Ramayana, a Hindu epic named after her husband Rama. Not many people know by there are different versions of Ramayana. The first and original one is written by Sage Valmiki.
Then there is another, and more popular version of Ramayana by Goswami Tulsidas, who rewrote the epic and romanticized some portions in his own style. Many Hindus follow this Ramayana. Like the Tulsidas's version, there are more than 300 other versions of the same epic, each narrating the story of Rama, Sita and Raavan, slightly different from others. According to Valmiki Ramayan, Sita was an adopted child of King Janak. Despite being an avatar of Goddess Lakshmi, she had to spend 14-years of her life in the exile. This gave her the status of a woman who was not only loyal to her husband but also extremely patient.
The other versions of Ramayana have talked many different things about Sita from her birth to her death- raising discussion from time-to-time. Today, we are going to tell you six facts about Sita that exist in one of the versions of Ramayana, but not in the one written by Valmiki, which raise many questions.
Take a look.
  • Sita's parents
    Sita's parents
  • 3 of 6
    Draupadi or Sita?
    Draupadi or Sita?
  • 4 of 6
    Sita's birth place
    Sita's birth place
  • 5 of 6
    Sita in Ramayana
    Sita in Ramayana
  • 6 of 6
    Reincarnation legend
    Reincarnation legend

Sita was Ravana;s daughter  \In Sanghadasa's Jaina version of Ramayana and in Adbhuta Ramayana, Sita was the daughter of Ravana and Mandodari. Before her birth, astrologers had predicted their first child would become the reason of their destruction.   Hearing this, Ravana had asked his men to bury her in a distant land. She was then discovered by King Janak, who raised her as his own daughter. Draupadi or Sita?
  • Sita's birth place
    Sita's birth place
  • 5 of 6
    Sita in Ramayana
    Sita in Ramayana
  • Sita's birth place

Sita in Ramayana
Confusion over Sita;s birthplace There is dispute about Sita;s birthplace as well. While some versions suggest that she was born in Janakpur, Mithila in Southern Nepal, others say it was Sitamarhi in Bihar.Sita was Vedvati;s reincarnation It is also said that once Raavan had molested a beautiful woman Vedvati while she was under penance to be Lord Vishnu;s wife. She had cursed Raavan that she will be born again to kill him. Thus Sita was born.Reincarnation legend
  • Reincarnation legendReincarnation legend
    Reincarnation legeAs Padma;s reincarnation A similar theory is the one found in the Ananda Ramayana, where Vedavati is replaced by Padma, daughter of King Padmaksha. Once she sits in penance surrounded by fire when Ravana spots her and tries to molest her.


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