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Silvio Berlusconi: Italy's once-untouchable prime minister

  • 14 June 2016
  • From the section

Former Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi appears on Italian TV in April 2014

Image copyrightGETTY IMAGES
Image captionBerlusconi dominated Italian politics from the 1990s until 2013

Berlusconi's era

Few Italians have wielded more influence and attracted more notoriety than Silvio Berlusconi, four-time prime minister and billionaire businessman.
For years he successfully brushed off sex scandals and allegations of corruption but it was the effects of Italy's burgeoning eurozone debt crisis in 2011 that finally spelt an end to his time at the top table of politics.
The charismatic showman was replaced by a technocrat and his centre-right party split.
Worse was to come for a man whom many Italians had come to see as untouchable.
He was convicted of tax fraud in 2013 and ejected from the Italian Senate. Because of his age, a four-year jail term became a year of community service at a care home near Milan. Another conviction in 2015 and his political career was finally over.
For years his looks belied his age, with a little help from hair transplants and plastic surgery. However, after a heart attack that his doctor said could have killed him, he has had heart surgery to replace a defective valve.

From crooner to business mogul

Berlusconi, 79, remains one of Italy's richest men. He and his family have built a fortune estimated at $6.6bn (£4.6bn; €6.6bn) by US business magazine Forbes.
Born on 29 September 1936, Berlusconi lived through the war as a child. Like many Milan children, he was evacuated and lived with his mother in a village some distance from the city.
He began his career selling vacuum cleaners and built a reputation as a crooner, first in nightclubs and then on cruise ships.

"I had a repertoire of 150 different songs and I took requests from the audience," he told biographer Alan Friedman.
He graduated in law in 1961 and then set up Edilnord, a construction company, establishing himself as a residential housing developer around his native Milan.
Ten years later he launched a local cable-television outfit - Telemilano - which would grow into Italy's biggest media empire, Mediaset, controlling the country's three largest private TV stations.
His huge Fininvest holding company now has Mediaset, Italy's largest publishing house Mondadori, daily newspaper Il Giornale, AC Milan football club and dozens of other companies under its umbrella.
His children, Marina, Barbara, Pier Silvio, Eleonora and Luigi all take part in the running of his business empire.

Rise and fall of Forza Italia

In 1993, Berlusconi founded his own political party, Forza Italia (Go Italy), named after an Italian football chant.
The following year he became prime minister, heading a coalition with the right-wing National Alliance and Northern League.
Many hoped his business acumen could help revitalise Italy's economy. They longed for a break with the corruption and instability which had marred Italian politics for a decade.

But rivalries between the three coalition leaders, coupled with Berlusconi's indictment for alleged tax fraud by a Milan court, confounded those hopes and led to the collapse of the government seven months later.
He lost the 1996 election to the left-wing Romano Prodi but by 2001 he was back in power, in coalition once more with his former partners.
Having headed the longest-serving Italian government since World War Two, he was again defeated by Mr Prodi in 2006.
He returned to office in 2008 at the helm of a revamped party, renamed the People of Freedom (PDL).
His support drained away in 2011, as the country's borrowing costs rocketed at the height of the eurozone debt crisis, and he resigned after losing his parliamentary majority.

But in December 2012, his PDL withdrew its backing, forcing an early election.
In February 2013, he showed he had not lost his touch when he closed a huge gap to come within 1% of winning a general election - close enough to play a part in the governing coalition.
But after an uncomfortable period when the PDL backed Enrico Letta's government, the party split and Berlusconi relaunched it under the old name, Forza Italia. Opinion polls now place Forza Italia well behind the other big parties.

Milanese courtroom dramas

Much of Berlusconi's political career ran in tandem with a litany of legal battles. A native of Milan, he frequently complained of being victimised by its legal authorities.
In 2009, he estimated that over 20 years he had made 2,500 court appearances in 106 trials, at a legal cost of €200m.

He denied embezzlement, tax fraud and false accounting, and attempting to bribe a judge. And on numerous occasions he was acquitted, had convictions overturned or watched them expire under a statute of limitations.
But he received a setback when in 2011 the Constitutional Court struck down part of a law granting him and other senior ministers temporary immunity.
From now on it was up to individual trial judges to decide.
By the end of the year he was out of power and in October 2012 he was given four years for tax fraud and barred from public office.
But it was not until 1 August 2013 that Italy's supreme court upheld the verdict. Berlusconi declared his innocence and spoke of a "judicial coup".
Because he was over 75, he did not go to jail but did community service, working four hours a week with elderly dementia patients at a Catholic care home near Milan.
The many trials of Berlusconi

Berlusconi's women and bunga-bunga parties

Berlusconi's struggles in the political arena and the courtroom have been accompanied by a string of lascivious reports about his private life.
He met second wife Veronica Lario after she performed topless in a play.
When he was photographed at the 18th birthday party of aspiring model Noemi Letizia, she decided to divorce him and also accused him of selecting a "shamelessly trashy" list of candidates for the European parliament.

But his reputation was tarnished most by allegations of raunchy "bunga-bunga" parties at his private villa attended by showgirls. The reports culminated in a conviction of paying for sex with an underage prostitute.
An explanation of bunga bunga
In October 2010, it emerged that Silvio Berlusconi had called a police station asking for the release of a 17-year-old girl, Karima "Ruby" El Mahroug.
She was being held for theft and was also said to have attended his "bunga-bunga" parties.
In June 2013 he was found guilty of paying her for sex, and of abuse of power. The case was eventually overturned in 2014.
Berlusconi has always maintained he is "no saint" but firmly denies having ever paid for sex with a woman, saying: "I never understood where the satisfaction is when you're missing the pleasure of conquest."
His turn of phrase has always delighted like-thinkers and horrified critics. In one of his most recent examples, he said his family was so persecuted they felt "like the families of Jews... under Hitler's regime". The remark drew condemnation from Italian Jews.
In December 2009, he was assaulted in a street in Milan - hit in the face with a souvenir of Milan cathedral, by a mentally disturbed man. With a bloodied face and broken teeth, he got out of the car into which he had been bundled by security guards to show his defiance.

Robert Mugabe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Robert Mugabe
A photograph of Robert Mugabe
Mugabe on a visit to Moscow in May 2015
President of Zimbabwe
Assumed office
22 December 1987
Robert Gabriel Mugabe born 21 February 1924) is a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who has been President of Zimbabwe since 1987; he previously led Zimbabwe as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1987. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he led the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) group from 1975 to 1980 and has led its successor political party, the ZANU - Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF), since 1980.
Mugabe was born to a poor Shona family in Kutama, Southern Rhodesia. Following an education at Kutama College and the University of Fort Hare, he worked as a school teacher in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Ghana. Angered that Southern Rhodesia was a British colony governed by a white elite, Mugabe embraced Marxism and joined African nationalist protests calling for an independent black-led state. After making anti-government comments he was convicted of sedition and imprisoned between 1964 and 1974. On release he fled to Mozambique, established his leadership of ZANU, and oversaw ZANU's role in the Rhodesian Bush War, fighting Ian Smith's white-minority government. He reluctantly took part in the peace negotiations brokered by the United Kingdom that resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement. The agreement dismantled white-minority rule and resulted in the 1980 general election, at which Mugabe led ZANU-PF to victory and became Prime Minister of the newly renamed Zimbabwe. Mugabe's administration expanded healthcare and education, and—despite his Marxist rhetoric and professed desire for a socialist society—adhered largely to conservative economic policies.
Mugabe's initial calls for racial reconciliation failed to stem deteriorating race relations and growing white flight. Relations with Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) also declined, with Mugabe crushing ZAPU-linked opposition in Matabeleland during the Gukurahundi between 1982 and 1985; at least 10,000 people, mostly Ndebele civilians, were killed by Mugabe's Fifth Brigade. Pursuing decolonization, Mugabe's government emphasised the redistribution of land controlled by white farmers to landless blacks, initially on a "willing seller-willing buyer" basis. Frustrated at the slow rate of redistribution, from 2000 Mugabe encouraged the violent seizure of white-owned land. Food production was severely impacted, generating famine, international sanctions, and drastic economic decline. Opposition to Mugabe grew, particularly through the Movement for Democratic Change, although he was re-elected in 2002, 2008, and 2013 through campaigns dominated by violence, electoral fraud, and nationalistic appeals to his rural Shona voter base. Internationally, Mugabe sent troops to fight in the Second Congo War and chaired the Non-Aligned Movement (1986–89), the Organisation of African Unity (1997–98), and the African Union (2015–16).
Having dominated Zimbabwe's politics for nearly four decades, Mugabe has been a controversial and divisive figure. He has been praised as a revolutionary hero of the African liberation struggle who helped to free Zimbabwe from British colonialism, imperialism, and white-minority rule. Conversely, critics view him as a dictator responsible for economic mismanagement and widespread corruption whose regime has perpetrated anti-white racial discrimination, human rights abuses, and crimes against humanity.

Early life

Childhood: 1924–45

Robert Gabriel Mugabe was born on 21 February 1924 at the Kutama Mission village in Southern Rhodesia's Zvimba District. His father, Gabriel, was a carpenter, while his mother Bona taught Christian catechism to the village children.They had been trained in their professions by the Jesuits, the Roman Catholic apostolic order which had established the mission. Bona and Gabriel had six children: Miteri (Michael), Raphael, Robert, Dhonandhe (Donald), Sabina, and Bridgette. They belonged to the Zezuru clan, one of the smallest branches of the Shona tribe.The Jesuits were strict disciplinarians and under their influence Mugabe developed an intense self-discipline, while also becoming a devout Catholic. Mugabe excelled at school, where he was a secretive and solitary child, preferring to read alone rather than playing sport or socialising with other children. He was taunted by many of the other children, who regarded him as a coward and a mother's boy.
Circa 1930, Gabriel had an argument with one of the Jesuits, and as a result the Mugabe family were expelled from the mission village by its French leader, Father Jean-Baptiste Loubiere. They settled in a village about seven miles away, although the children were permitted to remain at the mission primary school, living with relatives in Kutama during term-time and returning to their parental home at weekends. Around the same time, Robert's older brother Raphael died, likely of diarrhoea. In early 1934, Robert's other older brother, Michael, also died, after consuming poisoned maize. Later that year, Gabriel left his family in search of employment at Bulawayo. He subsequently abandoned Bona and their six children and established a relationship with another woman, with whom he had three further offspring.
Loubiere died shortly after and was replaced by an Irishman, Father Jerome O'Hea, who welcomed the Mugabe family to return to Kutama. In contrast to the racism that permeated Southern Rhodesian society, under O'Hea's leadership the Kutama Mission preached an ethos of racial equality. O'Hea nurtured the young Mugabe; shortly before his death in 1970 he described the latter as having "an exceptional mind and an exceptional heart". As well as helping provide Mugabe with a Christian education, O'Hea taught him about the Irish War of Independence, in which Irish revolutionaries had overthrown the British imperial regime. After completing six years of elementary education, in 1941 Mugabe was offered a place on a teacher training course at Kutama College; Mugabe's mother could not afford the tuition fees, which were paid in part by his grandfather and in part by O'Hea. As part of this education, Mugabe began teaching at his old school, thus earning £2 per month, which he used to support his family. In 1944 Gabriel returned to Kutama with his three new children, but died shortly after, leaving Robert to take financial responsibility for both his three siblings and three half-siblings. Having attained a teaching diploma, Mugabe left Kutama in 1945.

Teaching career: 1945–60

Over the following years, Mugabe taught at various schools around Southern Rhodesia, among them the Dadaya Mission school in Shabani. There is no evidence that Mugabe was involved in political activity at the time, and he did not take place in the country's 1948 general strike. In 1949 he won a scholarship to study at the University of Fort Hare in South Africa's Eastern Cape. There he joined the African National Congress, and attended African nationalist meetings, where he met a number of Jewish South African communists who introduced him to Marxist ideas. He later related that despite this exposure to Marxism, his biggest influence at the time were the actions of Mahatma Gandhi during the Indian independence movement. In 1952, he left the university with a Bachelor of Arts degree in history and English literature. In later years he described his time at Fort Hare as the "turning-point" in his life.
Mugabe was inspired by the example set by Ghana's Kwame Nkrumah
Mugabe returned to Southern Rhodesia in 1952, by which time—he later related— he was "completely hostile to the [colonialist] system". Here, his first job was as a teacher at the Driefontein Roman Catholic Mission School near Umvuna. In 1953 he relocated to the Highfield Government School in Salisbury's Harare township and in 1954 to the Mambo Township Government School in Gwelo. Meanwhile, he gained a Bachelor of Education degree by correspondence from the University of South Africa, and ordered a number of Marxist tracts—among them Karl Marx's Capital and Friedrich Engels' The Condition of the Working Class in England—from a London mail-order company. Despite his growing interest in politics, he was not active in any political movement. He joined a number of inter-racial groups, such as the Capricorn Africa Society, through which he mixed with both black and white Rhodesians. Guy Clutton-Brock, who knew Mugabe through this group, later noted that he was "an extraordinary young man" who could be "a bit of a cold fish at times" but "could talk about Elvis Presley or Bing Crosby as easily as politics".
From 1955 to 1958, Mugabe lived in neighbouring Northern Rhodesia, where he worked at Chalimbana Teacher Training College in Lusaka.There he continued his education by working on a second degree by correspondence, this time a Bachelor of Administration from London University. In 1958 he moved to Ghana to work at St Mary's Teacher Training College in Takoradi. According to Mugabe, "I went [to Ghana] as an adventurist. I wanted to see what it would be like in an independent African state". Ghana had been the first African state to gain independence from European colonial powers and under the leadership of Kwame Nkrumah underwent a range of African nationalist reforms; Mugabe revelled in this environment. In tandem with his teaching, Mugabe attended the Kwame Nkrumah Ideological Institute in Winneba. Mugabe later claimed that it was in Ghana that he finally embraced Marxism. He also began a relationship with a Ghanaian woman, Sally Hayfron, who worked at the college and shared his political interests.

Muhammadu Buhari

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Muhammadu Buhari
Muhammadu Buhari in Saadabad Palace.jpg
Muhammadu Buhari in 2015
15th President of Nigeria
Assumed office
29 May 2015

Muhammadu Buhari GCFR (born 17 December 1942) is the President of Nigeria, in office since 2015. He is a retired major general in the Nigerian Army and previously served as the nation's head of state from 31 December 1983 to 27 August 1985, after taking power in a military coup d'état. The term Buharism is ascribed to the Buhari military government.
He unsuccessfully ran for the office of president in the 2003, 2007 and 2011 general elections. In December 2014, he emerged as the presidential candidate of the All Progressives Congress for the March 2015 general elections. Buhari won the election, defeating the incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan. This marked the first time in the history of Nigeria that an incumbent president lost to an opposition candidate in a general election. He was sworn in on 29 May 2015.
Buhari has stated that he takes responsibility for anything over which he presided during his military rule, and that he cannot change the past. He has described himself as a "converted democrat".

Early life

Muhammadu Buhari was born to a Fulani family on 17 December 1942, in Daura, Katsina State, to his father Adamu and mother Zulaihat. He is the twenty-third child of his father. Buhari was raised by his mother, after his father died when he was about four years old.
He attended primary school in Daura and Mai'adua before proceeding to Katsina Model School in 1953, and to Katsina Provincial Secondary School (now Government College Katsina) from 1956 to 1961.

Early military career

Buhari joined the Nigerian Army by enrolling in the Nigerian Military Training College (NMTC) in 1961. In February 1964, the college was upgraded to an officer commissioning unit of the Nigerian Army and renamed the Nigerian Defence Academy (NDA) (prior to 1964, the Nigerian government sent cadets who had completed their NMTC preliminary training to mostly Commonwealth military academies  for officer cadet training). From 1962 to 1963, Buhari underwent officer cadet training at Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot in England.
In January 1963, Buhari was commissioned a second lieutenant and appointed Platoon Commander of the Second Infantry Battalion in Abeokuta, Nigeria. From November 1963 to January 1964, Buhari attended the Platoon Commanders' Course at the Nigerian Military Training College, Kaduna. In 1964, he facilitated his military training by attending the Mechanical Transport Officer's Course at the Army Mechanical Transport School in Borden, United Kingdom.
From 1965 to 1967, Buhari served as commander of the Second Infantry Battalion and appointed brigade major, Second Sector, First Infantry Division, April 1967 to July 1967.

Northern counter-coup of 28 July 1966

In July 1966 Lieutenant Muhammadu Buhari was one of the participants in the "July Rematch" or so called "Counter-Coup", led by Lt-Col Murtala Muhammed, that overthrew and assassinated Nigeria's first self-appointed military Head of State General Aguiyi Ironsi, who had assumed leadership of the Nigerian government after a failed coup attempt on 15 January 1966, which overthrew the elected parliamentary government of Nigeria (also known as first republic). Other participants in the coup on 28 July 1966 included 2nd Lieutenant Sani Abacha, Lieutenant Ibrahim Babangida, Major Theophilus Danjuma, Lieutenant Ibrahim Bako among others. The coup was a reaction to the January coup where a group of mostly Igbo officers led by Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu overthrew the democratically elected government of Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. Many Northern soldiers were aggrieved by the murder of senior politicians, Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, northern regional premier, Ahmadu Bello, and four senior officers from northern Nigeria: Brigadier Zakariya Maimalari, Colonel Kur Mohammed, Lt-Cols Abogo Largema and James Pam The counter-coup was very bloody leading to the murder of mostly Igbo officers. Among the casualties were the first military head of state General Aguiyi Ironsi and Lt Colonel Adekunle Fajuyi, the military governor of the Western Region.

Civil war

Buhari was assigned to the 1st Division under the command of Lt. Col Mohammed Shuwa, the division had temporarily moved from Kaduna to Makurdi at the onset of the Nigerian Civil War. The 1st division was divided into sectors and then battalions with Shuwa assisted by sector commanders Martin Adamu and Sule Apollo who was later replaced by Theophilus Danjuma. Buhari's initial assignment was as Adjutant and Company Commander 2 battalion unit, Second Sector Infantry of the 1st Division. The 2 battalion was one of the units that participated in the first actions of the war, they started from Gakem near Afikpo and moved towards Ogoja with support from Gado Nasko's artillery squad. They reached and captured Ogoja within a week with the intention of advancing through the flanks to Enugu, the rebel capital. Buhari was briefly the 2 battalion's Commander and led the battalion to Afikpo to link with the 3rd Marine Commando and advance towards Enugu through Nkalagu and Abakaliki. However, before the move to Enugu, he was posted to Nsukka as Brigade Major of the 3rd Infantry Brigade under Joshua Gin who would later become battle fatigued and replaced by Isa Bukar.Buhari stayed with the infantry for a few months has the Nigerian army began to adjust tactics learnt from early battle experiences. Instead of swift advances, the new tactics involved securing and holding on to the lines of communications and using captured towns as training ground to train new recruits brought in from the army depots in Abeokuta and Zaria. In 1968, he was posted to the 4 Sector also called the Awka sector which was charged to take over the capture of Onitsha from Division 2. The sector's operations was within the Awka-Abagana-Onitsha region which was important to Biafran forces because it was a major source of food supply. It was in the sector that Buhari's group suffered a lot of casualties trying to protect food supplies route of the rebels along Oji River and Abagana.

After the war

From 1970 to 1971, Buhari was Brigade Major/Commandant, Thirty-first Infantry Brigade. He then served as the Assistant Adjutant-General, First Infantry Division Headquarters, from 1971 to 1972. He also attended the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, India, in 1973.
From 1974 to 1975 Buhari was Acting Director of Transport and Supply at the Nigerian Army Corps of Supply and Transport Headquarters.

Buhari's participation in July 1975 coup

Then Lieutenant Colonel Buhari was among a group of officers (led by Colonels Ibrahim Taiwo, Joseph Garba, Abdulahi Mohammed, Anthony Ochefu, Lieutenant Colonels Shehu Musa Yar'Adua, Ibrahim Babangida and Alfred Aduloju) who overthrew the Head of State, General Yakubu Gowon.

Governor of North Eastern State

From 1 August 1975 to 3 February 1976, General Murtala Mohammed, appointed Buhari as Governor of the North-Eastern State, to oversee social, economic and political improvements in the state. Buhari also briefly served as Governor of Borno state from 3 February 1976 to 15 March 1976.
On 3 February 1976, the North Eastern state was divided by the Military Government into Bauchi, Borno and Gongola states. In August 1991, Yobe state was created from Borno state, while Gongola state was split into two states, Taraba and Adamawa. In October 1996, Gombe State was created from Bauchi State.

Federal Commissioner for Petroleum and Natural Resources

In March 1976, the Head of State, General Olusegun Obasanjo, appointed Buhari as the Federal Commissioner (position now called Minister) for Petroleum and Natural Resources. When the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation was created in 1977,Buhari was also appointed as its Chairman, a position he held until 1978. During his tenure as Commissioner, 2.8 billion Naira allegedly went missing from the accounts of the NNPC in Midlands Bank in the United Kingdom. Former President Ibrahim Babangida allegedly accused Buhari of being responsible for this fraud.
However, in the conclusion of the Crude Oil Sales Tribunal of Inquiry headed by Justice Ayo Irikefe to investigate allegations of N2.8 billion misappropriation from the NNPC account. The tribunal found no truth in the allegations even though it noticed some lapses in the NNPC accounts.
During Buhari's tenure as the Federal Commissioner for Petroleum and Natural Resources, the government invested in pipelines and petroleum storage infrastructures. The government built about 21 petroleum storage depots all over the country from Lagos to Maidugiuri and from Calabar to Gusau; the administration constructed a pipeline network that connected Bonny terminal and the Port Harcourt refinery to the depots. Also, the administration signed the contract for the construction of a refinery in Kaduna and an oil pipeline that will connect the Escravos oil terminal to Warri Refinery and the proposed Kaduna refinery.

Back in military service

From 1978 to 1979, he was Military Secretary at the Army Headquarters and was a member of the Supreme Military Council from 1978 to 1979. From 1979 to 1980, at the rank of colonel, Buhari (class of 1980) attended the US Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in the United States, and gained a Masters Degree in Strategic Studies Upon completion of the on-campus full-time resident program lasting ten months and the two-year-long, distance learning program, the United States Army War College (USAWC) college awards its graduate officers a master's degree in Strategic Studies.
Other roles include:
  • General Officer Commanding, 4th Infantry Division, August 1980 – January 1981
  • General Officer Commanding, 2nd Mechanised Infantry Division, January 1981 – October 1981
  • General Officer Commanding, 3rd Armed Division Nigerian Army, October 1981 – December 1983

Chadian military affair

In 1983, when Chadian forces invaded Nigeria in the Borno State, Buhari used the forces under his command to chase them out of the country, crossing into Chadian territory in spite of an order given by President Shagari to withdraw. This 1983 Chadian military affair led to more than 100 victims and "prisoners of war".

December 1983 military coup

Major-General Buhari was one of the leaders of the military coup of December 1983 that overthrew the democratically elected government of President Shehu Shagari. At the time of the coup plot, Buhari was the General Officer Commanding (GOC), Third Armored Division of Jos. With the successful execution of the coup by General Buhari, Tunde Idiagbon was appointed Chief of General Staff (the de facto No. 2 in the administration). The coup ended Nigeria's short-lived Second Republic, a period of multi-party democracy started in 1979. According to The New York Times, the officers who took power argued that "a flawed democracy was worse than no democracy at all". Buhari justified the military's seizure of power by castigating the civilian government as hopelessly corrupt and promptly suspended Nigeria's 1979 Constitution. Another rationale for the coup was to correct economic decline in Nigeria. Sani Abacha in the military's first broadcast after the coup linked ' an inept and corrupt leadership' with general economic decline. In Buhari's New Year day speech, he too mentioned the corrupt class of the second republic but also as the cause of a general decline in morality in the society.

Head of state (1983–85)

The structure of the new military leadership which was also the fifth in Nigeria since independence resembled the last military regime, the Obasanjo/Yaradua administration. The new regime established a Supreme Military Council, a Federal Executive Council and a Council of States. The number of ministries was trimmed to 18 while the administration carried out a retrenchment exercise among the senior ranks of the civil service and police. It retired 17 permanent secretaries and some senior police and naval officers. In addition, the new military administration promulgated new laws to achieve its aim. These laws included the Robbery and Firearms (Special Provisions) Decree for the prosecution of armed robbery cases, the State Security (Detention of Person) Decree which gave powers to the military to detain individuals suspected of jeopardizing state security or causing economic adversity. Other decrees included the Civil Service Commission and Public Offenders Decree which constituted the legal and administrative basis to conduct a purge in the civil service.

Bali Kingdom

From Wikipedia
Bali Dwipa
The maximum extent of Balinese Kingdom of Gelgel in the mid-16th century
  • Bedulu (Warmadewa period)
  • Samprangan (Majapahit period)
  • Gelgel (Gelgel period)
  • Klungkung (Nine Kingdoms period)

The Kingdom of Bali was a series of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that once ruled some parts of the volcanic island of Bali, in Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. With a history of native Balinese kingship spanning from the early 10th to early 20th centuries, Balinese kingdoms demonstrated sophisticated Balinese court culture where native elements of spirit and ancestral reverence combined with Hindu influences – adopted from India through ancient Java intermediary – flourished, enriched and shaped the Balinese culture.
Because of its proximity and close cultural relations with the neighbouring Java island during the Indonesian Hindu-Buddhist period, the history of Bali Kingdom was often intertwined and heavily influenced by its Javanese counterparts, from Medang c. 9th century to Majapahit empire in 13th to 15th centuries. The culture, language, arts and architecture of the island was influenced by Java. Javanese influences and presences grew even stronger prompted with the fall of Majapahit empire in the late 15th century. After the empire fell to its Muslim vassal of Demak Sultanate, a number of Hindu Majapahit courtiers, nobles, priests and artisans, found refuge on the island of Bali. As a result Bali became what historian Ramesh Chandra Majumdar describes as the last stronghold of Indo-Javanese culture and civilisation. The Balinese Kingdom in subsequent centuries expanded their influence to neighbouring islands. The Balinese Kingdom of Gelgel for example extended their influences to Blambangan region in eastern end of Java, neighbouring island of Lombok, as far as western part of Sumbawa island, while Karangasem established their rule on western Lombok in later period.
Since the mid-19th century, the colonial state of Dutch East Indies began its involvements in Bali, as they launched their campaign against Balinese minor kingdoms one by one. By the early 20th century, the Dutch has completed their conquest of Bali as these minor kingdoms fell under their control, either by force resulted in Puputan fighting followed by mass ritual suicide, or surrendered graciously to the Dutch. Either way, despite some of these Balinese royal houses still survived, this events has ended a millennia of native Balinese independent kingdom, as the local government changed to Dutch colonial administration, and later to provincial government of Bali within the Republic of Indonesia.


From Wikipedia


The Meena  is a tribe found mainly in the Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh regions of India. Its name is also transliterated as Meenanda or Mina. The Meenas claim connection to the Matsya avatar of Vishnu, and the ancient Matsya Kingdom.


The word Meena is derived from Meen, the Sanskrit word for fish, and the Meenas claim a mythological descent from the Matsya avatar, or fish incarnation, of Vishnu. They also claim to be descendants of the people of the Matsya Kingdom, which flourished in the 6th century B.C. The historian Pramod Kumar notes that it is likely that the tribes living in the ancient Matsya kingdom were called Meena but it cannot be said with certainty that there is anything common between them and the modern Meenas. They are considered to be adivasi (aboriginal people).
The Meenas ruled at certain places in Rajasthan till they were overpowered by invading Rajputs. From Meenas the Bundi was captured by Rao Dewa (A.D. 1342), Dhundhar by KachhwahaRajputs and Chopoli fell to the Muslim rulers. Kota, Jhalawar, Karauli and Jalore were the other areas of earlier Meena influence where they were forced to surrender ultimately.
Nandini Sinha Kapur, a historian who has studied early India, notes that the oral traditions of the Meenas were developed from the early 19th century AD in an attempt to reconstruct their identity. She says of this process, which continued throughout the 20th century, that "The Minas try to furnish themselves a respectable present by giving themselves a glorious past". In common with the people of countries such as Finland and Scotland, the Meenas found it necessary to invent tradition through oral accounts, one of the primary uses of which is recognised by both historians and sociologists as being "social protest against injustices, exploitation and oppression, a raison d'être that helps to retrieve the image of a community." Kapur notes that the Meenas not merely lack a recorded history of their own but also have been depicted in a negative manner both by medieval Persian accounts and records of the colonial period. From medieval times through to the British Raj, references to the Meenas describe them as violent, plundering criminals and an anti-social ethnic tribal group.

British colonial period

A Meena of Jajurh
The Raj colonial administration came into existence in 1858, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 which caused the government of Britain to decide that leaving colonial administration in the hands of the East India Company was a recipe for further discontent. In an attempt to create an orderly administration through a better understanding of the populace, the Raj authorities instituted various measures of classifying the people of India. One such measure was the Criminal Tribes Act of 1871, under the provisions of which the Meenas were placed. The community remained stigmatised for many years, notably by influential officials of the Raj such as Herbert Hope Risley and Denzil Ibbetson, and were sometimes categorised as animists and as a hill tribe similar to the Bhils The Meenas remained an officially-designated criminal tribe until 1952, three years after the Act had been repealed. Mark Brown has examined the impact and issues of the Meena community during British rule and the change in their status from being a higher social group to a criminal tribe.

Recent history

Meenas have better rights for women in many respects compared to many other Hindu castes.
The Meena fall into the Scheduled Tribe category in the state of Rajasthan and the majority of them are classified as being Hindu, but in Madhya Pradesh Meena are recognised as a Scheduled Tribe only in Sironj Tehsil, Vidisha, while in the other 44 districts of the state they are categorised as Other Backward Classes. It has been proposed that the Meenas be fully recognised as a Scheduled Tribe in Madhya Pradesh. The proposal is being considered by the Government of India. In Uttar Pradesh, Meena are considered migrated from Rajasthan and have been living in western districts of MathuraSambhal and Budaun since many generations. At par their origin they are granted a Scheduled tribe status in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
In Rajasthan, the Meena caste members oppose the entry of Gurjars into Scheduled Tribe fold, fearing that their own share of Scheduled Tribe reservation benefits will be eroded.
They celebrate Meenesh Jayanti on the third day of the Chaitra month's Shukla paksha.


The Meena tribe is divided into several clans and sub-clans (adakhs), which are named after their ancestors. Some of the adakhs include Ariat, Ahari, Katara, Kalsua, Kharadi, Damore, Ghoghra, Dali, Doma, Nanama, Dadore, Manaut, Charpota, Mahinda, Rana, Damia, Dadia, Parmar, Phargi, Bamna, Khat, Hurat, Hela, Bhagora, and Wagat.
Bhil Meena is another sub-division among the Meenas. As part of a sanskritisation process, some Bhils present themselves as Meenas, who hold a higher socio-economic status compared to the Bhil tribal people.
A sub-group known as "Ujwal Meena" (also "Ujala Meena" or "Parihar Meena") seek higher status, and claim to be Rajputs, thus distinguishing themselves from the Bhil Meenas. They follow vegetarianism, unlike other Meenas whom they designated as "Mailay Meena".
Other prevalent social groupings are Zamindar Meena and the Chaukidar Meena. The Zamindar Meena, comparatively well-off, are those who surrendered to powerful Rajput invaders and settled on the lands believe to be granted by the Rajputs. Those who did not surrender to Rajput rule and kept on waging guerrilla warfare are called the Chaukidar Meena.

Meena community which has dominated in major parts of Rajasthan

Abhishek Meena
Abhishek Meena, worked at Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (2014-2018)

they were the original builders of rajasthan (bundi,aamer,jaipur,alwar & some parts of ajmer ) . after their downfall rajput kings gave them the security of  treasury. in british colonial period , "MEENA battalian" was started by british govt. due to the good physic quality of meena's ,later that battalian was known as 42nd deoli regiment. but during the mutiny in 1857 meena's fought against Britishers and rajputs so, british govt. put them into criminal tribe in rajasthan in 1911. jats and gurjars were also part of this rule but later both were removed from this rule .
during  11th century Khoh (at present kho-nagorian near jaipur) was ruled by Raja Aalan Singh meena(ralhansi,elan singh meena from chanda gotra of meena's) who was a Meena king. Meanwhile the kingdom of Gwalior (called Narwar at that time) was being ruled by Sodh Singh who was assassinated by his brother. The queen and her son (Dulha Rai or dhola rai ,grand father of bharmal) managed to flee the kingdom and were given refuge by the Aalan Singh and alan singh adopted that child as his nephew. It was her son who used the trust bestowed upon him by the king and conspired with Rajputs and attacked the fort when the Meenas were most vulnerable (during the Diwali time where they would give up arms for whole day and pay homages to their ancestors by taking dips in Badli's pond)( ancient tradition that is called pitratrapan)
Another important kingdom of Meenas was on Naen(ruled by rao bada meena) which was destroyed by Bharmal Kacchhawa(father of jodha bai) with aid from the Mughal connections. On its ruins he erected the town of Lowain.
in local language there is a famous quotation ,"RAO BADA ko bijano akbar ko darbar" it menas that the manual fans ( a hand made fan ) in his palace were considered as having worth equivalent to the whole treasury of Akbar)
akbar wants to marry shashiwadini(daughter of rao bada meena) but she refused to do so, after that akbar married with bharmal's daughter jodha bai and the combined army of akbar and bharmal won the kingdom naen and grab all treasure  and burried that under the chil ka tila (a mountain, on which jaigarh fort has been builted).

Furthermore the area of Ajmer, bundi and ruins of temples and forts in  Ramgarh,  and recounts of most prosperous kingdom of Jait singh Meena(jaita meena) who was the son  of Rao Bunda meena (builder of bundi). The modern day Bunda -ki -nal or Boondi(bundi) as we know it has derived its name from Maharaj bunda Meena. His kingdom was considered as being the most prosperous in whole Rajasthan region.  just shows how vast the rule of Meenas were prior to the advent of Mughals and Rajputs alliance (which was majorly formed by Rajputs to conquer the Meenas).
(Annals & Antiquities of Rajasthan written by Col. James Tod)
The Meenas because of their bravery and never bending attitude towards Mughals as lots of Rajputs acceded to the Mughals and let their daughters be married to Akbar became a dying race.
It was Rajputs (the word is also an invention by Kachwahas to glorify their race) who wrote the history and took the bits and pieces out which posed a challenge to their history.
The brave men of the Meena community after the British era due to their status as a warrior class was recruited in the Army and there was a separate regiment for the Meena's known as the Deoli regimen (W.Y. Carman, page 121, "Indian Army Uniforms - Infantry", Morgan-Grampian: London 1969, also see Armed Forces: Units: Indian Infantry: 42nd Deoli Regiment, Sumner, Ian (2001). The Indian Army 1914-1947. Osprey Publishing). But it was disbanded and Meenas were removed as they were constantly revolting against the British and making life miserable for them.
Since, then they were declared as a criminal tribe pursuant to the enactment of criminal tribes act of 1871 (Brown, Mark (2004). "Crime, Liberalism and Empire: Governing the Mina Tribe of Northern India").
Just imagine the pain when you are deemed criminal by birth and even a 6year old has to report to the Thanedar to move from one place to another. The community faced a lot of exploitation and it was the community's struggle against such atrocities that they were given reservations.  
after their royal era they were divided into three to four sub groups -
zamidar- thease were the ancient rulers but after war with rajputs they adopted farming as their profession.
chaukidar- they got treasury security  work under the rajputs.
pratihars- they had skills of gurrila wars so, they decided to fight against rajputs and britishers.
later british govt. had snatched  all  charges from rajputs (means during this period rajputs were the puppet of britishers) ,chaukidar meena's loose their jobs . after that they decided to do security of villages but that job is not sufficient to get their earnigs so they engaged into loot (animal stealing works).
the word rajput is not given by our history or our ancient culture, it was produced by kachchawa rajputs. the ancient kshatriya worriers were the different from these rajputs. befor rajputs, gurjars,meenas and yadavs were the ruler of this india.
and gurjar's , yadavs and meena 's were the ancient kshatriya tribe of india who lost their kingdoms.
according current researches and theories, it is said that," the whole india is came from greece and the language hindi or sanskrit was made from hebrew language.
and the word MEENA was came from the MINOA ( former greece kingdom).
and some people said that meena and mina are different , but it has no base because  the spellings in english were made by human being later not early the era of sanskrit.
the term rawat is  the award of a worrier who perform good in war so, so some rawat's are meena and some are rajputs.
pardeshi thakur community in maharastra also was the part of these meena's, they were  residents of rajasthan but later they went there to participate in wars and later they decided to live there. their gotras are the same as meena's.
the majority population of muslims is meo in rajasthan and haryana, they also were the part of meena's . they were converted by aurangjeb from hindus to muslim.
at present they wants to settle relations  with meena's but the patels of meena's (panch or mukhiya) refused to do so, because their tradition and culture is different from them (hindus).
forts built by meena's-
1.hathroi fort near jaipur
2.aamagarh fort near jaipur
3.jamwaramgarh fort near jaipur
meena's had built less forts then rajput because, forts are for the security from other invaders but, meena's were the only worrier tribe at that time but later rajputs time they were the invaders so rajput's have to built good quality forts for security from mughals, britishers and meena's.

History of Bundi
In ancient times, the area around Bundi was apparently inhabited by various local tribes, of which the Parihar Meenas were prominent. Bundi and the eponymous princely state are said to derive their names from a former Meena chief called Raja Bunda Singh Meena.[citation needed] Bundi was previously called “Bunda-Ka-Nal", Nal meaning “narrow ways”. Bundi is situated in a narrow valley within the Aravalli Hills in Rajasthan. Later the region was governed by Rao Deva Hada, who took over Bundi from Jaita Meena in 1342, renaming the surrounding area as Haravati or Haroti. For the next two centuries, the Hadas of Bundi were the vassals of the Sisodias of Mewar and ruled by the title of Rao until 1569, when Akbar conferred the title of Rao Raja upon Rao Surjan after the surrender of Ranthambore Fort and his submission. In 1707, Bahadur Shah I conferred the title of Maharao Raja upon Raja Budh Singh
Meena tribe ruled this area till 1342 CE. Later the rulers of Hadoti belonged to the Hada dynasty.[citation needed]
Rulers of Bundi:
  • Rao Deva (1342 to 1343).
  • Rao Napuji.
  • Rao Hamuli (1384 to 1400).
  • Rao Birsingh (1400 to 1415).
  • Rao Biru (1415 to 1470).
  • Rao Bandu (1470 to 1491).
  • Rao Narayan Das (1491 to 1527).
  • Rao Suraj Mal (1527 to 1531).
  • Rao Surtan Singh (1531 to 1544).
  • Rao Raja Surjan Singh (1544 to 1585).
  • Rao Raja Bhoj Singh (1585 to 1608).
  • Rao Raja Ratan Singh (1608 to 1632).
  • Rao Raja Chhattar Sal Singh (1632 to 1658).
  • Rao Raja Bhao Singh (1658 to 1682).
  • Rao Raja Anirudh Singh (1682 to 1696).
  • Maharao Raja Budh Singh (b. ... – d. 1739) (1696 to 1735).
  • Maharao Raja Dalel Singh (b. 1729 – d. 1804) (1735 to 1749).
  • Maharao Raja Umaid Singh (1749 to 1770) and again (1773 to 1804).
  • Maharao Raja Ajit Singh (b. ... – d. 1773) (1770 to 1773).

 Warmadewa dynasty

Bali has been inhabited by humans since Paleolithic times (1 my BCE to 200,000 BCE), testified by the finding of ancient tools such as hand axes in Sembiran and Trunyan villages in Bali. Followed by Mesolithic period (200.000–3,000 BCE); however the ancestors of current Balinese inhabitants reached the island around 3000 to 600 BCE during Neolithic period, characterised by rice-growing technology and speaking Austronesian languages. Bronze Age period follows, from around 600 BCE to 800 CE.

Stupika which contains Buddhist votive tablets, 8th-century Bali. The bell-shaped stupas similar to Central Javanese Buddhist art.
The historical period in Bali started c. 8th century, marked by the discovery of inscribed Buddhist votive clay tablets. These Buddhist votive tablets, found in small clay stupa figurines called "stupikas", are the first known written inscriptions in Bali and date from around the 8th century CE. Such stupikas have been found in the regency of Gianyar, in the villages of Pejeng, Tatiapi and Blahbatuh. The bell-shaped stupikas bears resemblances to the style of the 8th-century stupas of Central Javanese Buddhist art found in Borobudur and other Buddhist temples dated from that period, which suggested the Sailendra link to the Buddhist pilgrims or inhabitant of early Bali's history.

The Belanjong pillar in Sanur (914), one of the earliest inscription in Bali
In the early 10th century, Sri Kesari Warmadewa created the Belanjong pillar inscription found near the southern strip of Sanur beach. It was the oldest written inscription created by a ruler found in Bali. The pillar dated according to the Indian Saka calendar, in 836 saka (914 CE). According to the inscription, Sri Kesari was a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty that led a military expedition, to establishing a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali. Two other inscription by Kesari are known in the interior Bali, which suggest conflicts in the mountainous interior of the island. Sri Kesari is considered as the founder as the Warmadewa dynasty, the earliest known ruler of Bali, which prospered for several generations prior to Javanese expansion.
It seems that the centre of early court of Bali was first located in Sanur area east of today Denpasar city, and later the political, religious and cultural centre moved inland to the north, clustered around southern plain within today Gianyar Regency; more precisely in the old royal centre in Bedulu, near Goa Gajah and Gianyar. The stone cave temple and bathing place of Goa Gajah, near Ubud in Gianyar, was made around the same period. It shows a combination of Buddhist and Hindu Shivaite iconography. Several carvings of stupas, stupikas (small stupas), and image of Boddhisattvas suggested that Warmadewa dynasty was the patron of Mahayana Buddhism. Nevertheless, Hinduism is also practised in Bali during this period.

Javanese ties

Gunung Kawi rock-cut candi shrines demonstrate similar temple style of Java during the late Medang period.
In the second half of the 10th century, Bali was ruled by king Udayana Warmadewa and his queen, Mahendradatta, a princess of Isyana dynasty from East Java. Mahendradatta was the daughter of king Sri Makutawangsawarddhana, and sister of king Dharmawangsa of Medang Kingdom. The presence of a Javanese queen in the Balinese court suggested that either Bali had formed an alliance with East Java, or Bali was Java's vassal; their marriage was a political arrangement to seal Bali as part of East Javanese Medang realm. The royal Balinese couple was the parents of the famous king of Java, Airlangga (991–1049). Airlangga's younger brothers Marakata and later Anak Wungçu rose to the Balinese throne.
The rock-cut candi shrine of Gunung Kawi in Tampaksiring was made around the same period. It demonstrates similar temple style of Java during the late Medang period. The Warmadewa dynasty continued to rule Bali well until the 12th century with the reigns of Jayasakti (1146–50) and Jayapangus (1178–81). Contacts with imperial China were also important during this period. Chinese coins called kepeng were widely in use in the Balinese economy. In the 12th century, king Jayapangus of northern Bali is known to have married a Chinese princess, and has been immortalised through the Barong Landung artform as the effigy of the king and his Chinese consort.
After the Warmadewa dynasty, their descendant and their link to Javanese court, there was no continuous further detailed information found about the rulers of Bali. It seems that Bali had developed a new native dynasty quite independent from Java.
In the late 13th century, Bali once again appeared in Javanese source as in 1284, king Kertanegara launched a Pabali offensive expedition against Balinese rulers, which integrated Bali into the Singhasari’s realm. However, after the Jayakatwang rebellion of Gelang-gelang in 1292 that led to the death of Kertanegara and the fall of Singhasari, Java was unable to assert their rule upon Bali, and once again Balinese rulers enjoyed their independence from Java.
The Javanese contacts led to a deep impact on the language of Bali which was impacted by the Kawi language, a style of Old Javanese. The language is still used in Bali though is rare.

Majapahit period

Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.

In East Java, Majapahit under the reign of queen regnant Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi and her able and ambitious Prime Minister Gajah Mada, saw the expansion of Majapahit armada into neighbouring islands in Indonesian archipelago including nearby Bali. According to Babad Arya Tabanan manuscript, in 1342 Majapahit troops led by Gajah Mada assisted by his general Arya Damar, the regent of Palembang, landed in Bali. After seven months of battles, Majapahit forces defeated the Balinese king in Bedulu (Bedahulu) in 1343. After the conquest of Bali, Majapahit distributed the governing authority of Bali among Arya Damar's younger brothers; Arya Kenceng, Arya Kutawandira, Arya Sentong and Arya Belog. Arya Kenceng led his brothers to govern Bali under Majapahit banner, he would become the ancestor of Balinese kings of Tabanan and Badung royal houses.
Canto 14 of the Nagarakretagama, composed during the reign of Hayam Wuruk in 1365, mentioned several places in Bali; Bedahulu and Lwa Gajah (identified as Goa Gajah) as places under Majapahit dominion. The Majapahit capital in Bali was established at Samprangan and later Gelgel. Following Hayam Wuruk's death in 1389, Majapahit entered a steady period of decline with conflict over succession, among other was Paregreg war (1405 to 1406).
In 1468 Prince Kertabhumi rebelled against King Singhawikramawardhana and captured Trowulan. The usurped king moved the capital further inland to Daha (the former capital of Kadiri), effectively split Majapahit into two centres of powers; Trowulan and Daha. Singhawikramawardhana was succeeded by his son Ranawijaya in 1474, that ruled from Daha. To keep Majapahit influence and economic interest, Kertabhumi awarded Muslim merchant trading rights on the north coast of Java, an action which led to the prominence of Demak Sultanate in following decades. This policy increased Majapahit economy and influence, but weaken Hindu - Buddha's position as the main religion, as Islam began to spread faster and freely in Java. Hindu - Buddha followers' grievance later urged Ranawijaya to defeat Kertabumi.
In 1478, Ranawijaya's army under general Udara breached Trowulan defences and killed Kertabumi in his palace,Demak sent reinforcements under Sunan Ngudung, who later died in battle and was replaced by Sunan Kudus, but they came too late to save Kertabumi although they managed to repel the Ranawijaya's army. This event is mentioned in Jiwu and Petak inscription, where Ranawijaya claimed that he already defeated Kertabhumi and reunited Majapahit as one Kingdom. Ranawijaya ruled from 1474 to 1498 with the formal name Girindrawardhana, with Udara as his vice-regent. This event led to the war between Sultanate of Demak and Daha, since Demak ruler, Raden Patah, were the descendant of Kertabhumi.
In 1498, vice regent Udara usurped Girindrawardhana and the war between Demak and Daha recede. But this delicate balance end when Udara ask help to Portugal in Malacca and led Adipati Yunus of Demak to attack both Malacca and Daha. Another theory suggested that the reasons for the Demak's attacks against Majapahit was a revenge against Girindrawardhana, who had defeated Adipati Yunus' grandfather Prabu Bhre Kertabumi (Prabu Brawijaya V).The defeat of Daha under Demak marked the end of Hindu Majapahit era in Java. After the fall of the empire, many Majapahit nobles, artisans and priests took refuge either in the interior mountainous region of East Java, Blambangan in eastern end of Java, or across the narrow strait to Bali. The refugees probably fled to avoid Demak's retribution for their support for Ranawijaya against Kertabhumi.
The Javanese Majapahit empire influenced Bali both culturally and politically. The whole court of Majapahit fled to Bali following the conquest by the Muslim rulers in 1478, in effect resulting in the transfer of the whole culture. Bali was looked on as the continuation of the Hindu Javanese culture and is the major source of knowledge about it in the modern times. The incoming Javanese nobles and priests established Majapahit-style courts in Bali. The influx led to several important developments. The marriage of prominent Balinese families along with Majapahit royalty led to the foundation of upper caste lineages of Bali. Javanese ideas especially the Majapahit tradition influenced the religion and arts of the island. The Javanese language also affected the spoken Balinese language. The modern Bali architecture and temples share much in common with aesthetics and style of bas-reliefs in East Javanese temples from the Majapahit golden age.[15] Large numbers of Majapahit manuscripts, such as Nagarakretagama, Sutasoma, Pararaton and Tantu Pagelaran, were being well-kept in royal libraries of Bali and Lombok, and provides the glimpse and valuable historical records on Majapahit. As a result of the influx of the Javanese element, historian Ramesh Chandra Majumdar states that Bali "soon became the last stronghold of Indo-Javanese culture and civilisation."

Kingdom of Gelgel

The gate in Gelgel, the old royal capital of Bali.
nly a rice agriculture kingdom. The opening of a trading post was attempted in 1620 but failed due to local hostility. The VOC left the Bali trade to private traders, mainly Chinese, Arab, Bugis and occasionally Dutch, who mainly dealt with opium and slave trade.

Dewa Agung of Klungkung in 1908.
However, the Dutch slight indifference to Bali was totally changed in the 19th century, as Dutch colonial control expanded across the Indonesian archipelago and began to coveted the island. The Dutch used the pretext of eradicating opium smuggling, arms running, Balinese tawan karang tradition (plunder of shipwrecks), and slavery to impose their control on Balinese kingdoms. The Dutch East Indies army invaded northern Bali in 1846, 1848, and finally in 1849 the Dutch was able to take control of the nAccording to the Babad Dalem manuscript (composed in 18th century), the conquest of Bali by the Hindu Javanese kingdom of Majapahit was followed by the installation of a vassal dynasty in Samprangan in the present-day Gianyar regency, close to the old royal centre Bedulu. This event took place in the mid-14th century. The first Samprangan ruler Sri Aji Kresna Kepakisan sired three sons. Of these the eldest, Dalem Samprangan, succeeded to the rulership but turned out to be an incompetent ruler. His youngest brother Dalem Ketut founded a new royal seat in Gelgel while Samprangan lapsed in obscurity.
The first European contact with Bali was made in 1512, when a Portuguese expedition led by Antonio Abreu and Francisco Serrão sailed from Portuguese Malacca and reached northern coast of Bali. Bali was also mapped in 1512, in the chart of Francisco Rodrigues. In Majapahit, East Java, the fall of Daha to Demak Sultanate in 1517 has prompted the refuge of Hindu nobles, priests and artisans to Bali. In 1585, the Portuguese government in Malacca sent a ship to establish a fort and a trading post in Bali, but the mission failed as ship foundered on the reef of the Bukit peninsula.
By the 16th century, the Puri (Balinese court) of Gelgel become a powerful polity in the region. The successor of Dewa Ketut, Dalem Baturenggong, reigned in the mid-16th century. He received a Javanese Brahmin sage called Nirartha who fled from the decline of Hinduism in Java. The King become the patron of Nirartha, who carried out an extensive literary works that formed the spiritualism of Balinese Hinduism. Gelgel reached its apogee during the reign of Dalem Baturenggong, as Lombok, western Sumbawa and Blambangan on easternmost Java, were united under Gelgel's suzerainty. Gelgel's influence over the still Hindu Blambangan seems to caught the attention the Sultan of Mataram that aspired to unite the whole of Java and also to spread Islamic faith. In 1639 Mataram launched an invasion to Blambangan. Kingdom of Gelgel immediately supported Blambangan as a buffer against the Islamic expansion of Muslim Mataram. Blambangan surrendered in 1639, but quickly regained their independence and rejoined Bali soon after the Mataram troops withdrew. Mataram Sultanate itself, after the death of Sultan Agung, seems to preoccupied in their internal problems, and lost interest to continue their campaign and pursue hostilities against Blambangan and Gelgel.

The nine kingdoms of Bali

Map of Balinese nine kingdoms, circa 1900
After 1651 the Gelgel kingdom began to break up due to internal conflicts. In 1686 a new royal seat was established in Klungkung, four kilometres north of Gelgel. The rulers of Klungkung, known by the title Dewa Agung, were however unable to maintain power over Bali. The island was in fact split into nine minor kingdoms; Klungkung, Buleleng, Karangasem, Mengwi, Badung, Tabanan, Gianyar, Bangli and Jembrana. These minor kingdoms developed their own dynasty, built their own Puri (Balinese palace compound) and established their own government. Nevertheless, these nine kingdoms of Bali admitted Klungkung leadership, that the Dewa Agung kings of Klungkung are their primus inter pares among Balinese kings, and deserved the honourable titular as the king of Bali. Most of these kingdoms today formed the base and boundaries of Kabupaten (regencies) of Bali.
In following centuries, the various kingdoms would fought a succession of incessant wars among themselves, although they accorded the Dewa Agung a symbolic paramount status of Bali. This led to complicated relations amongst Balinese rulers, as there are many kings in Bali. This situation lasted until the coming of the Dutch in the 19th century.

The legend

The legend of Salar Masud and Suhaldev Rajbhar is found in the Persian language Mirat-i-Masudi. It is a historical romance, and a biography of Salar Masud, with a "gossipy feel".It was written by Abd-ur-Rahman Chishti during the reign of the Mughal emperor Jahangir (r. 1605-1627). The legend has been subsequently embellished by members of various castes and political groups (see politicization section below).
According to the legend, Suhaldev Rajbahr was the eldest son of King Mordhwaj of Shravasti. In different versions of the legends, he is known by different names, including Sakardev, Suhirdadhwaj, Suhridil, Suhridal-dhaj, Rai Suhrid Dev, Susaj, Suhardal, Sohildar, Shahardev, Sahardev, Suhar Deo, Suhaaldev, Suhildev, Suheldev and Suheldeo.
Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud (born in 1015), a nephew of Mahmud of Ghazni, invaded India at the age of 16. He crossed the Indus river, and conquered Multan, Delhi, Meerut and finally Satrikh. At Satrikh, he established his headquarters, and dispatched armies to defeat the local kings. Sayyad Saif-ud-din and Mian Rajjab were dispatched to Bahraich. The local Raja of Bahraich and other neighbouring Hindu kings formed a confederation, but an army led by Masud's father Gazi Saiyyed Salar Sahu defeated them. Nevertheless, they continued to threaten the invaders, and therefore, in 1033 CE, Masud himself arrived in Bahraich to check their advance. Masud inflicted defeat after defeat on his enemies, until the arrival of Suhaldev Rajbahr. Suhaldev's army defeated Masud's forces, and Masud was killed in a battle in 1034 CE.
Masud was buried in Bahraich, and in 1035 CE, a dargah was built to commemorate him.The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) claims that the site was once an ashram (hermitage) of the Hindu saint Balark Rishi, and was converted to a dargah by Feroze Tughlaq.
In later Hindutva-influenced versions, Suhaldev Rajbhar is characterized as a cow protector, patron of saints and benefactor of Hindus. In one of these versions, Salar Masud plans to place a herd of cows in front of his army, so that Suhaldev Rajbhar could not attack him (since cows are sacred to Hindus). Suahldev Rajbhar comes to know about this plan, and cuts the cows loose on the night before the battle.


Alexander Cunningham, based on the traditional accounts of Tharu Rajas of Gonda, came up with the following genaology of Suhaldev's family:
  1. Mayura-dhwaja or Mora-dhaj, c. 900 CE
  2. Hansa-dhwaja or Hans-dhaj, c. 925 CE
  3. Makara-dhwaja or Makar-dhaj, c. 950 CE
  4. Sudhanya-dhwaja or Sudhanwa-dhaj, c. 975 CE
  5. Suhaldev or Suhridal-dhaj, c. 1000 CE


Various caste groups have attempted to appropriate Suhaldev Rajbhar as one of their own. According to Mirat-e-Masudi, Suhaldev Rajbhar belonged to the "Bhar Tharu" community. Subsequent writers have identified his caste variously as "Bhar Rajput", Tharu, Bais Rajput, "Pandav Vanshi Tomar", Jain Rajput, Bharshiv, Tharu Kalhan, Nagavanshi Kshatriya and Visen Kshatriya.
In 1940, Guru Sahay Dikshit Dwijdeen, a local schoolteacher of Bahraich, composed a long poem Sri Suhal Bavani. Influenced by the Hindu reformist organization Arya Samaj, he projected Suhaldev Rajbhar as a Jain king and a saviour of the Hindu culture. The poem became very popular, and was regularly recited at local get-togethers. After the religion-based partition of India in 1947, the first printed version of the poem appeared in 1950. Arya Samaj, Ram Rajya Parishad and Hindu Mahasabha Sangathan promoted Suhaldev Rajbhar as a Hindu hero. In April 1950, these organizations planned a fair at the dargah of Salar Masud, to commemorate the king. Khwaja Khalil Ahmad Shah, a member of the dargah committee, appealed the district administration to ban the proposed fair, in order to avoid communal tensions. Accordingly, prohibitory orders were issued under Section 144 (unlawful assembly). A group of local Hindus organized a march against the order, and were arrested for rioting. To protest their arrest, Hindus shut down the local markets for a week and offered to be arrested in batches. The Indian National Congress leaders joined the protest, and around 2000 people went to jail before the administration relented and lifted the prohibitory orders.
Subsequently, the local Congress representative organized a rally and inaugurated the fair at Chittora. Suhaldev Smarak Samiti ("Suhaldev Monument Committee") was formed to construct a temple of Suhaldev. A princely state ruler of Prayagpur donated 500 bighas of land (including the Chittora Lake) to the Samiti. A temple of Suhaldev, with several paintings and sculptures, was constructed on this land.
During the 1950s and 1960s, the local politicians started characterizing Suhaldev Rajbhar as a Rajbhar king to influence the Rajbhar, a Dalit community and an important votebank around Bahraich. Gradually, the Rajbhar (claimed to be an offshoot of Bhars) started glorifying Suhaldev Rajbhar as a member of their own caste.Bahujan Samaj Party originally used the Suhaldev Rajbhar myth to attract Dalit voters. Later, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) also started using it to attract Dalits to their fold. Starting in the 1980s, the BJP-VHP-RSS organized fairs and nautankis to celebrate the Suhaldev Rajbhar myth, characterizing him as a Hindu Dalit who fought against a Muslim invader. Maharaja Suhaldev Sewa Samiti, an organization formed by Hindu nationalist activists in Bahraich in 2001, has been organizing various programmes to commemorate Suhaldev Rajbhar as a defender of the Hindu faith.


From Wikipedia
Mahyavanshi had successful movement in the 20th century to establish their identity as a branch of Mayavat rulers.
  • Historical revision
The new nomenclature of Mahyavanshi was given to a large number of the Mahyavanshi vankar community in South Gujarat via a Government of India circular in 1939. This was due largely to the efforts of K. M. Munshi, then Home Minister of Bombay Presidency, and Dr. Purshottam Solanki, representative of the Depressed Classes of Gujarat, who stressed that its members were descendants of ancient rulers known as Mayavats. Later, in 1968, after the Indian annexation of Daman from the Portuguese, the community in Daman were given the same status.
In the 1930s-40s, many such communities were keen to regain their Rajput status back. mahyavanshi vankar claimed to be Mahyavanshi mayawat rajput descendants status . the Mahyavanshi claim was successful in gaining official recognition from the British Raj administration. In some cases, they had a history of working as butlers for members of the various European East India Companies in Surat since probably the 17th century and their success came because they were able to mobilise public opinion and procure support for their cause from both from British and Indian leaders and through books detailing their claimed history.The sociologist A. M. Shah says that the Mahyavanshi "have an elaborate mythology, caste journals, and written "laws" to regulate the affairs of the caste".
A prominent figure in re-writing the history of the Vankars was Makanji Kuber Makwana, who wrote several works on their putative ancient history and genealogy that linked them to the Mahyavat Rajputs, a branch of the Parmara clan who had ruled in eastern Bengal. He is regarded as the spearhead of the "Mahyavat Rajput Movement", which was the name given to the campaign to "regain" their Rajput status. The books of historical research concerning the Mahayavanshi were mainly published around the first decade of 20th century. These books included Makwana's Mayavat Rajput Prakash (1908) (A Light on Mayavat Rajputs), Mayavat Rajputoday (1911) (The Rise of Mayavat Rajput) and Mahyavanshi Atle Shu? (1911) (Who is a Mahyavanshi?) as well as Phakir Jeevan Mevashi's Mayavat Ranshingu arthat Khudarano Karta.
In a 1931 lecture, Munshi stressed that the Mahyavanshi were the descendants of the Hattiavanshi king Arjuna, arguing that it was because of the slaughter of Parashurama that they had been relegated to a lower caste status.
Others involved in this affirming this identity were Garibdasji Ramdasji and other Mahants of Ramanandi sect, Phakir Jeevan Mevasi, besides several of their community leaders spread across Bombay State (present day Maharashtra and Gujarat), Sindh ( Karachi and Raban ), Portuguese India ( Nani and Moti Daman ) and also from South Africa, where their population was living in cities like Johannesburg and Pretoria, who in unison impressed upon the government for revision of their social status.


The Mahyavanshis are primarily divided into exogamous clans like Mathariya, Aatekar Pardinar, Damania, Kantharia, Barodia, Chaseia, Surti, Kosadia, Khanvanshi, Parmar, Rana, Rathod, Gohel, Solanki ,Tawdia and Vaghela.


The community members are mainly located in regions of Gujarat, other than Kutch, and in Daman. There are some in Maharashtra and Rajasthan. The population is particularly numerous in Ahmedabad, Dahod, Mumbai and Surat.

मेघों के अग्रणीय : सम्राट पुरु (पोरस) Our Great Ancestors :The Legend of History

मेघों के अग्रणीय : सम्राट पुरु (पोरस)  Our Great Ancestors :The Legend of History

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सियालकोट के प्राचीन मेघ
                (महाराजा पुरु और मेघों के सम्बन्ध का संकेत और स्पष्टीकरण पहले किया जा चुका है, उसे यहाँ दोहराना आवश्यक नहीं है। यहाँ इतना संकेत करना ही काफी है कि प्राच्य-विद्या के अनुसन्धान इतिहासवेत्ताओं ने वर्तमान मेघ जाति का निकास मद्र / मेद जाति से होना लक्षित किया है और महाराजा पुरु संज्ञात “मद्र नरेश” थे। अस्तु; वे साकल (सागल) की मेघ जाति के अग्र-पुरुष माने जाते है। महाराजा पुरु मद्र-देश के राजा थे, साकल नगर जिसकी राजधानी थी, जिसे आजकल सियालकोट से समीकृत किया जाता है। तक्षशिला उसका पड़ोसी देश था, जो मद्र की अधीनता में ही था। साकल के मद्र और तक्षशिला के टका एक ही कौम के लोग थे। प्रसिद्द इतिहास-अध्येता कर्नल अलेग्जेंडर कन्निंघम महोदय और अन्य ने वर्तमान मेग जाति को इन्हीं का वंशधर माना है। अगर आज की व्यवस्था में कहें तो वे मेघ जाति के अग्रणीय थे। महाराजा पुरु न केवल मेघ जाति के वन्दनीय है, बल्कि सम्पूर्ण भारत के लिए आदरणीय और आदर्श है। महाप्रतापी महाराजा पुरु के तेज, बल, पराक्रम और आदर्श का आज तक कोई सानी नहीं हुआ है। उनके चरित्र में जो सबसे अधिक प्रभावित करने वाला गुण था, वह था उनका अपना स्वाभिमान। उन में स्वाभिमान का गुण इतना कूट-कूट कर भरा था कि सिकंदर से बुरी तरह से हार जाने के बाद भी उनका हर रोम-रोम उस से अनुरंजित था। सिकंदर और पुरु के बीच के वे लम्हे आज भी मानवीय विजयों के इतिहास में अप्रतिम और अविघटित है। संसार में जितने भी राजा-महाराजा या श्रेष्ठ पुरुष हुए है, उन में निश्चित रूप से साधारण मनुष्यों की अपेक्षा कोई न कोई विलक्षण गुण होता ही है, परन्तु जिन में स्वाभिमान या आत्म-गौरव हो, वह सर्वोपरि है। वह दूसरों के स्वाभिमान का भी इतना ही ख्याल रखते थे, जितना कि वे अपने स्वाभिमान का ख्याल रखते थे। सम्राट पुरु के जीवन-चरित्र से स्पष्ट होता है कि उन में यह गुण एक पारमिता थी)।
                पुरु का जीवन काल- महाराजा पुरु के जन्म और जीवन काल की घटनाओं का संदेह रहित विवरण कहीं पर भी सिलसिलेवार उपलब्ध नहीं होता है, परन्तु यूनान(ग्रीस) के एक अति-उत्साही और पराक्रमी विश्व-विजेता बादशाह सिकंदर(एलेग्जेंडर) से उनके युद्ध होने की घटना निश्चित है। उसी ऐतिहासिक घटना का संधान कर हम महाराजा पुरु के जन्म और जीवन काल का ठीक-ठीक अनुमान लगा सकते है। इसके अलावा पुरु के जन्म और जीवन को जानने के स्रोत नगण्य-प्रायः है। सिकंदर का जन्म यूनान की रियासत मकदुनिया में हुआ था और उस के पिता का नाम फिलिप था। इतिहासकारों ने सिकंदर के जन्म-काल को ईस्वी सन से 356 वर्ष पूर्व निश्चित किया है। वह विश्व-विजेता बनने का स्वप्न लेकर विजय पताका फहराता हुआ सिन्धु के मुहाने पर पहुंचा था, जहाँ युद्ध में उसकी मुलाकात हमारे मद्र-नरेश महान सम्राट पुरु से हुई थी।
                महाराजा पुरु और सिकंदर महान के बीच भयंकर युद्ध हुआ था। सिकंदर ने ईस्वी पूर्व 326 के जनवरी के महीने में भारत में आक्रमण किया था। युद्ध के समय सिकंदर की आयु 29-30 साल की थी। ऐसा वर्णन है कि महाराजा पुरु ने सिकंदर से युद्ध करने हेतु पहले अपने सेनापति पुत्र को भेजा था, जो युद्ध में मारा गया। महाराजा पुरु का यह पुत्र उस समय 20-22 वर्ष का अवश्य रहा होगा। इन सब तथ्यों से यह स्पष्ट होता है कि महाराजा पुरु का जन्म सिकंदर से पूर्व हुआ था और युद्ध के समय उसकी आयु 45 वर्ष से अधिक रही होगी और सिकंदर से 15-20 वर्ष अधिक ही रही होगी। इस प्रकार की गणना से उनका जन्म ईसा पूर्व 370-380 निश्चित होना अनुमान कर सकते है।
                 महाराजा पुरु के पिता का नाम राजा चन्द्रसेन था, जो मद्र देश का सम्राट था। सम्राट चन्द्रसेन का राज्य झेलम और चेनाव नदियों के मध्यवर्ती प्रान्त में अवस्थित था और पंजाब के कई बड़े-बड़े राजा इनके आधीन थे। सिन्धु नदी से लेकर झेलम तक एक बड़ा पड़ौसी राज्य था, जिस का राजा आम्भी था। यह आम्भी राजा भी सम्राट चन्द्रसेन के आधीन ही था। मद्र-देश के उतर-पूर्व के छोटे-मोटे राजाओं के साथ ही दक्षिण कश्मीर का राजा अभिसार भी महाराजा चन्द्रसेन का सामंत था। इस से स्पष्ट है कि महाराजा चन्द्रसेन बहुत ही शक्तिशाली सम्राट था। उसने अपने शौर्य और पराक्रम से पंजाब के बहुत से राजाओं को अपने आधीन कर लिया था। महाराजा चन्द्र सेन बड़ा उदार, न्याय-प्रिय और साधु स्वाभाव का एक सर्व-गुण संपन्न सम्राट था। उनके इकलौते पुत्र पुरु में भी ये सभी गुण थे। पुरु यानि पोरस का लालन-पालन बड़े राजसी ठाठ-बाट से हुआ था। राजसी-वैभव और लाड़-प्यार के साथ ही पोरस की शिक्षा का उचित प्रबंध उस समय के प्रसिद्ध शिक्षा-संस्थान यानि कि उस समय के प्रसिद्द विश्व-विद्यालय ‘तक्षशिला’ में किया गया था। जैसा कि बताया जा चुका है तक्षशिला उस समय एक रियासत थी, जो सिन्धु नदी से लेकर झेलम तक मानी गयी है। इसी रियासत में तक्षशिला का विश्व-विद्यालय अवस्थित था। उस समय तक्षशिला शिक्षा का एक बहुत बड़ा विद्यापीठ या केंद्र था, यह बात पुरातात्विक साक्ष्यों से प्रमाणित होती है। भारत के इतिहास के उज्जवल युग को प्रारंभ करने वाले चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य ने भी यहीं विद्यार्जन किया था।
                 पोरस बचपन से ही होनहार और तिक्ष्ण-बुद्धि का था। उसने तक्षशिला में नियमानुसार सारे शास्त्रों का अध्ययन बड़ी तत्परता से किया। उसकी बुद्धि इतनी विलक्षण थी कि उसे एक बार जिस बात को बता दिया जाता वह उसके स्मृति-पटल पर सदैव के लिए अंकित हो जाती थी। कुशाग्र बुद्धि पुरु शीघ्र ही सभी विद्याओं में पारंगत हो गए। विद्याध्ययन के बाद, जैसा आजकल उपाधि-वितरण का कार्यक्रम होता है, वैसा ही तक्षशिला में भी पुरु की विद्यार्जन-अवधि समाप्त होने पर एक बहुत बड़ा आयोजन रखा गया। उस आयोजन में आस-पास के सभी राजा-महाराजा, गुरु-आचार्य आदि सब सरीक हुए। सम्राट चंद्रसेन, स्थानीय राजा आम्भी, अभिसार नरेश, आचार्य-गण और प्रमुख नागरिक उस में उपस्थित थे। इस आयोजन के बाद तक्षशिला के प्रमुख आचार्य ने पुरु को आशीर्वाद के साथ घर जाने की आज्ञा दी।
                 सम्राट चंद्रसेन इस अवसर पर तक्षशिला के राजा आम्भी के अतिथि थे। आम्भी नरेश उनकी पूरी आव-भगत में था। वह उनका और राजकुमार पुरु का हर-प्रकार से ध्यान रख रहा था। कई वर्ष पूर्व सम्राट चन्द्रसेन ने अपने दिग्विजय-प्रयाण में आम्भी नरेश को जीत लिया था। तब से तक्षशिला सम्राट चंद्रसेन के आधीन ही था। आम्भी नरेश अपनी बुरी तरह से हुई हार को भूला नहीं था। उसने हृदय से अधीनता स्वीकार नहीं की थी। अतः वह हमेशा सम्राट चंद्रसेन की अधीनता से छुटकारा पाने की उधेड़-बुन में लगा रहता था। वह अवसर की ताक में था कि कोई बहाना मिले; जिस से वह अधीनता से छुटकारा पा सके, परन्तु उसे कभी कोई ऐसा अवसर मिला ही नहीं। आम्भी नरेश आस-पास के राजाओं से भी समर्थन चाहता था। वह किसी ऐसे राजा को अपने साथ मिलाना चाहता था, जो उसी की तरह मन से सम्राट चंद्रसेन के विरुद्ध हो, परन्तु सम्राट चंद्रसेन के पराक्रम का ध्यान आते ही कोई भी राजा आम्भी के साथ आने का साहस नहीं करता था।
                 आम्भी नरेश ने भ्रमण के दौरान अभिसार नरेश से गुप्त बात-चीत की कि सम्राट चंद्रसेन अब वृद्ध हो गए है। अब उसे उनके बहुत लम्बे समय तक जीने की आशा नहीं है..... उनके जीवनकाल में वह उनका सामंत बना रहा, परन्तु अब वह उसके उतराधिकारी पुरु का सामंत बने हुए नहीं रहना चाहता है.... और यह उचित समय है कि विद्रोह करके आजाद हो जाये।... उसने अभिसार नरेश को अपने साथ मिलाने की बहुत कोशिश की और सम्राट चंद्रसेन के विरुद्ध हर प्रकार का जहर उगला, परन्तु अभिसार नरेश उसकी योजना से सहमत नहीं हुआ। आम्भी नरेश ने फिर कहा कि जो भी हो सम्राट चंद्रसेन की मृत्यु के बाद तो वह पुरु को सम्राट नहीं मानेगा और चंद्रसेन के मरने पर वह पुरु से युद्ध करेगा और मद्र देश का वह सम्राट बनेगा। अभिसार नरेश ने इस योजना में भी अपनी असमर्थता जाहिर की। अम्भी नरेश वीर था और राजनीती के सभी दांव-पेच जानता था। उसने कूटनीति अपनाते हुए अभिसार नरेश से अपनी पुत्री उर्वशी का विवाह कर देने का वचन दिया तो अभिसार नरेश भी चंद्रसेन के विरुद्ध युद्ध करने हेतु कटिबद्ध हो गया। इस प्रकार से उसे एक सहायक राजा का साथ मिल चुका था। अब वह किसी उचित अवसर की तलाश में था।
                 उधर युवराज पुरु सम-व्यस्क दोस्तों के साथ तक्षशिला के घने जंगल में राज-कर्मचारियों के साथ शिकार खेलने के लिए निकल पड़े। बहुत वर्षों से उन्होंने धनुर्विद्या का उपयोग नहीं किया था। विद्यार्जन के समय कभी भी ऐसा अवसर नहीं आया था कि वह इस में निरंतरता रख सके। आज वह उन्मुक्त हो अपनी उसी विद्या को परखना भी चाह रहा था।.... जंगल में इधर से उधर भटकते हुए अचानक उसे एक शेर की दहाड़ सुनाई दी। यह एक खूंखार शेर था। राजा आम्भी ने इस शेर को मारने के लिए कई जतन किये थे, परन्तु उसे कभी सफलता नहीं मिली थी। यह शेर कभी भी पकड़ में नहीं आया था। राजकुमार पुरु सचेत हो गया। जंगल में हरिन दौड़े जा रहे थे, शेर उनके पीछे था। अचानक वह दुर्दांत शेर राजकुमार पुरु के सामने आ झपटा। क्रुद्ध हुए उस आक्रमणकारी शेर पर राजकुमार पुरु ने तीर चलाया। निशाना ठीक से नहीं लगा, शेर और क्रुद्ध हो गया और राजकुमार पर टूट पड़ा। राजकुमार ने म्यान से अपनी तलवार को निकाला और बड़ी कुशलता से शेर पर वार किया। शेर घायल होकर वहीँ गिर गया। सभी साथियों ने पुरु को घेर लिया। उसकी बहादुरी की प्रशंसा होने लगी। राजकुमार भी अपनी विजय पर पुलकित था। घने जंगल में राजकुमार पुरु की अकेले की यह पहली विजय थी। सभी मित्र-गण विजय-भाव के साथ प्रसन्नतापूर्वक घर की ओर लौट पड़े।
                 जब वे रास्ते में लौट रहे थे तो उन्हें एक स्त्री के क्रंदन के स्वर सुनाई दिए। जिधर से आवाज आ रही थी, घोड़े को उधर मोड़ दिया। एक रथ पर एक दुराचारी रियासत की किसी स्त्री को जबरदस्ती ले जा रहा था। राजकुमार पुरु ने उसे पहचान लिया। वह राजा आम्भी का भाई कर्ण था। कर्ण बड़ा दुराचारी और निर्दयी था। रियासत में जिस किसी की सुन्दर बहू-बेटियों को देखता उसको वह अपने भोग की वस्तु बना कर छोड़ देता। कई बालायें उसके बलात्कार की शिकार हो चुकी थी। राजा आम्भी भी उससे परेशां था परन्तु कर्ण की दुर्दांतता के आगे वह भी निस्सहाय था। राजकुमार पुरु ने अपने घोड़े को रथ के आगे ले जाकर कर्ण को रोका और कर्ण को कहा- ‘कर्ण! तुम राजकुमार हो, तुम्हे ऐसा कर्म करते हुए शर्म नहीं आती?’
                 कर्ण भला किसकी सुन ने वाला था। उस ने आज तक किसी की नहीं सुनी थी। वह आपे से बाहर हो गया और राजकुमार पुरु पर बिफर पड़ा। वह वाकयुद्ध करने लगा। पुरु उसे शांति से समझा रहा था, लेकिन कर्ण को वह सब अंगारों की तरह लग रहा था। किसी ने पहली बार उस के काम में इस तरह से दखल देने की कोशिश की थी। वह और कुछ नहीं सुनना चाहता था। उसने झट से तलवार निकाली और पुरु पर वार कर दिया। पुरु यह नहीं समझा था कि यह घटना इतनी सीमा तक पहुँच जाएगी, उसने संभल कर वार को टाला। कर्ण ताबड़-तोड़ वार करने लगा। दोनों में तलवारें चलने लगी। आमोद-प्रमोद और व्यसन में डूबा मदहोश कर्ण निष्णात पुरु के आगे कब तक टिकता। राजकुमार पुरु की तलवार से एक घाव उसकी छाती पर हो गया, वह घाव ऐसा गहरा था कि कर्ण की छाती से रुधिर के फव्वारे फूट पड़े। तड़फते हुए कर्ण के पंख-पंखेरू वहीँ उड़ गए। पुरु यह सब कुछ नहीं चाहता था, परन्तु हालात की नजाकत ने उसे इस परिस्थिति में झोंक दिया था। वह इस अप्रिय घटना से बड़ा दुखी हुआ। वह नहीं चाहता था कि आम्भी नरेश का कुछ बिगाड़ हो, परन्तु जो होना था वह हो चुका था।
                 सभी सहचर व अनुचर स्तब्ध और विक्षुब्ध थे। भयभीत हुई वह स्त्री वहीँ दुबकी हुई थी। पुरु ने उस स्त्री की ओर मुखातिब होकर उसे अपने विश्वस्त अनुचर के साथ घर छोड़ने का आग्रह किया।.... उस स्त्री ने विपत्ति से बचाए जाने पर शुक्रिया अदा किया और स्वयं ही घर चले जाने का बोला।..... इस अप्रत्याशित घटना पर सभी पश्चाताप कर ही रहे थे कि आम्भी नरेश का सेनापति वहां आ पहुंचा।.... सेनापति बोला- ‘राज-दंड के नियमानुसार नर-हत्या के अपराध में आपको मैं बंदी बनाता हूँ।’ पुरु ने सहर्ष इस बात को स्वीकार करते हुए बोला- ‘न्याय के सम्मुख  राजा और रंक सभी एक सामान है’....  ‘वह सहर्ष अपने को सौंपता है।’...... राजकुमार पुरु के दोस्तों को यह सब-कुछ अच्छा नहीं लग रहा था, परन्तु वे इस में कुछ नहीं कर पाए। सेनापति ने पुरु को बंदी बना दिया और अपने साथ ले गया। पुरु के साथी भी पीछे-पीछे चल पड़े।
                 जिस स्त्री के कारण राजकुमार विपत्ति में पड़ा था, वह स्त्री भी घर न जा सकी और बंदी पुरु के पीछे-पीछे चल पड़ी। उस स्त्री का नाम चंद्रभागा था .......।

                 तक्षशिला के राज-भवन में आम्भी और अभिसार के साथ सम्राट चंद्रसेन बात-चीत कर रहे थे।.......सम्राट को समाचार मिला कि राजकुमार पुरु ने शिकार में एक भयंकर शेर को मारा है। सम्राट चंद्रसेन अपने पुत्र की वीरता से महत्तिभूत गौरवान्वित हो रहे थे। एक पिता के लिए पुत्र की वीरता और कामयाबी से बढ़कर कोई सुख नहीं होता है। सम्राट चंद्रसेन आनंद-सागर में गोते खा रहे थे तो उधर आम्भी के सीने पर सांप लौट रहे थे। वह इर्ष्या और द्वेष में जला जा रहा था। बातों-बातों में काफी समय निकल चुका था।.... अब सम्राट चंद्रसेन को चिंता होने लगी कि राजकुमार को आखेट में गए हुए काफी समय हो चुका था, उसे अब तक आ जाना चाहिए था।.... वे अपनी चिंता को नहीं रोक सके और चिंतातुर स्वर में आम्भी से बोले- ‘पुरु को शिकार के लिए गए हुए काफी समय हो गया है, उसे अभी तक वापस आ जाना चाहिए... वह अभी तक लौटा नहीं है।’
                 इतने में ही सेनापति ने बंदी राजकुमार पुरु के साथ प्रवेश करते हुए बोला- ‘राजकुमार पुरु कर्ण का हत्यारा है।......’  सम्राट चंद्रसेन अवाक् हो रह गए...... घटनाक्रम एकदम बदल गया।....... सम्राट चंद्रसेन और राजा आम्भी के बीच तकरार हुई।....... हालाँकि आम्भी कर्ण के अत्याचारों से तंग आ चुका था और उसका भी अंत चाहता था, परन्तु अब जब राजकुमार पुरु के हाथों उसका वध हो गया तो वह सब भूलकर अपने भ्रातृत्व की ममता को लेकर सम्राट चंद्रसेन और राजकुमार पुरु पर हावी हो गया। उसे सम्राट चंद्रसेन को कैद करने का एक मौका मिल गया। वह तो कभी से ही ऐसे मौके की तलाश में ही था, अब वह इस स्वर्णिम मौके को किसी भी प्रकार की अनुनय-विनती से या नीति-अनीति से कैसे भी गंवाना नहीं चाहता था। सम्राट चंद्रसेन को भी नजर-बंद कर लिया गया। राजा आम्भी ने उसी समय न्याय का फरमान जारी किया कि कर्ण के वध के बदले कल सवेरे पुरु को फांसी दे दी जाय।
                 सम्राट चंद्रसेन अवाक् थे। वे चारों ओर से घिरे थे। उन्होंने आम्भी को समझाया, धमकाया, डराया पर आम्भी सब कुछ परिस्थितियों को अपने अनुकूल समझ कर उन्हें जलील करता रहा। सम्राट ने अभिसार को इस अवसर पर हस्तक्षेप करने का कहा, परन्तु राजा अभिसार हृदय से राजा आम्भी के साथ मिला हुआ था, इसलिए उसने कोई हस्तक्षेप नहीं किया। आम्भी ने सम्राट चंद्रसेन को नजर-बंद और पुरु को कारागार में बंद करवा दिया। पिता और पुत्र दोनों कैदी हो गए। जीवन और मरण के बीच एक रात थी और वह भी त्वरित गति से बीतती जा रही थी। राजा आम्भी और अभिसार दोनों को अब किसी बात का डर नहीं था.....।
                 उधर राजा आम्भी की पुत्री राजकुमारी उर्वशी यह सब जानकर बड़ी उद्विग्न थी। वह राजकुमार पुरु को हृदय से चाहती थी। उसकी पीड़ा का आज कोई पैमाना नहीं था। बीता हुआ कल उसकी आँखों के सामने घूम रहा था। यह कल ही की तो बात थी, जब वह अपने पिता महाराजा आम्भी के साथ तक्षशिला विश्व-विद्यालय के दीक्षांत समारोह में गयी थी और राजकुमार पुरु को पहली बार जी-भर के देखा था। वह उसके शरीर-सौष्ठव, रूप-सौन्दर्य, प्रत्युत्पन्न-मति, कान्ति और ओज से प्रभावित हुए बिना नहीं रह सकी थी और जिस क्षण उसने राजकुमार को देखा उसी दिन क्षण मन ही मन वह अपने आपको उसे समर्पित कर चुकी थी। वह उस से विवाह करने का ठान चुकी थी। परन्तु दुर्योग से उसके इस सुंदर सपने को ग्रास लग चुका था। कर्ण की हत्या से पुरु को फांसी का दंड होने के कारण उर्वशी की आशाओं पर पानी फिर गया था।
                 वह विचारों में खो गयी। प्रेम प्राणी को पागल बना देता है, वह किस किनारे डूब जाये और किस किनारे बह जाये, कोई कुछ नहीं जता सकता है। विचार सागर में डूबी हुई उर्वशी अपने आप को भूल चुकी थी। उसका मन और मष्तिष्क शांत नहीं था। एक से बढ़कर एक आवेश उसे लपेटे जा रहे थे। वह किसी भी हद तक जाकर पुरु को फांसी से बचाना चाहती थी और सदा-सदा के लिए उसकी होना चाहती थी। भयानक सपनों के जंजाल में खोयी हुई वह अपने पर्यंक पर निढाल हो गयी। इतने में उसे महाराजा आम्भी के मधुर शब्दों ने सचेत कर दिया। आम्भी बोले-  ‘पुत्री, उर्वशी! अभिसार नरेश के साथ मैंने तुम्हारा विवाह करना निश्चित कर लिया है......।’ उर्वशी को ऐसे लगा जैसे कोई उसके कलेजे पर करोत चला रहा हो। वह कुछ नहीं बोली। राजा बोलता जा रहा था। वह बोला- ‘.......मुझे हर-प्रकार से वह तुम्हारे योग्य प्रतीत होते है।’..... वह क्या बोलती। उसका पुरु से एक तरफ़ा प्यार था और वह भी कैद हो चुका था। उसके जीवन के बचे रहने की कोई मद्धिम सी भी आशा की किरण शेष नहीं थी। वह यह सब अपने पिता को बता भी नहीं सकती थी। उसने अपने को सँभालते हुए बोला- ‘..... पिताजी, आप मेरे विवाह की चिंता नहीं करें, मैं विवाह नहीं करना चाहती हूँ।’ पिता ने उसको बातों ही बातों में समझाने की कोशिश की, परन्तु वह हाँ नहीं कह सकी। काफी देर तक पिता-पुत्री के बीच बातें होती रही। आखिर आम्भी क्रोधित होते हुए उर्वशी के कमरे से बाहर चले गए।
                 राजा आम्भी के जाने के बाद उर्वशी और ज्यादा उद्विग्न हो गयी। वह किसी भी कीमत पर राजकुमार पुरु को आज़ाद कराना चाहती थी। विचारों के जंजाल में न तो उसे कोई राह सूझ रही थी और न ही नींद आ रही थी। महाराजा आम्भी अपने शयन-कक्ष में जाकर सो चुके थे। उर्वशी अपने कक्ष से बाहर आई और जहाँ सम्राट चंद्रसेन नजरबंद थे, वहां उनके पास गयी। सम्राट चंद्रसेन पुत्र की सजा सुनकर असह्य वेदना में अर्धमूर्च्छित अवस्थापन्न प्रलाप कर रहे थे। उर्वशी ने उन्हें सचेत करने की असफल कोशिश की.....। सम्राट होश में नहीं आ सके अँधेरी निष्ठुर रात में उनके प्राण-पंखेरू उड़ गए। उसकी आँखों के सामने सम्राट चंद्रसेन के जीवन की बुझती लौह ने उसे डर के साथ-साथ साहस की बहुत बड़ी पतवार सौंप दी। उसे अब अपनी मृत्यु से भी भय नहीं रहा और उसने ठान ली कि वह किसी भी तरह से कारागाह की चाबियाँ प्राप्त कर राजकुमार को आज़ाद करा लेगी।
                 सम्राट चंद्रसेन के पार्थिव शरीर को वहीँ छोड़कर वह वापस महल में आई। चारों तरफ इधर-उधर देखकर वह चतुराई से पिता के कक्ष में प्रविष्ट हुई। राजा आम्भी निसंग हो सो रहे थे। कारागाह की चाबियां उनकी जेब में रखी थी और राजकीय मोहर भी उसे वहीँ मिल गयी। एक कागज पर मोहर लगाकर उसने कारागाह के अध्यक्ष को लिखा, कि पुरु को इसी समय मुक्त कर दिया जाय तथा एक सैनिक को उनकी राजधानी तक छोड़ने का प्रबंध कर दिया जाय। उर्वशी ने स्वयं सैनिक का वेश धारण किया और महल का दरवाजा बंद करके कारागार पहुँच गयी। करागाराध्यक्ष को मुक्त करने वाला पत्र दिया। कारगाराध्यक्ष को संदेह करने का कोई कारण नहीं दिखा।
                  राजकुमार पुरु के जीवन की यह काली रात उर्वशी के लेख से ही धवल चांदनी में बदलने वाली थी, परन्तु उसे इस बात का तनिक भी आभाष नहीं था। वह तो कल सुबह आने वाले मौत के क्षण के बारे में शोकाकुल था। भयानक कल्पना के भंवर जाल ने उसे जकड़ रखा था। नींद का दूर-दूर तक कोई वास्ता नहीं था। इतने में कारागाराध्यक्ष पहुंचा और उसने उसे राजा द्वारा मुक्त करने का फरमान सुनाते हुए मुक्त कर दिया। राजकुमार पुरु के आश्चर्य का कोई ठिकाना नहीं था। उसे सैनिक वेश में साथ चल रही उर्वशी के साथ ही मद्र देश की राजधानी जाना था। अस्तबल से दो घोड़े लिए गए और दोनों उस पर बैठकर बाहर निकल गए। थोड़ी दूर जाने के बाद उर्वशी ने पुरु को अपने सैनिक होने का राज बताते हुए बोला कि आप मेरे पहने हुए सैनिक के कपडे पहन ले और यह मेरा घोडा ‘रत्न’ ले ले। इस पर बैठकर जितना जल्दी हो सके अभी राज्य से बाहर अपने राज्य की सीमा में चले जाये। पुरु ने वैसा ही किया। उर्वशी को अपने किये पर संतोष हो रहा था। वह चुपचाप वापस आकार अपने महल के शयनागार में सो गयी।
                 सुबह का सूर्योदय होते ही राजा आम्भी अपना मनोरथ पूरा करने के लिए मंत्री से मंत्रणा कर रहा था। उसने कई देशों के राजाओं को पत्र लिखाये कि वह मद्र देश का राजा है।.... वह इसी मनोरथ पूर्ति में लगा हुआ था कि सेनापति ने आकर राजा को बताया कि पुरु को तो रात में ही कारागार से मुक्त कर दिया गया। राजा भौचक्का रह गया..... जब कारागार के प्रमुख ने राजाज्ञा का पत्र दिखाया तो राजा अवाक् रह गया। वह उस पत्र की हस्तलिपि को देखते ही पहचान गया। वह हस्तलिपि उर्वशी की ही थी। शिकार हाथ से निकल चुका था। अब राजा आम्भी के गुस्से का कोई आर था न पार, वह तत्क्षण आग अबुला होते हुए हाथ में खड़ग ले उर्वशी को मारने के लिए उर्वशी के महल में गया। उर्वशी अपने कमरे में ही थी। क्रोध के आवेश में राजा उर्वशी की छाती पर कटार मारने को उद्ध्यत हुआ, परन्तु उर्मिला मुंह नीचे किये पत्थर की मूर्ति की तरह मौन खडी थी, मानो वह इसी का इंतजार कर रही थी।
                 अचानक आम्भी ने कटार को फेंक दिया।......उर्वशी अचंभित हुई। वह लज्जा में सिर झुकाए क्षमा याचना करने लगी। पिता ने उसे भला-बुरा कहना शुरू किया परन्तु सब व्यर्थ उर्वशी निःशब्द बुत बनी रही। अब क्या हो सकता था। तक्षशिला और साकल का युद्ध अब अवश्यम्भावी था। आम्भी वापस अपने महल में गया... उर्मिला अपने महल में भविष्य को निहार रही थी। उधर राजकुमार पुरु अपने देश पहुँच चुका था।
                 पुरु ने बिना समय गंवाए उसी समय सेना को एकत्रित किया और पिता को आज़ाद कराने के लिए लश्कर के साथ तक्षशिला की ओर कूच किया। जब वह आधे रास्ते पहुँचा तो उसे समाचार मिला कि उसके पिता सम्राट चंद्रसेन के प्राण-पंखेरू उड़ चुके है और आम्भी राजा युद्ध करना चाहता है। सम्राट चंद्रसेन और राजकुमार पुरु दुर्योग से ही आम्भी के चंगुल में फंसे थे अन्यथा आम्भी की इतनी हिम्मत नहीं थी कि वह उनके सामने जबान भी खोले। यह एक अप्रत्याशित युद्ध की वेला थी।
                दोनों देशों की सेनायें आमने सामने थी। उन में भयंकर युद्ध हुआ। आम्भी की सेना पराजित हुई। आम्भी को बंदी बना दिया गया। आम्भी का जीवन अब पुरु की दया पर निर्भर था। इस समय अगर पुरु चाहता तो आम्भी को मार डालता, परन्तु पुरु उदार हृदय था। उसने आम्भी को छोड़ दिया और उसका राज्य भी उसे वापस कर दिया। आम्भी-नरेश का हृदय ग्लानी से भर आया। युद्ध समाप्त हुआ।.... पुरु अपने पिता की मृत-देह ले विजय के साथ साकल आ गया। वह मद्र-देश का राज-काज सँभालने लगा।
                चंद्रभागा के कारण ही पुरु विपत्ति में पड़ा था, इसलिए जब पुरु बंदी था तो चंद्रभागा कारागार के सामने ही बैठ गयी थी। बाद की घटनाओं ने उर्वशी और चंद्रभागा को मिला दिया। उर्वशी ने चंद्रभागा का विद्यापीठ में प्रबंध करवा दिया। उर्वशी मन से पुरु को चाहती थी। एक दिन उर्वशी ने पुरु से विवाह करने का प्रस्ताव अपने पिता से छेड़ दिया। आम्भी यद्यपि पुरु के आधीन था, परन्तु वह उसे शत्रु ही समझता था। वह किसी भी कारण से ऐसा नहीं होने देना चाहता था और उर्वशी अभिसार के प्रस्ताव को तो पहले ही मना कर चुकी थी। राजा आम्भी और सम्राट पुरु की दुश्मनी जग-जाहिर हो चुकी थी। तक्षशिला के गण-मान्यों और विद्यापीठ के आचार्यों ने भी पुरु और आम्भी के आपसी विरोध को ख़त्म करने के लिए उर्वशी का विवाह पुरु से करने की सलाह आम्भी को दी; परन्तु आम्भी इसे विचार करने योग्य तक नहीं मानता था। उर्वशी अपने पिता के विरुद्ध भी नहीं जाना चाहती थी। उसने आजन्म कुंवारा रहने का निश्चय कर लिया।
                 पुरु अब मद्र-देश का समारत था। वह भी अपने पिता की तरह दिद्विजय की इच्छा कर कुछ सेना को लेकर विजय यात्रा पर निकल पड़ा। पहले उसने उतर कश्मीर की ओर प्रस्थान किया। उस तरफ के सारे देशों को विजय कर वह सिंध की ओर लौटा। जिन दिनों सम्राट पुरु सिंधप्रदेश का दौरा कर रहा था, उन्हीं दिनों फ़ारस का राजा सिकंदर विश्व-विजय की पताका के साथ भारत की सीमा पर आक्रमण करने आ पहुंचा था।

                 सिकंदर संसार के महान विजेताओं में भी महान माना जाता है। वह बड़ा उत्साही वीर था। उसने बाल्यकाल से ही जीवन का लक्ष्य बना लिया था कि वह समस्त संसार को जीत कर विश्व-विजयी बनेगा। वह बीस वर्ष की आयु में गद्दी पर बैठा और थोड़े ही समय में मिस्र से लेकर अफ़ग़ानिस्तान तक एशिया का सारा प्रदेश जीत लिया। ईस्वी सन से 326 वर्ष पूर्व उसने भारतवर्ष पर आक्रमण किया।
...............निरंतर ... इसके दूसरे खंड में पुरु और सिकंदर का वर्णन है ,  उसे भी पढ़े .........

Setting up of Nag Dynesty in Jharkhand (India)

August 21, 2007 

The setting up of Nag dynasty among the Munda and tribes is looked upon by some as the acculturation process, while other consider it as spatial expansion of the OraonNaga and Chero Kingdom who were once the rulers of central part of India.The article presents a fresh look on the problem and also investigates into the inception of Nag dynasty on the basis of ethno-history of the people. The interest in the study of state formation among the tribal communities of India was recently aroused by two thought provoking articles.In one of the articles,S. C Sin ha (1961) discussed state formation and status mobilisation among the central Indian tribes with reference to Bhumij of Manbhum district and in other K.S.Singh(1971) traced the history of state formation of the Chero and Munda tribes. State formation among the Chero and Bhumij tribes was viewed as internal development while that of the Munda by a secondary process.Here,it is to be noted that all these tribes have the common ethnic affinity and are settled agriculturists. It is imperative to know,at the out set,as to what we understand by the state and non-state in the tribal society.The concept of state embraces itself two elements (a) decision making or power holding authority or government and (b) territory or subjects. In every tribal society a state of order exists and they are also said to have government but not the state. The state comes into being when authority or power is derived from the single source and obedience is claimed from the people. It is in this sense that Lucy Mair(1962:138) put forward the notion of state in these words “It is the kind of government that we call the state a single supreme authority is recognised and public affairs are regulated, decision taken and obedience claimed by persons acting in this name” territory as an element of state, is the later addition in the notion when its viability as source of power was felt by the government. Territory, along with people is the jurisdiction of activities of almost all organized tribal communities but in spite of this,they are supposed to lack the state.The Parha organisation of the Munda and Oraon tribes is a type of administrative system which derives its power and authority from customs or customary laws and not from the chief.Te chief and other members of the Parha are the law making and enforcing authority. But some see unfavourable condition in the traditional administrative system for the development of state and oppose the view that the “Chotanagpur Raj arose from the Munda culture matrix” Nevertheless, the parha organisation was te primary form of the state to which we mean to-day. Anthropologist and other (Blandier, 1970;154) have distinguished two categories of state on the basis of its origin-primary and secondary or derived state. The first is formed by means of internal or regional development without the stimulus of other pre existing state forms, the second results from a ‘response’ imposed by the presence of a neighbouring state, a power centre that eventually modifies the equilibrium established over a wide area (ibid 154).On this basis, the state among the Chero and Bhumij tribes is also by secondary process, for their traditional so cio-economic structure was stratified in the pattern of the dominant Hindu society through internal as well as external factors prior to the emergence of kingship among them. Development of state through the internal process is possible only by rationalisation of so cio-economic structure and when a leader or a dominant group as a ruler emerges concentrating all layers of public power in his hand as a decision making person or body.The formation of state by inviting a powerful group to rule over them and second, by success on resulting from the ambition of one of the sections of the tribe. The favourable circumstances for the formation of state in pre-state society, Southhall (Ibid;155) in one of his studies from Africa state that “one of the group already possess an effective large-scale political organisation,it has at its disposal the means of politically controlling a large area and eventually imposes its supremacy on the micro-societies with which it is in relation.One of the groups contains charismatic leaders,who become the chief solicited by the neighbouring societies or the ‘modals’ according to which they organize the internal power by subordinating it.The establishment of a structure of domination is made possible in the one case by the ability to govern a large political area and in the second by the quality of the leader.At this stage an embryonic state is in being”. The chief of the Parha organisation, in this light, lacked the quality of dominant or charismatic leadership as well as political area. However, it is the acculturation of the elite group who voluntarily preferred change in the traditional administrative system which facilitated the formation of state. The four pre-conditions which K.S.Singh mentions (1971:171-173) for the formation of state among the tribal communities of India,all are secondary process except “settled agriculture and organised tribal village communities”.The Mundas are even considered to have been transformed into agricultural communities by secondary process i.e. “contact with new forces in the cradle of Sryan culture and Brahmanical influence”.Some of the scholars, on the other hand, are of the view that tribal’s particularly the Austric speaking group who once occupied the fertile Indo-Gangetic plain,where already transformed from nomadic to semi-sedantary life prior to the contact with invading Aryans.This view is well supported by archeological findings in which rice and cotton are found indigenous to India and the climate for its cultivation was favourable in Indo-Gangetic river valleys and central India. In those days too, different economic levels existed-hunting,gathering and agriculture. It is now an accepted fact, as the evidence in modern times also justify,that in ancient times too (Bridget & Raymond,1968:320) different social and economic levels co-existed,often in close proximity to one another and communities with different standard of living have for long co-existed every close quarters and have in fact depended upon one another economically (idib,254).It is therefore wrong to suppose that the tribal economy was transformed from hunting, gathering to settled agriculture through Aryan or Brahmanical influence.The process of change was continuous.But nevertheless, the “settled agriculture and organised tribal village communities” prompted for state formation in the already existing primary state when Brahmanical i.e. stratified so cio-economic system was adopted.The Chero and Bhumij re of no exception,for centralised power emerged only when the area and people were politically controlled by the central power. The next interesting aspect of inquiry in the subject under study is -who are Nagas? Are they race or ethnic group or it simply denotes to people worshipping Nag i.e. serpents or Nag clans? The answer to these quarries cannot be easily given.Today ,we get ethnic groups who are identified as Nagas in North-eastern part of India.Once they established kingdom in this part of the country. Racially they hold Monoloid features and no records ever mentions their penetration West to Brahmaputra river.The Nagas tribe as ruling group had no influence to other parts of India,but the thrust of tribals Mongoloid people to the present state of Bengal and Orissa is accepted. In ancient times,it is stated ,people were distinguished and given names on the basis of ecological region they occupied, the can they belonged and often the deity or totem they worshipped (Chaudhury,127-128).Such identity was not uniform and in course of time,often supplemented by another name.This has complicated the identity problem of ancient people any venture to associate them with today’s well named ethnic group is not beyond doubt and has led us to no acceptable conclusion,save few exception. Today we get people who hold Nag clan and also worshippers of Nag i.e. cobra serpent.All these people are found in parts of central India from Vindhyan to Chotanagpur plateau .Besides,there are also tribal groups who have nomenclature of Nag or its equivalent such as Chero,Nagesia,Nagbansi etc who also hold the same territory where serpants worshippers.Nag clans and people claiming descent from cobra serpent are found.This region is supposed to be the seat of ancient Naga race who also were spread over the whole Indo-Gangetic Plains and whom the Aryans could not subjugate but only could brand them as snake or sarpa with best intension only known to them.They enjoyed supremacy over others in gallantry and administration whose totem name or cult was later incorporated in myth,legend and lineage name (Karve,1905:323).The Nags are said to have been associated with almost all great civilization-Mesapotamia,Rome,Greece and Egypt (Tavalkar,1979).D.D Kosambi (1965:86) states that Naga was a generic name for food gathering forest tribe and were a very respectable people.He further states (ibid. 93) apparently Naga became a generic term for forest aborigines,not necessarily connected or interrelated.who had a cobra (Nag) totem or worshipped the cobra as so many Indians aborigines (and not only aborigines) still do.The particular ‘Naga’ were in adjacent jungle at the time Kuru land was first settled by Aryans.Food gathering was much easier in Gangetic forest than in the open,semi desert basin or the foothills o the punjab.The same dense forest made it impossible to conquer the Nag or to reduce them otherwise to the status of tribals slaves, as had been possible with Dasa and Audra of the west.Naga line was friendly to and in some special relation with the Kurus,though not to the Pandavas.The term ‘Naga’ was not in vogue in vedic age for ethnic group (ibid,120),here it indicated aboriginal blood or at least aboriginal cult.And for that matter,Kolians the neighbours of Sakyan to whom Buddha belonged (ibid 109) were often counted among the aboriginals with the generic label ‘Naga”.So the term ‘Naga’ in all intent and purposes, denoted tribal groups or totemic groups of the tribals. ‘Pundra’ or ‘Pundarika’ is another term which is associated either to the name of ethnic group or to area of their habitation and has relevancy to the present enquiry.Ramchandra Jain writes(1964:120-121) about the area of habitation of these people.He states that with Andhra,Pundra,Sabra,Mutiba covered the deccan peninsula.Robert Safer(1954:21) tells that Pundra was a Mundic (Austric speaking)Territory.The Dandakarneya of Mahabharat falls to this region from where the king Janamejaya 3 (the last king of the Pandava race)wanted complete annihilation of the Nagas.And according to the history told by the Nagbansi king of Chotanagpur, Pundarika Nag fled to Kashi to avoid killing.The terms Pundra,Pundarika,Naga or Nag thus denote to the same aboriginal or clan group.Pundarika is also said to stand for a territory of Chotanagpur plateau which is now a part of Jharkhand and Bengal.Thus,Pundarika Nag,the father of Fanimukut Rai i.e the first Nagbansi king of Chotanagpur,was not the personal name but denotes either to an aboriginal group or territoty.To address or refer a person by the name of the village or clan he or she belongs,is still the practice of the Chotanagpur tribes. Sarpa or Nag are the inter changeable term to which all scholars agree.It is stated (Mazumdar, 1951;156) that “the Austri proto Australoids were spread over the greater part of India.In the Indus and Ganges valleys,when the Aryans first met tem,they were known as Nishada.Furlong(1958;280_states that theAryans found the area held by the Naga worshippers called Nishada and everywhere they encountered Kolarian and Dravidian races.It is on te basis of wide distribution of Austric speaking people in India in ancient times,that Irawati Karve(1965:323)asks “have we any evidence to connect the Nagas with the present day Mundari speaking tribes? In this connection she cites from Harivamsa purana where mention of a tribe of degreded warrior called Kola-Sarpa is found.She states that “Naga and Sarpa are interchangeable terms.The word Kola is even now applied for the Munda tribe.So the Kola-Sarpa of Harivamsa seems to be identical to Naga Munda of Pali tradition and it seems very probable that Nagas were a Mundari speaking people”. Nagesia or Nagbasia of Madhya Pradesh, according to Rusell and Hiralal (1965;255) claim descent from the Nagbansi of Chotanagpur, they are supposed to be Munda offshoot and the Hindu neighbours use their name for the Mundas.Nagbasia is supposed to mean original settlers(basia) in Chotanagpur (Nag).Traditionally the Mundas call themselves as ‘Naguri disum'(country of the Nag people),all these phrase and terms indicate directly or indirectly to Austric speaking people or aboriginal groups belonging to them. It is in this light that the setting up of Nag dynasty is to be considered afresh.It is clear Nag dynasty evolved out form the rudimentary state form through the interplay of both primary and secondary process of state formation.The elements of primary state form was there in the culture matrix of the Mundas as stated earlier otherwise the course of state formation would have been different.The classical ‘conquest theory’ as well as peaceful penetration are dispensed with as necessary condition for the rise of state among the Mundas on the ground that they do not get support either by history or ethro-history of the people. Many generations after the first Nagbansi king, the ethno-history of the Munda tells, that Dalpat Rai and Medni Rai the chief of Palamau were equally known to them.It is told that many Chero chief also visited Nagpur i.e the Munda region and co-operated in many fields in war and peace in one way or the other.But it is not known whether any Chero chief was ever crowned as Maharaja in Nagbansi dynasty or extended his administrative jurisdiction beyond Palamau over the Munda-Oraon region. ‘It would be absurd to argue’ writes I.M Lewis (1976:351) “that by some curious law of opposites, states were invariably founded by leaders from non-state.But the knowledge that this can and does happen helps to correct the crude evolutionary view that,because states and non-states are structurally poles apart, they are necessarily seperated by a long chain of intermediary stages.”The state formation among the Mundas also holds this view. The kingship among the Mundas and other neighbouring ethnic groups,such as Chero and Bhumij,developed after the fall of the Gupta empire and were almost contemporary to each other.Under this situation there was no pragmatic influence in the organisational set up of the Mundas from the neighbouring Chero and Bhumij tribes.On the other hand,an elite class,due to an ongoing internal process of change as well as acculturetive forces,was evolving in the existing socio-political structure who were prone to divert from traditional system and were keen to establish socio-political relation with other power centers.It may be noted that in Chotanagpur when the population of the Munda was increased considerably, they sectionaised into a number of groups under the respective leader.And as it is told,formerly religious leaders (Pahan) was subordinated to secular leader (Munda),similarly, the Manki(leader of many sections) was always assisted by te Pahan whose position was subsequently liquidated totally.By that time of Manki Madra Munda (foster father of first Nagbansi king) the position of the secular leader was at the apex of the Munda socio-political structure.It is on this background that the Nagbansi dynasty was laid down.The detail of how the Nag dynasty,with the adoption of kingship in exchange of Mankiship,was up in the Munda socio-political system is to be comprehended in the following story fabricated by the intrested Brahmins. The most often told myth about the man to whom the Nagbansi claim descent, is based on the ‘Family annals of Nagbansi dynasty prepared by the Brahmins.Dalton(1872: 165-166)tells this story in these words,To avoid killing either from the hands of Raja Janmejaya,Pundarika Nag assumed the form of Brahman and repaired to the house of a Brahman of Benaras .He married there his only child Parbati.Unfortunately however, the Naga could not get rid of his forked tongue.Consequently,to hide his identity,he always would sleep with his back to his wife.But the lady curious like others of her class,soon discovered her husband’s secret and became eager to get an explanation.To avert her attention,he proposed that they should make together a pilgrimage to Puri which the lady accepted gladly.They made their return journey through Jharkhand.On reaching the hill of Sitiamba near Ranchi,the wife was seized with sever pain of child birth.And according to the custom secret desire nursed for years of either husband or wife should be fulfilled or answered.The wife accordingly asked the husband for explanation of his secret.The husband was thus compelled to disclose but he warned that it would lead to their separation.After disclosing the secret that he was the Naga king in disguise,he assumed his original form i.e cobra,plunged into the pool and disappeared.the wife while giving birth to a child,also died. At this moment,a Sakaldwipi Brahmin appeared on the scene holding an idol which had the image of the Sun.He slaked his thirst at the pool,and when about to proceed on journey,found that he could not lift the idol that he had hither to carried without difficulty.And whilst pondering on this,his eyes fell on the child lying,sheltered and guarded by a great hooded snake.This was Pundarika in his proper form protecting his child.Addressing the Brahman he narrated his own history and fortold that the child would become to be the Purohit and the idol his tutelary deity.This happned in A.D 104 The other version of the story is not at all known to other people than the tribals of the area.It is told that a Sakaldwipi Brahman along with his little daughter came begging to the house of Madra Munda,the then Manki of the region.The Brahman requested the Manki to provide him job and shelter.He told the Manki that he can teach the children.Seeing the pitiable condition of the Brahman,the Manki allowed him to stay in the village and the children were sent to learn reading and writing from him.Though this part of the story has no sequence with the story of Pundarika and his son, but the story of the Brahman as told after the birth of the child beside the pool has a definite link with it.In the Munda version of the story,there is no mention of the Pundarika and his wife performing journey from Kashi to Puri and back.Here it is simply told that some tribal women found the child at the bank of a pond.They also saw the cobra with its spread up hood close to the child(the child’d body movement may have attracted the poisonous snake who was about to strike on him and so the spread up hood) Seeing the women,the cobra disappeared.They brought the child to the house of the Manki who had also a new born son.Both the children were brought together.The son of the Madra Munda was named Mukut Rai and the foster son Fani Mukut Rai.Later,when they attained the age,was selected to Mankiship on the basis of his personal qualities. How for rest of the two stories carry fact is to be considered on the basis of the following points: Route of pilgrimage Before christan era,there were very few Hindu pilgrimage centres.The prominent sacred centres were Puskar,Kashi,Gaya,Kedar-Badri and Puri.The pilgrims would perform their journey mostly through the river valleys and trade routes.The whole Kaimur and Vindhyan range including Chotanagpur plateau was then covered with dence forest.Aryan penetration was scanty in this region and no secred center had developed,moreover there were no trade route(Bhardwaj, 1973:29).There is no mention in the story as to which route Pundarika Nag and his wife had adopted in their journey to Puri.But it is stated that the return journey was through the Jharkhand i.e Chotanagpur plateau.The Brahman also followed the same route in his journey from Puri to Gaya.In the Munda version of the story ,te Brahman alongwith his daughter came to the village for begging.Duringpre-christian era,as is told,Brahman were in search of vergin areas for patronisation from the chiefs and were out for spreading Hinduism,particularly among the settled agriculturists non-Hindus.Since there were no route through the Jharkhand,the journey performed by the Brahman and Pundarika Nag is doudted as is told in the first version of the story.But there is some authenticity in the second version of the story. Who was Parbati? There is no denying the fact that Parbati was the daughter of a Braman- either of Kashi or wandering Brahman.It is told by the Mundas that Parbati grew in the village environment among the Mundas and that she was not in pilgrimage journey.She was with her father in Madra Munda’s village and she was well aware with the Mundas customs and rituals.It is why when she was suffering with pains of child birth,she demanded her husband to leak out the secret of his identity to help easy birth.For it is believed by the tribals that when there is no easy birth.(besides the involvement of evil sprits)something wrong is supposed either with the girl or her husband or the public.Dhanur Singh Purti in his published book (1978:5) on Ho mentions in details the obstacle of easy birth and its remedies.He narrates that when there is difficulty in easy birth,the girl is being asked about her previous intimacies etc.Similarly,the husband as well as his family members are also requested to reveal the secret which may be the cause of obstacles of easy birth.Parbati believed in this custom; that is why when she was suffering with pain during delivery,she asked her husband to reveal the secret of his forked tongue(forked tongue is not at all referred in the Munda version of the story nor the inquisitiveness of Parbati).It was not possible for her to know this belief system and follow it,had she not been grown up among the tribal communities.And it is doubted, this custom at this period,was widely prevalent in India amoung other communities also.It is told,since Parbati grew up among the village folk,she developed intimacy with a Munda boy and the result was the birth of Fani Mukut Rai.Parbati either died at the time of delivery or commited suicide as it is told in the annals or deserted the baby and so no puestion of tracng out the paternity of the child arose.The Brahman as well as the woman who found the child had seen the snake with its spread up hood close to the child asn saw no human being there. who was Pundarika Nag? As it has been stated in previous pages “Pundarika and Naga” denotes to the one and same people who are identified with Austric speakers or aboriginal groups belonging to them and as such Pundarika Nag is not the personal name.The annals of Nagbansi dynasty mentions Pundarika Nag (the serpent)could assume the human form but like the ‘churail'(sprit of the woman died at child birth)who cannot change their heel from back to front,could not change the forked tongue.’Pundarika Nag was thus either a symbol or sprit and not snake or human being.Snake or any other animal,other than human being cannot learnscriptures or magic.If Pundarika Nag was a human being he may not have abnormal tongue like that of snake otherwise how could he learn the scriptures from the kashi Brahman.For forked tongue is a phusical obdtcle in speaking.Most probably,Pundarika Nag was a bi-lingual which has been taken for forked tongue.It is Parbati who detacted the bi-lingualism of Pundarika Nag. Thus,it is a fact that Pundarika Nag was the name of an aboriginal community.Both the stories indicate to the fact that Fani Mukut Rai was a tribal boy born from a Brahman mother.It is to be noted that Madra Munda i.e the Manki and his lineages were already proseletised to Hinduism like the neighbouring Chero and Bhumij tribes who adopted Hindi personal names and titles. About Nag dynasty,it is told that Fani Mukut Rai had only one son known by the name of Sitia,whose name is not found in the Nagbansi line of kings.Sitia had eight sons who all moved out to different directions.One of them came to Panch Pargana area along with a large number of Mundas and settled down there and some moved even further.One of his son settled at Khunti and some moved towards Jashpur in Madhya Pradesh .After Fani Mukut Rai,it is recorded,Mukut Rai the son of Madra Munda, became the king.And as the kingship was founded with the crowning of Fani Mukut Rai,whose paternity is derived from cobra i.e Nag,the whole line of kings were recorded as Nagbansi or lineage of the Nag.But it is to be observed that not a single person belonged to the descendants of Fani Mukut Rai occupied the thown. The change-over from mankiship to kingship did not bring about corresponding change in the traditional administrative system.The king remained as an ordinary person without special power and privilege.A change in the administrative system was brought much later when Nagbansi Raja was made tributary to the Mughals.The Raja,as is told by the Mundas, called upon the Partha chiefs for consultation and sought their help at this hour of trouble.Prior to their help with annual chanda i.e subscription and occasional gifts which continued till the Britishers came.During the Brithsh rule the subscription was made permanent and was transformed into rent,though prior to this cases of forcible collection of subscription by king’s people was set free from captive by the Mughals,he adopted this administrative system.He created posts for ministers,military personnels and brought admirers and followers,all from outside whom he granted land in jagir. These people strengthened the hands of the Maharaja in administration.He was getting much difficulty in controlling the territory on which the tribals had exclusive ownership individually and collectively.The traditional rights of the tribal over land was forcibly taken away by these people who also helped in spreading the Hindu culture in the region by establishing sacred centers.It was a heaven for trading and other occupational communities who swarmed into the region and who were all interested in the land of the tribals.The rent and land system of the British government proved to be a boon which further confermed the position of the Maharaja and land-hold of the Jagirdars and moneylenders.So economically the tribals were redused to the status of slave which adversely affected their social and political system.The formation of state thus,became complete which the founder of Nag dynasty,many generations ago,had laid down.But this delegated power and position itself was an indication of the decline of kingship. With the cange in situation, the tribals also changed course.They disliked cultural assimlation and acculturation and withdrew themself from the identification with the Nagbansis in the same way as they did many times in bygone days.They in the mean time,brought corresponding change in the political system and reorginised.In the Parha organisation different post weer created with the denomination similar to Maharaja’s court.But nevertheless,the Parha orginisation remained a confederate body and functioned in the traditional pattern.The Nagbansis who segregated themself from the tribal mainstream,were assimilated into the Hindu fold and were provided Kshatriya status.(It is to be noted that Munda tribe as a whole were recognised and confirmed in 1978 convention of All India Kshatriya Mahasabha as Kshatriya)There were no inferaction between the two groups,except during fairs and festivals organised by the Nagbansis in which the tribal would participate s mere spectator.Thus,at last when the so-called Nagbansi asserted themselves as master of the land and ruler of the masses through police power and rent system of the British government, as stated earlier,the state was formed in true sense of the dynesty indicates.They were from the elite group,the decendants of Madra Munda the Last manki.The decendants of Fani Mukut Rai the founder of so called Nagbansi dynesty,thus were never crowned as kings and christening the line of kings as Nagbansis is therefore wrong.
About The Author
I am a tribal myself and by training a anthropologist, I have a long years of association and experience of working among communities of various tribes and caste of India.I have a deep interest in the study of traditional cultures, and problems of the weaker section of the societies.I have contributed a number of articles on the subjects and have published few books.I have been associated with the anthropological survey of India,and U.G.C
Dr. Sem Topno

Anil Tirkey.
12 May 2016 ·
जहां नाग करता था बच्चे की रक्षा, वहां अनुपम खेर ने की FILM की शूटिंग
रांची (झारखंड)। झारखंड की वादियों में एक्टर से डायरेक्टर बने अनुपम खेर ने अपनी आने वाली फिल्म 'गुंडे और गुड़िया' की शूटिंग गुरुवार को खत्म की। अनुपम पिछले कई दिनों से झारखंड में थे। उन्होंने रांची के रातू स्थित किले में भी शूटिंग की और उसकी तस्वीरें अपने फेसबुक एकाउंट पर शेयर की है। इतिहासकारों के अनुसार, यह वही किला है जहां कभी फन फैलाए नाग सांप बच्चे की रक्षा किया करता था। वही बच्चा आगे चलकर यहां का राजा बना। राजा बनने के बाद उसी ने नागवंश की स्थापना की। यहां झलकती है ब्रिटेन के बकिंघम पैलेस की वास्तुकारी....
- नागवंश दुनिया का ऐसा पहला राजघराना है, जिसने लोगों से लगान नहीं लिया। ये राजा कभी भी अपनी प्रजा से कोई टैक्स नहीं लेते थे। इनकी स्थाई सेना भी कभी नहीं रही।
- 1901 में रातू किला बना था। इस दो मंजिले पैलेस में 103 कमरे बने हुए हैं। इसमें ब्रिटेन की महारानी के महल बकिंघम पैलेस की वास्तुकारी के कुछ हिस्सों की झलक दिखती है।
- ऐतिहासिक रातू किला 22 एकड़ जमीन में फैला हुआ है। 113 साल से यहां पर पारंपरिक दुर्गा पूजा का आयोजन होता रहा है।
- इसे देश के छोटानागपुर पर शासन करने वाले नागवंशीय शासन के 61वें महाराज प्रताप उदयनाथ शाहदेव ने बनवाया था। महाराजा फणिमुकुट राय नागवंश के पहले महाराजा थे।
- बचपन में फणिमुकुट राय की रक्षा एक नाग ने फन फैलाकर की थी, इसी वजह से इस राजवंश ने अपना नामकरण नागवंशीय किया।
ऐसे पड़ी नागवंश की नींव
- पिठोरिया के पास स्थित सुतीयांबे गढ़ में 64वें एडी में नागवंशीय शासन की शुरुआत हुई थी। इतिहासकारों के अनुसार उस समय इस गढ़ में आदिवासी राजा मुदरा मुंडा शासन करते थे।
- एक दिन राजा मुदरा मुंडा को एक तालाब के पास से एक नवजात शिशु मिला। शिशु की रक्षा एक फनधारी नाग कर रहा था।
- राजा मुदरा मुंडा इस बालक को अपने साथ ले आए और अपने बच्चे की तरह पाला। बाद में वो बच्चा ही महाराजा फणिमुकुट कहलाया।
- फणिमुकुट को मुदरा मुंडा ने अपना उत्तराधिकारी घोषित कर महाराजा बना दिया। चूंकि नाग ने इनकी रक्षा की थी इसलिए इस राजवंश ने अपना नामकरण नागवंशीय किया। महाराजा फणिमुकुट नागवंश के पहले महाराजा बने।
- नागवंशियों का किला आज भी रातूगढ़ के नाम से जाना जाता है। 64 एडी में वसंत पंचमी के दिन महाराज फणीमुकुट राय के नेतृत्व में नागवंशीय राज शासन की नींव पड़ी थी।
सौजन्य : दैनिक भास्कर

कलचुरि वंश
कलचुरियों की वंशावली किस नरेश से आरम्भ होती है, उसके बारे में अनुमान किया जाता है कि कोकल्लदेव से आरम्भ होती । कोकल्लदेव के वंशज कलचुरी कहलाये।

कलचुरि हैदयों की एक शाखा है। हैदयवंश ने रतनपुर और रायपुर में दसवीं शताब्दी से अठारहवीं शताब्दी तक शासन किया ।

कोकल्ल महाप्रतापी राजा थे, पर उनके वंशजों में जाजल्लदेव (प्रथम), रत्नदेव (द्वितीय) और पृथ्वीदेव (द्वितीय) के बारे में कहा जाता है कि वे न सिर्फ महापराक्रमी राजा थे, बल्कि छत्तीसगढ़ के सांस्कृतिक उन्नति के लिए भी चेष्टा की थीं।

जाजल्लदेव (प्रथम) ने अपना प्रभुत्व आज के विदर्भ, बंगाल, उड़ीसा आन्ध्रप्रदेश तक स्थापित कर लिया था। युद्धभूमि में यद्यपि उनका बहुत समय व्यतीत हुआ, परन्तु निर्माण कार्य भी करवाये थे । तालाब खुदवाया, मन्दिरों का निर्माण करवाया। उसके शासनकाल में सोने के सिक्के चलते थे - उसके नाम के सिक्के। ऐसा माना जाता है कि जाजल्लदेव विद्या और कला के प्रेमी थे, वे आध्यात्मिक थे। जाजल्लदेव के गुरु थे गोरखनाथ। गोरखनाथ के शिष्य परम्परा में भर्तृहरि और गोपीचन्द थे - जिनकी कथा आज भी छत्तीसगढ़ में गाई जाती है।
रतनदेव के बारे में ये कहा जाता है कि वे एक नवीन राजधानी की स्थापना की जिसका नाम रतनपुर रखा गया और जो बाद में के नाम से जाना गया। रतनदेव भी बहुत ही हिंसात्मक युद्धों में समय नष्ट की, पर विद्या और कला के प्रेमी थे। इसलिए विद्वानों की कदर थी। रतनदेव ने अनेक मन्दिरों का निर्माण करवाया और तालाब खुदवाया।
पृथ्वीदेव द्वितीय भी बड़े योद्धा थे। कला प्रेमी थे। उसके समय सोने और ताँबे के सिक्के जारी किये गये थे।
कलचुरियों विद्वानों को प्रोत्साहन देकर उनका उत्साह बढ़ाया करते थे। राजशेखर जैसे विख्यात कवि उस समय थे। राजशेखर जी कि काव्य मीमांसा और कर्पूरमंजरी नाटक बहुत प्रसिद्ध हैं। कलचुरियों के समय में विद्वान कवियों को राजाश्रय प्राप्त था। इसीलिये शायद वे दिल खोलकर कुछ नहीं लिख सकते थे। राजा जो चाहते थे, वही लिखा जाता था।

कलचुरि शासको शैव धर्म को मानते थे। उनका कुल शिव-उपासक होने के कारण उनका ताम्रपत्र हमेशा "ओम नम: शिवाय" से आरम्भ होता है। ऐसा कहा जाता है कलचुरियों ने दूसरों के धर्म में कभी बाधा नहीं डाली, कभी हस्तक्षेप नहीं किया। बौद्ध धर्म का प्रसार उनके शासनकाल में हुआ था।

कलचुरियों ने अनेक मंदिरों धर्मशालाओं का निर्माण करवाया।

वैष्णव धर्म का प्रचार, रामानन्द ने भारतवर्ष में किया जिसका प्रसार छत्तीसगढ़ में हुआ। बैरागी दल का गठन रामानन्द ने किया जिसका नारा था -

"जात-पात पूछे नहीं कोई, हरि को भजै सो हरि का होई" -

हैदय-वंश के अन्तिम काल के शासक में योग्यता और इच्छा-शक्ति न होने का कारण हैदय-शासन की दशा धीरे-धीरे बिगड़ती चली गयी और अन्त में सन् 1741 ई. में भोंसला सेनापति भास्कर पंत ने छत्तीसगढ़ पर आक्रमण कर हैदय शासक की शक्ति प्रतिष्ठा को नष्ट कर दिया।


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Dalit in Cricket


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Dalit Officers

Case of an IAS Topper

Fate of a Scheduled Caste Candidate

The Union Public Service Commission under the Constitution of free India started functioning from January 26, 1950. The The Union Public Service Commission Commission conducted its first examination to recruit personnel for the IAS and Central Services the same year. There were 3,647 candidates for this examination. The First Report of the UPSC does not mention the number of Scheduled Caste or Scheduled Tribe candidates. But it discloses that Achyutananda Das was the country's first SC to make it to the IAS in 1950 itself. He was, in fact, the topper of his batch in the written examination.

Achyutananda Das, from West Bengal, secured 613 (58.38 per cent) out of 1050 marks in written examination whearas N. Krishnan from Madras secured 602 (57.33 per cent). But in the interview, Krishnan secured 260 (86.66 per cent) out of 300 as against 110 (36.66 per cent) by Achyutananda Das. Thus Achyutananda was left miles behin…