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Meena

From Wikipedia


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The Meena  is a tribe found mainly in the Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh regions of India. Its name is also transliterated as Meenanda or Mina. The Meenas claim connection to the Matsya avatar of Vishnu, and the ancient Matsya Kingdom.

History

The word Meena is derived from Meen, the Sanskrit word for fish, and the Meenas claim a mythological descent from the Matsya avatar, or fish incarnation, of Vishnu. They also claim to be descendants of the people of the Matsya Kingdom, which flourished in the 6th century B.C. The historian Pramod Kumar notes that it is likely that the tribes living in the ancient Matsya kingdom were called Meena but it cannot be said with certainty that there is anything common between them and the modern Meenas. They are considered to be adivasi (aboriginal people).
The Meenas ruled at certain places in Rajasthan till they were overpowered by invading Rajputs. From Meenas the Bundi was captured by Rao Dewa (A.D. 1342), Dhundhar by KachhwahaRajputs and Chopoli fell to the Muslim rulers. Kota, Jhalawar, Karauli and Jalore were the other areas of earlier Meena influence where they were forced to surrender ultimately.
Nandini Sinha Kapur, a historian who has studied early India, notes that the oral traditions of the Meenas were developed from the early 19th century AD in an attempt to reconstruct their identity. She says of this process, which continued throughout the 20th century, that "The Minas try to furnish themselves a respectable present by giving themselves a glorious past". In common with the people of countries such as Finland and Scotland, the Meenas found it necessary to invent tradition through oral accounts, one of the primary uses of which is recognised by both historians and sociologists as being "social protest against injustices, exploitation and oppression, a raison d'être that helps to retrieve the image of a community." Kapur notes that the Meenas not merely lack a recorded history of their own but also have been depicted in a negative manner both by medieval Persian accounts and records of the colonial period. From medieval times through to the British Raj, references to the Meenas describe them as violent, plundering criminals and an anti-social ethnic tribal group.

British colonial period

A Meena of Jajurh
The Raj colonial administration came into existence in 1858, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 which caused the government of Britain to decide that leaving colonial administration in the hands of the East India Company was a recipe for further discontent. In an attempt to create an orderly administration through a better understanding of the populace, the Raj authorities instituted various measures of classifying the people of India. One such measure was the Criminal Tribes Act of 1871, under the provisions of which the Meenas were placed. The community remained stigmatised for many years, notably by influential officials of the Raj such as Herbert Hope Risley and Denzil Ibbetson, and were sometimes categorised as animists and as a hill tribe similar to the Bhils The Meenas remained an officially-designated criminal tribe until 1952, three years after the Act had been repealed. Mark Brown has examined the impact and issues of the Meena community during British rule and the change in their status from being a higher social group to a criminal tribe.

Recent history

Meenas have better rights for women in many respects compared to many other Hindu castes.
The Meena fall into the Scheduled Tribe category in the state of Rajasthan and the majority of them are classified as being Hindu, but in Madhya Pradesh Meena are recognised as a Scheduled Tribe only in Sironj Tehsil, Vidisha, while in the other 44 districts of the state they are categorised as Other Backward Classes. It has been proposed that the Meenas be fully recognised as a Scheduled Tribe in Madhya Pradesh. The proposal is being considered by the Government of India. In Uttar Pradesh, Meena are considered migrated from Rajasthan and have been living in western districts of MathuraSambhal and Budaun since many generations. At par their origin they are granted a Scheduled tribe status in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
In Rajasthan, the Meena caste members oppose the entry of Gurjars into Scheduled Tribe fold, fearing that their own share of Scheduled Tribe reservation benefits will be eroded.
They celebrate Meenesh Jayanti on the third day of the Chaitra month's Shukla paksha.

Subdivisions

The Meena tribe is divided into several clans and sub-clans (adakhs), which are named after their ancestors. Some of the adakhs include Ariat, Ahari, Katara, Kalsua, Kharadi, Damore, Ghoghra, Dali, Doma, Nanama, Dadore, Manaut, Charpota, Mahinda, Rana, Damia, Dadia, Parmar, Phargi, Bamna, Khat, Hurat, Hela, Bhagora, and Wagat.
Bhil Meena is another sub-division among the Meenas. As part of a sanskritisation process, some Bhils present themselves as Meenas, who hold a higher socio-economic status compared to the Bhil tribal people.
A sub-group known as "Ujwal Meena" (also "Ujala Meena" or "Parihar Meena") seek higher status, and claim to be Rajputs, thus distinguishing themselves from the Bhil Meenas. They follow vegetarianism, unlike other Meenas whom they designated as "Mailay Meena".
Other prevalent social groupings are Zamindar Meena and the Chaukidar Meena. The Zamindar Meena, comparatively well-off, are those who surrendered to powerful Rajput invaders and settled on the lands believe to be granted by the Rajputs. Those who did not surrender to Rajput rule and kept on waging guerrilla warfare are called the Chaukidar Meena.

World Sudra Administrators

Silvio Berlusconi: Italy's once-untouchable prime minister

  • 14 June 2016
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  • From the section


Former Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi appears on Italian TV in April 2014




Image copyrightGETTY IMAGES
Image captionBerlusconi dominated Italian politics from the 1990s until 2013

Berlusconi's era

Few Italians have wielded more influence and attracted more notoriety than Silvio Berlusconi, four-time prime minister and billionaire businessman.
For years he successfully brushed off sex scandals and allegations of corruption but it was the effects of Italy's burgeoning eurozone debt crisis in 2011 that finally spelt an end to his time at the top table of politics.
The charismatic showman was replaced by a technocrat and his centre-right party split.
Worse was to come for a man whom many Italians had come to see as untouchable.
He was convicted of tax fraud in 2013 and ejected from the Italian Senate. Because of his age, a four-year jail term became a year of community service at a care home near Milan. Another conviction in 2015 and his political career was finally over.
For years his looks belied his age, with a little help from hair transplants and plastic surgery. However, after a heart attack that his doctor said could have killed him, he has had heart surgery to replace a defective valve.

From crooner to business mogul

Berlusconi, 79, remains one of Italy's richest men. He and his family have built a fortune estimated at $6.6bn (£4.6bn; €6.6bn) by US business magazine Forbes.
Born on 29 September 1936, Berlusconi lived through the war as a child. Like many Milan children, he was evacuated and lived with his mother in a village some distance from the city.
He began his career selling vacuum cleaners and built a reputation as a crooner, first in nightclubs and then on cruise ships.

"I had a repertoire of 150 different songs and I took requests from the audience," he told biographer Alan Friedman.
He graduated in law in 1961 and then set up Edilnord, a construction company, establishing himself as a residential housing developer around his native Milan.
Ten years later he launched a local cable-television outfit - Telemilano - which would grow into Italy's biggest media empire, Mediaset, controlling the country's three largest private TV stations.
His huge Fininvest holding company now has Mediaset, Italy's largest publishing house Mondadori, daily newspaper Il Giornale, AC Milan football club and dozens of other companies under its umbrella.
His children, Marina, Barbara, Pier Silvio, Eleonora and Luigi all take part in the running of his business empire.

Rise and fall of Forza Italia

In 1993, Berlusconi founded his own political party, Forza Italia (Go Italy), named after an Italian football chant.
The following year he became prime minister, heading a coalition with the right-wing National Alliance and Northern League.
Many hoped his business acumen could help revitalise Italy's economy. They longed for a break with the corruption and instability which had marred Italian politics for a decade.

But rivalries between the three coalition leaders, coupled with Berlusconi's indictment for alleged tax fraud by a Milan court, confounded those hopes and led to the collapse of the government seven months later.
He lost the 1996 election to the left-wing Romano Prodi but by 2001 he was back in power, in coalition once more with his former partners.
Having headed the longest-serving Italian government since World War Two, he was again defeated by Mr Prodi in 2006.
He returned to office in 2008 at the helm of a revamped party, renamed the People of Freedom (PDL).
His support drained away in 2011, as the country's borrowing costs rocketed at the height of the eurozone debt crisis, and he resigned after losing his parliamentary majority.


But in December 2012, his PDL withdrew its backing, forcing an early election.
In February 2013, he showed he had not lost his touch when he closed a huge gap to come within 1% of winning a general election - close enough to play a part in the governing coalition.
But after an uncomfortable period when the PDL backed Enrico Letta's government, the party split and Berlusconi relaunched it under the old name, Forza Italia. Opinion polls now place Forza Italia well behind the other big parties.

Milanese courtroom dramas

Much of Berlusconi's political career ran in tandem with a litany of legal battles. A native of Milan, he frequently complained of being victimised by its legal authorities.
In 2009, he estimated that over 20 years he had made 2,500 court appearances in 106 trials, at a legal cost of €200m.

He denied embezzlement, tax fraud and false accounting, and attempting to bribe a judge. And on numerous occasions he was acquitted, had convictions overturned or watched them expire under a statute of limitations.
But he received a setback when in 2011 the Constitutional Court struck down part of a law granting him and other senior ministers temporary immunity.
From now on it was up to individual trial judges to decide.
By the end of the year he was out of power and in October 2012 he was given four years for tax fraud and barred from public office.
But it was not until 1 August 2013 that Italy's supreme court upheld the verdict. Berlusconi declared his innocence and spoke of a "judicial coup".
Because he was over 75, he did not go to jail but did community service, working four hours a week with elderly dementia patients at a Catholic care home near Milan.
The many trials of Berlusconi

Berlusconi's women and bunga-bunga parties

Berlusconi's struggles in the political arena and the courtroom have been accompanied by a string of lascivious reports about his private life.
He met second wife Veronica Lario after she performed topless in a play.
When he was photographed at the 18th birthday party of aspiring model Noemi Letizia, she decided to divorce him and also accused him of selecting a "shamelessly trashy" list of candidates for the European parliament.

But his reputation was tarnished most by allegations of raunchy "bunga-bunga" parties at his private villa attended by showgirls. The reports culminated in a conviction of paying for sex with an underage prostitute.
An explanation of bunga bunga
In October 2010, it emerged that Silvio Berlusconi had called a police station asking for the release of a 17-year-old girl, Karima "Ruby" El Mahroug.
She was being held for theft and was also said to have attended his "bunga-bunga" parties.
In June 2013 he was found guilty of paying her for sex, and of abuse of power. The case was eventually overturned in 2014.
Berlusconi has always maintained he is "no saint" but firmly denies having ever paid for sex with a woman, saying: "I never understood where the satisfaction is when you're missing the pleasure of conquest."
His turn of phrase has always delighted like-thinkers and horrified critics. In one of his most recent examples, he said his family was so persecuted they felt "like the families of Jews... under Hitler's regime". The remark drew condemnation from Italian Jews.
In December 2009, he was assaulted in a street in Milan - hit in the face with a souvenir of Milan cathedral, by a mentally disturbed man. With a bloodied face and broken teeth, he got out of the car into which he had been bundled by security guards to show his defiance.

Robert Mugabe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Robert Mugabe
A photograph of Robert Mugabe
Mugabe on a visit to Moscow in May 2015
President of Zimbabwe
Incumbent
Assumed office
22 December 1987
Signature
Robert Gabriel Mugabe born 21 February 1924) is a Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who has been President of Zimbabwe since 1987; he previously led Zimbabwe as Prime Minister from 1980 to 1987. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he led the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) group from 1975 to 1980 and has led its successor political party, the ZANU - Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF), since 1980.
Mugabe was born to a poor Shona family in Kutama, Southern Rhodesia. Following an education at Kutama College and the University of Fort Hare, he worked as a school teacher in Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia, and Ghana. Angered that Southern Rhodesia was a British colony governed by a white elite, Mugabe embraced Marxism and joined African nationalist protests calling for an independent black-led state. After making anti-government comments he was convicted of sedition and imprisoned between 1964 and 1974. On release he fled to Mozambique, established his leadership of ZANU, and oversaw ZANU's role in the Rhodesian Bush War, fighting Ian Smith's white-minority government. He reluctantly took part in the peace negotiations brokered by the United Kingdom that resulted in the Lancaster House Agreement. The agreement dismantled white-minority rule and resulted in the 1980 general election, at which Mugabe led ZANU-PF to victory and became Prime Minister of the newly renamed Zimbabwe. Mugabe's administration expanded healthcare and education, and—despite his Marxist rhetoric and professed desire for a socialist society—adhered largely to conservative economic policies.
Mugabe's initial calls for racial reconciliation failed to stem deteriorating race relations and growing white flight. Relations with Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) also declined, with Mugabe crushing ZAPU-linked opposition in Matabeleland during the Gukurahundi between 1982 and 1985; at least 10,000 people, mostly Ndebele civilians, were killed by Mugabe's Fifth Brigade. Pursuing decolonization, Mugabe's government emphasised the redistribution of land controlled by white farmers to landless blacks, initially on a "willing seller-willing buyer" basis. Frustrated at the slow rate of redistribution, from 2000 Mugabe encouraged the violent seizure of white-owned land. Food production was severely impacted, generating famine, international sanctions, and drastic economic decline. Opposition to Mugabe grew, particularly through the Movement for Democratic Change, although he was re-elected in 2002, 2008, and 2013 through campaigns dominated by violence, electoral fraud, and nationalistic appeals to his rural Shona voter base. Internationally, Mugabe sent troops to fight in the Second Congo War and chaired the Non-Aligned Movement (1986–89), the Organisation of African Unity (1997–98), and the African Union (2015–16).
Having dominated Zimbabwe's politics for nearly four decades, Mugabe has been a controversial and divisive figure. He has been praised as a revolutionary hero of the African liberation struggle who helped to free Zimbabwe from British colonialism, imperialism, and white-minority rule. Conversely, critics view him as a dictator responsible for economic mismanagement and widespread corruption whose regime has perpetrated anti-white racial discrimination, human rights abuses, and crimes against humanity.

Early life

Childhood: 1924–45

Robert Gabriel Mugabe was born on 21 February 1924 at the Kutama Mission village in Southern Rhodesia's Zvimba District. His father, Gabriel, was a carpenter, while his mother Bona taught Christian catechism to the village children.They had been trained in their professions by the Jesuits, the Roman Catholic apostolic order which had established the mission. Bona and Gabriel had six children: Miteri (Michael), Raphael, Robert, Dhonandhe (Donald), Sabina, and Bridgette. They belonged to the Zezuru clan, one of the smallest branches of the Shona tribe.The Jesuits were strict disciplinarians and under their influence Mugabe developed an intense self-discipline, while also becoming a devout Catholic. Mugabe excelled at school, where he was a secretive and solitary child, preferring to read alone rather than playing sport or socialising with other children. He was taunted by many of the other children, who regarded him as a coward and a mother's boy.
Circa 1930, Gabriel had an argument with one of the Jesuits, and as a result the Mugabe family were expelled from the mission village by its French leader, Father Jean-Baptiste Loubiere. They settled in a village about seven miles away, although the children were permitted to remain at the mission primary school, living with relatives in Kutama during term-time and returning to their parental home at weekends. Around the same time, Robert's older brother Raphael died, likely of diarrhoea. In early 1934, Robert's other older brother, Michael, also died, after consuming poisoned maize. Later that year, Gabriel left his family in search of employment at Bulawayo. He subsequently abandoned Bona and their six children and established a relationship with another woman, with whom he had three further offspring.
Loubiere died shortly after and was replaced by an Irishman, Father Jerome O'Hea, who welcomed the Mugabe family to return to Kutama. In contrast to the racism that permeated Southern Rhodesian society, under O'Hea's leadership the Kutama Mission preached an ethos of racial equality. O'Hea nurtured the young Mugabe; shortly before his death in 1970 he described the latter as having "an exceptional mind and an exceptional heart". As well as helping provide Mugabe with a Christian education, O'Hea taught him about the Irish War of Independence, in which Irish revolutionaries had overthrown the British imperial regime. After completing six years of elementary education, in 1941 Mugabe was offered a place on a teacher training course at Kutama College; Mugabe's mother could not afford the tuition fees, which were paid in part by his grandfather and in part by O'Hea. As part of this education, Mugabe began teaching at his old school, thus earning £2 per month, which he used to support his family. In 1944 Gabriel returned to Kutama with his three new children, but died shortly after, leaving Robert to take financial responsibility for both his three siblings and three half-siblings. Having attained a teaching diploma, Mugabe left Kutama in 1945.

Teaching career: 1945–60

Over the following years, Mugabe taught at various schools around Southern Rhodesia, among them the Dadaya Mission school in Shabani. There is no evidence that Mugabe was involved in political activity at the time, and he did not take place in the country's 1948 general strike. In 1949 he won a scholarship to study at the University of Fort Hare in South Africa's Eastern Cape. There he joined the African National Congress, and attended African nationalist meetings, where he met a number of Jewish South African communists who introduced him to Marxist ideas. He later related that despite this exposure to Marxism, his biggest influence at the time were the actions of Mahatma Gandhi during the Indian independence movement. In 1952, he left the university with a Bachelor of Arts degree in history and English literature. In later years he described his time at Fort Hare as the "turning-point" in his life.
Mugabe was inspired by the example set by Ghana's Kwame Nkrumah
Mugabe returned to Southern Rhodesia in 1952, by which time—he later related— he was "completely hostile to the [colonialist] system". Here, his first job was as a teacher at the Driefontein Roman Catholic Mission School near Umvuna. In 1953 he relocated to the Highfield Government School in Salisbury's Harare township and in 1954 to the Mambo Township Government School in Gwelo. Meanwhile, he gained a Bachelor of Education degree by correspondence from the University of South Africa, and ordered a number of Marxist tracts—among them Karl Marx's Capital and Friedrich Engels' The Condition of the Working Class in England—from a London mail-order company. Despite his growing interest in politics, he was not active in any political movement. He joined a number of inter-racial groups, such as the Capricorn Africa Society, through which he mixed with both black and white Rhodesians. Guy Clutton-Brock, who knew Mugabe through this group, later noted that he was "an extraordinary young man" who could be "a bit of a cold fish at times" but "could talk about Elvis Presley or Bing Crosby as easily as politics".
From 1955 to 1958, Mugabe lived in neighbouring Northern Rhodesia, where he worked at Chalimbana Teacher Training College in Lusaka.There he continued his education by working on a second degree by correspondence, this time a Bachelor of Administration from London University. In 1958 he moved to Ghana to work at St Mary's Teacher Training College in Takoradi. According to Mugabe, "I went [to Ghana] as an adventurist. I wanted to see what it would be like in an independent African state". Ghana had been the first African state to gain independence from European colonial powers and under the leadership of Kwame Nkrumah underwent a range of African nationalist reforms; Mugabe revelled in this environment. In tandem with his teaching, Mugabe attended the Kwame Nkrumah Ideological Institute in Winneba. Mugabe later claimed that it was in Ghana that he finally embraced Marxism. He also began a relationship with a Ghanaian woman, Sally Hayfron, who worked at the college and shared his political interests.


Muhammadu Buhari

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Muhammadu Buhari
Muhammadu Buhari in Saadabad Palace.jpg
Muhammadu Buhari in 2015
15th President of Nigeria
Incumbent
Assumed office
29 May 2015



Muhammadu Buhari GCFR (born 17 December 1942) is the President of Nigeria, in office since 2015. He is a retired major general in the Nigerian Army and previously served as the nation's head of state from 31 December 1983 to 27 August 1985, after taking power in a military coup d'état. The term Buharism is ascribed to the Buhari military government.
He unsuccessfully ran for the office of president in the 2003, 2007 and 2011 general elections. In December 2014, he emerged as the presidential candidate of the All Progressives Congress for the March 2015 general elections. Buhari won the election, defeating the incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan. This marked the first time in the history of Nigeria that an incumbent president lost to an opposition candidate in a general election. He was sworn in on 29 May 2015.
Buhari has stated that he takes responsibility for anything over which he presided during his military rule, and that he cannot change the past. He has described himself as a "converted democrat".

Early life

Muhammadu Buhari was born to a Fulani family on 17 December 1942, in Daura, Katsina State, to his father Adamu and mother Zulaihat. He is the twenty-third child of his father. Buhari was raised by his mother, after his father died when he was about four years old.
He attended primary school in Daura and Mai'adua before proceeding to Katsina Model School in 1953, and to Katsina Provincial Secondary School (now Government College Katsina) from 1956 to 1961.

Early military career

Buhari joined the Nigerian Army by enrolling in the Nigerian Military Training College (NMTC) in 1961. In February 1964, the college was upgraded to an officer commissioning unit of the Nigerian Army and renamed the Nigerian Defence Academy (NDA) (prior to 1964, the Nigerian government sent cadets who had completed their NMTC preliminary training to mostly Commonwealth military academies  for officer cadet training). From 1962 to 1963, Buhari underwent officer cadet training at Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot in England.
In January 1963, Buhari was commissioned a second lieutenant and appointed Platoon Commander of the Second Infantry Battalion in Abeokuta, Nigeria. From November 1963 to January 1964, Buhari attended the Platoon Commanders' Course at the Nigerian Military Training College, Kaduna. In 1964, he facilitated his military training by attending the Mechanical Transport Officer's Course at the Army Mechanical Transport School in Borden, United Kingdom.
From 1965 to 1967, Buhari served as commander of the Second Infantry Battalion and appointed brigade major, Second Sector, First Infantry Division, April 1967 to July 1967.

Northern counter-coup of 28 July 1966

In July 1966 Lieutenant Muhammadu Buhari was one of the participants in the "July Rematch" or so called "Counter-Coup", led by Lt-Col Murtala Muhammed, that overthrew and assassinated Nigeria's first self-appointed military Head of State General Aguiyi Ironsi, who had assumed leadership of the Nigerian government after a failed coup attempt on 15 January 1966, which overthrew the elected parliamentary government of Nigeria (also known as first republic). Other participants in the coup on 28 July 1966 included 2nd Lieutenant Sani Abacha, Lieutenant Ibrahim Babangida, Major Theophilus Danjuma, Lieutenant Ibrahim Bako among others. The coup was a reaction to the January coup where a group of mostly Igbo officers led by Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu overthrew the democratically elected government of Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. Many Northern soldiers were aggrieved by the murder of senior politicians, Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, northern regional premier, Ahmadu Bello, and four senior officers from northern Nigeria: Brigadier Zakariya Maimalari, Colonel Kur Mohammed, Lt-Cols Abogo Largema and James Pam The counter-coup was very bloody leading to the murder of mostly Igbo officers. Among the casualties were the first military head of state General Aguiyi Ironsi and Lt Colonel Adekunle Fajuyi, the military governor of the Western Region.

Civil war

Buhari was assigned to the 1st Division under the command of Lt. Col Mohammed Shuwa, the division had temporarily moved from Kaduna to Makurdi at the onset of the Nigerian Civil War. The 1st division was divided into sectors and then battalions with Shuwa assisted by sector commanders Martin Adamu and Sule Apollo who was later replaced by Theophilus Danjuma. Buhari's initial assignment was as Adjutant and Company Commander 2 battalion unit, Second Sector Infantry of the 1st Division. The 2 battalion was one of the units that participated in the first actions of the war, they started from Gakem near Afikpo and moved towards Ogoja with support from Gado Nasko's artillery squad. They reached and captured Ogoja within a week with the intention of advancing through the flanks to Enugu, the rebel capital. Buhari was briefly the 2 battalion's Commander and led the battalion to Afikpo to link with the 3rd Marine Commando and advance towards Enugu through Nkalagu and Abakaliki. However, before the move to Enugu, he was posted to Nsukka as Brigade Major of the 3rd Infantry Brigade under Joshua Gin who would later become battle fatigued and replaced by Isa Bukar.Buhari stayed with the infantry for a few months has the Nigerian army began to adjust tactics learnt from early battle experiences. Instead of swift advances, the new tactics involved securing and holding on to the lines of communications and using captured towns as training ground to train new recruits brought in from the army depots in Abeokuta and Zaria. In 1968, he was posted to the 4 Sector also called the Awka sector which was charged to take over the capture of Onitsha from Division 2. The sector's operations was within the Awka-Abagana-Onitsha region which was important to Biafran forces because it was a major source of food supply. It was in the sector that Buhari's group suffered a lot of casualties trying to protect food supplies route of the rebels along Oji River and Abagana.

After the war

From 1970 to 1971, Buhari was Brigade Major/Commandant, Thirty-first Infantry Brigade. He then served as the Assistant Adjutant-General, First Infantry Division Headquarters, from 1971 to 1972. He also attended the Defence Services Staff College, Wellington, India, in 1973.
From 1974 to 1975 Buhari was Acting Director of Transport and Supply at the Nigerian Army Corps of Supply and Transport Headquarters.

Buhari's participation in July 1975 coup

Then Lieutenant Colonel Buhari was among a group of officers (led by Colonels Ibrahim Taiwo, Joseph Garba, Abdulahi Mohammed, Anthony Ochefu, Lieutenant Colonels Shehu Musa Yar'Adua, Ibrahim Babangida and Alfred Aduloju) who overthrew the Head of State, General Yakubu Gowon.

Governor of North Eastern State

From 1 August 1975 to 3 February 1976, General Murtala Mohammed, appointed Buhari as Governor of the North-Eastern State, to oversee social, economic and political improvements in the state. Buhari also briefly served as Governor of Borno state from 3 February 1976 to 15 March 1976.
On 3 February 1976, the North Eastern state was divided by the Military Government into Bauchi, Borno and Gongola states. In August 1991, Yobe state was created from Borno state, while Gongola state was split into two states, Taraba and Adamawa. In October 1996, Gombe State was created from Bauchi State.

Federal Commissioner for Petroleum and Natural Resources

In March 1976, the Head of State, General Olusegun Obasanjo, appointed Buhari as the Federal Commissioner (position now called Minister) for Petroleum and Natural Resources. When the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation was created in 1977,Buhari was also appointed as its Chairman, a position he held until 1978. During his tenure as Commissioner, 2.8 billion Naira allegedly went missing from the accounts of the NNPC in Midlands Bank in the United Kingdom. Former President Ibrahim Babangida allegedly accused Buhari of being responsible for this fraud.
However, in the conclusion of the Crude Oil Sales Tribunal of Inquiry headed by Justice Ayo Irikefe to investigate allegations of N2.8 billion misappropriation from the NNPC account. The tribunal found no truth in the allegations even though it noticed some lapses in the NNPC accounts.
During Buhari's tenure as the Federal Commissioner for Petroleum and Natural Resources, the government invested in pipelines and petroleum storage infrastructures. The government built about 21 petroleum storage depots all over the country from Lagos to Maidugiuri and from Calabar to Gusau; the administration constructed a pipeline network that connected Bonny terminal and the Port Harcourt refinery to the depots. Also, the administration signed the contract for the construction of a refinery in Kaduna and an oil pipeline that will connect the Escravos oil terminal to Warri Refinery and the proposed Kaduna refinery.

Back in military service

From 1978 to 1979, he was Military Secretary at the Army Headquarters and was a member of the Supreme Military Council from 1978 to 1979. From 1979 to 1980, at the rank of colonel, Buhari (class of 1980) attended the US Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in the United States, and gained a Masters Degree in Strategic Studies Upon completion of the on-campus full-time resident program lasting ten months and the two-year-long, distance learning program, the United States Army War College (USAWC) college awards its graduate officers a master's degree in Strategic Studies.
Other roles include:
  • General Officer Commanding, 4th Infantry Division, August 1980 – January 1981
  • General Officer Commanding, 2nd Mechanised Infantry Division, January 1981 – October 1981
  • General Officer Commanding, 3rd Armed Division Nigerian Army, October 1981 – December 1983

Chadian military affair

In 1983, when Chadian forces invaded Nigeria in the Borno State, Buhari used the forces under his command to chase them out of the country, crossing into Chadian territory in spite of an order given by President Shagari to withdraw. This 1983 Chadian military affair led to more than 100 victims and "prisoners of war".

December 1983 military coup

Major-General Buhari was one of the leaders of the military coup of December 1983 that overthrew the democratically elected government of President Shehu Shagari. At the time of the coup plot, Buhari was the General Officer Commanding (GOC), Third Armored Division of Jos. With the successful execution of the coup by General Buhari, Tunde Idiagbon was appointed Chief of General Staff (the de facto No. 2 in the administration). The coup ended Nigeria's short-lived Second Republic, a period of multi-party democracy started in 1979. According to The New York Times, the officers who took power argued that "a flawed democracy was worse than no democracy at all". Buhari justified the military's seizure of power by castigating the civilian government as hopelessly corrupt and promptly suspended Nigeria's 1979 Constitution. Another rationale for the coup was to correct economic decline in Nigeria. Sani Abacha in the military's first broadcast after the coup linked ' an inept and corrupt leadership' with general economic decline. In Buhari's New Year day speech, he too mentioned the corrupt class of the second republic but also as the cause of a general decline in morality in the society.

Head of state (1983–85)

The structure of the new military leadership which was also the fifth in Nigeria since independence resembled the last military regime, the Obasanjo/Yaradua administration. The new regime established a Supreme Military Council, a Federal Executive Council and a Council of States. The number of ministries was trimmed to 18 while the administration carried out a retrenchment exercise among the senior ranks of the civil service and police. It retired 17 permanent secretaries and some senior police and naval officers. In addition, the new military administration promulgated new laws to achieve its aim. These laws included the Robbery and Firearms (Special Provisions) Decree for the prosecution of armed robbery cases, the State Security (Detention of Person) Decree which gave powers to the military to detain individuals suspected of jeopardizing state security or causing economic adversity. Other decrees included the Civil Service Commission and Public Offenders Decree which constituted the legal and administrative basis to conduct a purge in the civil service.

Bali Kingdom

From Wikipedia
Bali Dwipa
914–1908
The maximum extent of Balinese Kingdom of Gelgel in the mid-16th century
Capital
  • Bedulu (Warmadewa period)
  • Samprangan (Majapahit period)
  • Gelgel (Gelgel period)
  • Klungkung (Nine Kingdoms period)

The Kingdom of Bali was a series of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that once ruled some parts of the volcanic island of Bali, in Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. With a history of native Balinese kingship spanning from the early 10th to early 20th centuries, Balinese kingdoms demonstrated sophisticated Balinese court culture where native elements of spirit and ancestral reverence combined with Hindu influences – adopted from India through ancient Java intermediary – flourished, enriched and shaped the Balinese culture.
Because of its proximity and close cultural relations with the neighbouring Java island during the Indonesian Hindu-Buddhist period, the history of Bali Kingdom was often intertwined and heavily influenced by its Javanese counterparts, from Medang c. 9th century to Majapahit empire in 13th to 15th centuries. The culture, language, arts and architecture of the island was influenced by Java. Javanese influences and presences grew even stronger prompted with the fall of Majapahit empire in the late 15th century. After the empire fell to its Muslim vassal of Demak Sultanate, a number of Hindu Majapahit courtiers, nobles, priests and artisans, found refuge on the island of Bali. As a result Bali became what historian Ramesh Chandra Majumdar describes as the last stronghold of Indo-Javanese culture and civilisation. The Balinese Kingdom in subsequent centuries expanded their influence to neighbouring islands. The Balinese Kingdom of Gelgel for example extended their influences to Blambangan region in eastern end of Java, neighbouring island of Lombok, as far as western part of Sumbawa island, while Karangasem established their rule on western Lombok in later period.
Since the mid-19th century, the colonial state of Dutch East Indies began its involvements in Bali, as they launched their campaign against Balinese minor kingdoms one by one. By the early 20th century, the Dutch has completed their conquest of Bali as these minor kingdoms fell under their control, either by force resulted in Puputan fighting followed by mass ritual suicide, or surrendered graciously to the Dutch. Either way, despite some of these Balinese royal houses still survived, this events has ended a millennia of native Balinese independent kingdom, as the local government changed to Dutch colonial administration, and later to provincial government of Bali within the Republic of Indonesia.

Early kingdom

 Warmadewa dynasty

Bali has been inhabited by humans since Paleolithic times (1 my BCE to 200,000 BCE), testified by the finding of ancient tools such as hand axes in Sembiran and Trunyan villages in Bali. Followed by Mesolithic period (200.000–3,000 BCE); however the ancestors of current Balinese inhabitants reached the island around 3000 to 600 BCE during Neolithic period, characterised by rice-growing technology and speaking Austronesian languages. Bronze Age period follows, from around 600 BCE to 800 CE.

Stupika which contains Buddhist votive tablets, 8th-century Bali. The bell-shaped stupas similar to Central Javanese Buddhist art.
The historical period in Bali started c. 8th century, marked by the discovery of inscribed Buddhist votive clay tablets. These Buddhist votive tablets, found in small clay stupa figurines called "stupikas", are the first known written inscriptions in Bali and date from around the 8th century CE. Such stupikas have been found in the regency of Gianyar, in the villages of Pejeng, Tatiapi and Blahbatuh. The bell-shaped stupikas bears resemblances to the style of the 8th-century stupas of Central Javanese Buddhist art found in Borobudur and other Buddhist temples dated from that period, which suggested the Sailendra link to the Buddhist pilgrims or inhabitant of early Bali's history.

The Belanjong pillar in Sanur (914), one of the earliest inscription in Bali
In the early 10th century, Sri Kesari Warmadewa created the Belanjong pillar inscription found near the southern strip of Sanur beach. It was the oldest written inscription created by a ruler found in Bali. The pillar dated according to the Indian Saka calendar, in 836 saka (914 CE). According to the inscription, Sri Kesari was a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty that led a military expedition, to establishing a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali. Two other inscription by Kesari are known in the interior Bali, which suggest conflicts in the mountainous interior of the island. Sri Kesari is considered as the founder as the Warmadewa dynasty, the earliest known ruler of Bali, which prospered for several generations prior to Javanese expansion.
It seems that the centre of early court of Bali was first located in Sanur area east of today Denpasar city, and later the political, religious and cultural centre moved inland to the north, clustered around southern plain within today Gianyar Regency; more precisely in the old royal centre in Bedulu, near Goa Gajah and Gianyar. The stone cave temple and bathing place of Goa Gajah, near Ubud in Gianyar, was made around the same period. It shows a combination of Buddhist and Hindu Shivaite iconography. Several carvings of stupas, stupikas (small stupas), and image of Boddhisattvas suggested that Warmadewa dynasty was the patron of Mahayana Buddhism. Nevertheless, Hinduism is also practised in Bali during this period.

Javanese ties



Gunung Kawi rock-cut candi shrines demonstrate similar temple style of Java during the late Medang period.
In the second half of the 10th century, Bali was ruled by king Udayana Warmadewa and his queen, Mahendradatta, a princess of Isyana dynasty from East Java. Mahendradatta was the daughter of king Sri Makutawangsawarddhana, and sister of king Dharmawangsa of Medang Kingdom. The presence of a Javanese queen in the Balinese court suggested that either Bali had formed an alliance with East Java, or Bali was Java's vassal; their marriage was a political arrangement to seal Bali as part of East Javanese Medang realm. The royal Balinese couple was the parents of the famous king of Java, Airlangga (991–1049). Airlangga's younger brothers Marakata and later Anak Wungçu rose to the Balinese throne.
The rock-cut candi shrine of Gunung Kawi in Tampaksiring was made around the same period. It demonstrates similar temple style of Java during the late Medang period. The Warmadewa dynasty continued to rule Bali well until the 12th century with the reigns of Jayasakti (1146–50) and Jayapangus (1178–81). Contacts with imperial China were also important during this period. Chinese coins called kepeng were widely in use in the Balinese economy. In the 12th century, king Jayapangus of northern Bali is known to have married a Chinese princess, and has been immortalised through the Barong Landung artform as the effigy of the king and his Chinese consort.
After the Warmadewa dynasty, their descendant and their link to Javanese court, there was no continuous further detailed information found about the rulers of Bali. It seems that Bali had developed a new native dynasty quite independent from Java.
In the late 13th century, Bali once again appeared in Javanese source as in 1284, king Kertanegara launched a Pabali offensive expedition against Balinese rulers, which integrated Bali into the Singhasari’s realm. However, after the Jayakatwang rebellion of Gelang-gelang in 1292 that led to the death of Kertanegara and the fall of Singhasari, Java was unable to assert their rule upon Bali, and once again Balinese rulers enjoyed their independence from Java.
The Javanese contacts led to a deep impact on the language of Bali which was impacted by the Kawi language, a style of Old Javanese. The language is still used in Bali though is rare.

Majapahit period


Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.


In East Java, Majapahit under the reign of queen regnant Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi and her able and ambitious Prime Minister Gajah Mada, saw the expansion of Majapahit armada into neighbouring islands in Indonesian archipelago including nearby Bali. According to Babad Arya Tabanan manuscript, in 1342 Majapahit troops led by Gajah Mada assisted by his general Arya Damar, the regent of Palembang, landed in Bali. After seven months of battles, Majapahit forces defeated the Balinese king in Bedulu (Bedahulu) in 1343. After the conquest of Bali, Majapahit distributed the governing authority of Bali among Arya Damar's younger brothers; Arya Kenceng, Arya Kutawandira, Arya Sentong and Arya Belog. Arya Kenceng led his brothers to govern Bali under Majapahit banner, he would become the ancestor of Balinese kings of Tabanan and Badung royal houses.
Canto 14 of the Nagarakretagama, composed during the reign of Hayam Wuruk in 1365, mentioned several places in Bali; Bedahulu and Lwa Gajah (identified as Goa Gajah) as places under Majapahit dominion. The Majapahit capital in Bali was established at Samprangan and later Gelgel. Following Hayam Wuruk's death in 1389, Majapahit entered a steady period of decline with conflict over succession, among other was Paregreg war (1405 to 1406).
In 1468 Prince Kertabhumi rebelled against King Singhawikramawardhana and captured Trowulan. The usurped king moved the capital further inland to Daha (the former capital of Kadiri), effectively split Majapahit into two centres of powers; Trowulan and Daha. Singhawikramawardhana was succeeded by his son Ranawijaya in 1474, that ruled from Daha. To keep Majapahit influence and economic interest, Kertabhumi awarded Muslim merchant trading rights on the north coast of Java, an action which led to the prominence of Demak Sultanate in following decades. This policy increased Majapahit economy and influence, but weaken Hindu - Buddha's position as the main religion, as Islam began to spread faster and freely in Java. Hindu - Buddha followers' grievance later urged Ranawijaya to defeat Kertabumi.
In 1478, Ranawijaya's army under general Udara breached Trowulan defences and killed Kertabumi in his palace,Demak sent reinforcements under Sunan Ngudung, who later died in battle and was replaced by Sunan Kudus, but they came too late to save Kertabumi although they managed to repel the Ranawijaya's army. This event is mentioned in Jiwu and Petak inscription, where Ranawijaya claimed that he already defeated Kertabhumi and reunited Majapahit as one Kingdom. Ranawijaya ruled from 1474 to 1498 with the formal name Girindrawardhana, with Udara as his vice-regent. This event led to the war between Sultanate of Demak and Daha, since Demak ruler, Raden Patah, were the descendant of Kertabhumi.
In 1498, vice regent Udara usurped Girindrawardhana and the war between Demak and Daha recede. But this delicate balance end when Udara ask help to Portugal in Malacca and led Adipati Yunus of Demak to attack both Malacca and Daha. Another theory suggested that the reasons for the Demak's attacks against Majapahit was a revenge against Girindrawardhana, who had defeated Adipati Yunus' grandfather Prabu Bhre Kertabumi (Prabu Brawijaya V).The defeat of Daha under Demak marked the end of Hindu Majapahit era in Java. After the fall of the empire, many Majapahit nobles, artisans and priests took refuge either in the interior mountainous region of East Java, Blambangan in eastern end of Java, or across the narrow strait to Bali. The refugees probably fled to avoid Demak's retribution for their support for Ranawijaya against Kertabhumi.
The Javanese Majapahit empire influenced Bali both culturally and politically. The whole court of Majapahit fled to Bali following the conquest by the Muslim rulers in 1478, in effect resulting in the transfer of the whole culture. Bali was looked on as the continuation of the Hindu Javanese culture and is the major source of knowledge about it in the modern times. The incoming Javanese nobles and priests established Majapahit-style courts in Bali. The influx led to several important developments. The marriage of prominent Balinese families along with Majapahit royalty led to the foundation of upper caste lineages of Bali. Javanese ideas especially the Majapahit tradition influenced the religion and arts of the island. The Javanese language also affected the spoken Balinese language. The modern Bali architecture and temples share much in common with aesthetics and style of bas-reliefs in East Javanese temples from the Majapahit golden age.[15] Large numbers of Majapahit manuscripts, such as Nagarakretagama, Sutasoma, Pararaton and Tantu Pagelaran, were being well-kept in royal libraries of Bali and Lombok, and provides the glimpse and valuable historical records on Majapahit. As a result of the influx of the Javanese element, historian Ramesh Chandra Majumdar states that Bali "soon became the last stronghold of Indo-Javanese culture and civilisation."


Kingdom of Gelgel


The gate in Gelgel, the old royal capital of Bali.
nly a rice agriculture kingdom. The opening of a trading post was attempted in 1620 but failed due to local hostility. The VOC left the Bali trade to private traders, mainly Chinese, Arab, Bugis and occasionally Dutch, who mainly dealt with opium and slave trade.

Dewa Agung of Klungkung in 1908.
However, the Dutch slight indifference to Bali was totally changed in the 19th century, as Dutch colonial control expanded across the Indonesian archipelago and began to coveted the island. The Dutch used the pretext of eradicating opium smuggling, arms running, Balinese tawan karang tradition (plunder of shipwrecks), and slavery to impose their control on Balinese kingdoms. The Dutch East Indies army invaded northern Bali in 1846, 1848, and finally in 1849 the Dutch was able to take control of the nAccording to the Babad Dalem manuscript (composed in 18th century), the conquest of Bali by the Hindu Javanese kingdom of Majapahit was followed by the installation of a vassal dynasty in Samprangan in the present-day Gianyar regency, close to the old royal centre Bedulu. This event took place in the mid-14th century. The first Samprangan ruler Sri Aji Kresna Kepakisan sired three sons. Of these the eldest, Dalem Samprangan, succeeded to the rulership but turned out to be an incompetent ruler. His youngest brother Dalem Ketut founded a new royal seat in Gelgel while Samprangan lapsed in obscurity.
The first European contact with Bali was made in 1512, when a Portuguese expedition led by Antonio Abreu and Francisco Serrão sailed from Portuguese Malacca and reached northern coast of Bali. Bali was also mapped in 1512, in the chart of Francisco Rodrigues. In Majapahit, East Java, the fall of Daha to Demak Sultanate in 1517 has prompted the refuge of Hindu nobles, priests and artisans to Bali. In 1585, the Portuguese government in Malacca sent a ship to establish a fort and a trading post in Bali, but the mission failed as ship foundered on the reef of the Bukit peninsula.
By the 16th century, the Puri (Balinese court) of Gelgel become a powerful polity in the region. The successor of Dewa Ketut, Dalem Baturenggong, reigned in the mid-16th century. He received a Javanese Brahmin sage called Nirartha who fled from the decline of Hinduism in Java. The King become the patron of Nirartha, who carried out an extensive literary works that formed the spiritualism of Balinese Hinduism. Gelgel reached its apogee during the reign of Dalem Baturenggong, as Lombok, western Sumbawa and Blambangan on easternmost Java, were united under Gelgel's suzerainty. Gelgel's influence over the still Hindu Blambangan seems to caught the attention the Sultan of Mataram that aspired to unite the whole of Java and also to spread Islamic faith. In 1639 Mataram launched an invasion to Blambangan. Kingdom of Gelgel immediately supported Blambangan as a buffer against the Islamic expansion of Muslim Mataram. Blambangan surrendered in 1639, but quickly regained their independence and rejoined Bali soon after the Mataram troops withdrew. Mataram Sultanate itself, after the death of Sultan Agung, seems to preoccupied in their internal problems, and lost interest to continue their campaign and pursue hostilities against Blambangan and Gelgel.

The nine kingdoms of Bali


Map of Balinese nine kingdoms, circa 1900
After 1651 the Gelgel kingdom began to break up due to internal conflicts. In 1686 a new royal seat was established in Klungkung, four kilometres north of Gelgel. The rulers of Klungkung, known by the title Dewa Agung, were however unable to maintain power over Bali. The island was in fact split into nine minor kingdoms; Klungkung, Buleleng, Karangasem, Mengwi, Badung, Tabanan, Gianyar, Bangli and Jembrana. These minor kingdoms developed their own dynasty, built their own Puri (Balinese palace compound) and established their own government. Nevertheless, these nine kingdoms of Bali admitted Klungkung leadership, that the Dewa Agung kings of Klungkung are their primus inter pares among Balinese kings, and deserved the honourable titular as the king of Bali. Most of these kingdoms today formed the base and boundaries of Kabupaten (regencies) of Bali.
In following centuries, the various kingdoms would fought a succession of incessant wars among themselves, although they accorded the Dewa Agung a symbolic paramount status of Bali. This led to complicated relations amongst Balinese rulers, as there are many kings in Bali. This situation lasted until the coming of the Dutch in the 19th century.

The legend

The legend of Salar Masud and Suhaldev Rajbhar is found in the Persian language Mirat-i-Masudi. It is a historical romance, and a biography of Salar Masud, with a "gossipy feel".It was written by Abd-ur-Rahman Chishti during the reign of the Mughal emperor Jahangir (r. 1605-1627). The legend has been subsequently embellished by members of various castes and political groups (see politicization section below).
According to the legend, Suhaldev Rajbahr was the eldest son of King Mordhwaj of Shravasti. In different versions of the legends, he is known by different names, including Sakardev, Suhirdadhwaj, Suhridil, Suhridal-dhaj, Rai Suhrid Dev, Susaj, Suhardal, Sohildar, Shahardev, Sahardev, Suhar Deo, Suhaaldev, Suhildev, Suheldev and Suheldeo.
Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud (born in 1015), a nephew of Mahmud of Ghazni, invaded India at the age of 16. He crossed the Indus river, and conquered Multan, Delhi, Meerut and finally Satrikh. At Satrikh, he established his headquarters, and dispatched armies to defeat the local kings. Sayyad Saif-ud-din and Mian Rajjab were dispatched to Bahraich. The local Raja of Bahraich and other neighbouring Hindu kings formed a confederation, but an army led by Masud's father Gazi Saiyyed Salar Sahu defeated them. Nevertheless, they continued to threaten the invaders, and therefore, in 1033 CE, Masud himself arrived in Bahraich to check their advance. Masud inflicted defeat after defeat on his enemies, until the arrival of Suhaldev Rajbahr. Suhaldev's army defeated Masud's forces, and Masud was killed in a battle in 1034 CE.
Masud was buried in Bahraich, and in 1035 CE, a dargah was built to commemorate him.The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) claims that the site was once an ashram (hermitage) of the Hindu saint Balark Rishi, and was converted to a dargah by Feroze Tughlaq.
In later Hindutva-influenced versions, Suhaldev Rajbhar is characterized as a cow protector, patron of saints and benefactor of Hindus. In one of these versions, Salar Masud plans to place a herd of cows in front of his army, so that Suhaldev Rajbhar could not attack him (since cows are sacred to Hindus). Suahldev Rajbhar comes to know about this plan, and cuts the cows loose on the night before the battle.

Historicity

Alexander Cunningham, based on the traditional accounts of Tharu Rajas of Gonda, came up with the following genaology of Suhaldev's family:
  1. Mayura-dhwaja or Mora-dhaj, c. 900 CE
  2. Hansa-dhwaja or Hans-dhaj, c. 925 CE
  3. Makara-dhwaja or Makar-dhaj, c. 950 CE
  4. Sudhanya-dhwaja or Sudhanwa-dhaj, c. 975 CE
  5. Suhaldev or Suhridal-dhaj, c. 1000 CE

Politicization

Various caste groups have attempted to appropriate Suhaldev Rajbhar as one of their own. According to Mirat-e-Masudi, Suhaldev Rajbhar belonged to the "Bhar Tharu" community. Subsequent writers have identified his caste variously as "Bhar Rajput", Tharu, Bais Rajput, "Pandav Vanshi Tomar", Jain Rajput, Bharshiv, Tharu Kalhan, Nagavanshi Kshatriya and Visen Kshatriya.
In 1940, Guru Sahay Dikshit Dwijdeen, a local schoolteacher of Bahraich, composed a long poem Sri Suhal Bavani. Influenced by the Hindu reformist organization Arya Samaj, he projected Suhaldev Rajbhar as a Jain king and a saviour of the Hindu culture. The poem became very popular, and was regularly recited at local get-togethers. After the religion-based partition of India in 1947, the first printed version of the poem appeared in 1950. Arya Samaj, Ram Rajya Parishad and Hindu Mahasabha Sangathan promoted Suhaldev Rajbhar as a Hindu hero. In April 1950, these organizations planned a fair at the dargah of Salar Masud, to commemorate the king. Khwaja Khalil Ahmad Shah, a member of the dargah committee, appealed the district administration to ban the proposed fair, in order to avoid communal tensions. Accordingly, prohibitory orders were issued under Section 144 (unlawful assembly). A group of local Hindus organized a march against the order, and were arrested for rioting. To protest their arrest, Hindus shut down the local markets for a week and offered to be arrested in batches. The Indian National Congress leaders joined the protest, and around 2000 people went to jail before the administration relented and lifted the prohibitory orders.
Subsequently, the local Congress representative organized a rally and inaugurated the fair at Chittora. Suhaldev Smarak Samiti ("Suhaldev Monument Committee") was formed to construct a temple of Suhaldev. A princely state ruler of Prayagpur donated 500 bighas of land (including the Chittora Lake) to the Samiti. A temple of Suhaldev, with several paintings and sculptures, was constructed on this land.
During the 1950s and 1960s, the local politicians started characterizing Suhaldev Rajbhar as a Rajbhar king to influence the Rajbhar, a Dalit community and an important votebank around Bahraich. Gradually, the Rajbhar (claimed to be an offshoot of Bhars) started glorifying Suhaldev Rajbhar as a member of their own caste.Bahujan Samaj Party originally used the Suhaldev Rajbhar myth to attract Dalit voters. Later, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) also started using it to attract Dalits to their fold. Starting in the 1980s, the BJP-VHP-RSS organized fairs and nautankis to celebrate the Suhaldev Rajbhar myth, characterizing him as a Hindu Dalit who fought against a Muslim invader. Maharaja Suhaldev Sewa Samiti, an organization formed by Hindu nationalist activists in Bahraich in 2001, has been organizing various programmes to commemorate Suhaldev Rajbhar as a defender of the Hindu faith.


Mahyavanshi


From Wikipedia
Mahyavanshi had successful movement in the 20th century to establish their identity as a branch of Mayavat rulers.
  • Historical revision
The new nomenclature of Mahyavanshi was given to a large number of the Mahyavanshi vankar community in South Gujarat via a Government of India circular in 1939. This was due largely to the efforts of K. M. Munshi, then Home Minister of Bombay Presidency, and Dr. Purshottam Solanki, representative of the Depressed Classes of Gujarat, who stressed that its members were descendants of ancient rulers known as Mayavats. Later, in 1968, after the Indian annexation of Daman from the Portuguese, the community in Daman were given the same status.
In the 1930s-40s, many such communities were keen to regain their Rajput status back. mahyavanshi vankar claimed to be Mahyavanshi mayawat rajput descendants status . the Mahyavanshi claim was successful in gaining official recognition from the British Raj administration. In some cases, they had a history of working as butlers for members of the various European East India Companies in Surat since probably the 17th century and their success came because they were able to mobilise public opinion and procure support for their cause from both from British and Indian leaders and through books detailing their claimed history.The sociologist A. M. Shah says that the Mahyavanshi "have an elaborate mythology, caste journals, and written "laws" to regulate the affairs of the caste".
A prominent figure in re-writing the history of the Vankars was Makanji Kuber Makwana, who wrote several works on their putative ancient history and genealogy that linked them to the Mahyavat Rajputs, a branch of the Parmara clan who had ruled in eastern Bengal. He is regarded as the spearhead of the "Mahyavat Rajput Movement", which was the name given to the campaign to "regain" their Rajput status. The books of historical research concerning the Mahayavanshi were mainly published around the first decade of 20th century. These books included Makwana's Mayavat Rajput Prakash (1908) (A Light on Mayavat Rajputs), Mayavat Rajputoday (1911) (The Rise of Mayavat Rajput) and Mahyavanshi Atle Shu? (1911) (Who is a Mahyavanshi?) as well as Phakir Jeevan Mevashi's Mayavat Ranshingu arthat Khudarano Karta.
In a 1931 lecture, Munshi stressed that the Mahyavanshi were the descendants of the Hattiavanshi king Arjuna, arguing that it was because of the slaughter of Parashurama that they had been relegated to a lower caste status.
Others involved in this affirming this identity were Garibdasji Ramdasji and other Mahants of Ramanandi sect, Phakir Jeevan Mevasi, besides several of their community leaders spread across Bombay State (present day Maharashtra and Gujarat), Sindh ( Karachi and Raban ), Portuguese India ( Nani and Moti Daman ) and also from South Africa, where their population was living in cities like Johannesburg and Pretoria, who in unison impressed upon the government for revision of their social status.

Subdivisions

The Mahyavanshis are primarily divided into exogamous clans like Mathariya, Aatekar Pardinar, Damania, Kantharia, Barodia, Chaseia, Surti, Kosadia, Khanvanshi, Parmar, Rana, Rathod, Gohel, Solanki ,Tawdia and Vaghela.

Distribution

The community members are mainly located in regions of Gujarat, other than Kutch, and in Daman. There are some in Maharashtra and Rajasthan. The population is particularly numerous in Ahmedabad, Dahod, Mumbai and Surat.

Mahapadma Nanda 

- The first Shudra king of Magadha

 Watch this video  https://youtu.be/bZOplijpEvI



Mahapadma Nanda a barber by caste established The Nanda Dynasty or Nanda Empire in the territory of Magadha.Nanda Empire was one of the famous Ancient Indian Dynasties. It ruled in India at the time of 4th and 5th century BC. During the peak of its glory, the Nanda Dynasty had its stretch from Punjab to the west to Bengal to the east, and in the distant south upto the Vindhya Mountain Range.

He conquered the dynasties of Panchalas, Aikshvakus, Haihayas, Kasis, Asmaka, Kalinga, Maithilas, Kuru, and Sursenas and added these provinces to Magadha. Mahapadma Nandais also refered as Smarat (King with wide territory and acceptance) Ugrasena( Terribly strong) orMahapadmapati ( Most magnanimous Conqueror).



Mahapadma Nanda Was the first king of the Nanda dynasty. He was  also the first Shudra king of Magadha belonging to barber  sub caste of Hindu Religion classification.   Nanda Dynasty was established after Pradyota dynasty. Since Sisunga earlier a minister to the last Pradyota dynastyking and people made him the king.  Sisunga  belonged to the line of Bimbisara, so this dynesty is also called as Sisunga Dynasty. Mahapadma Nanda  has been described as "the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas". He  was the son of Mahanandin, a Kshatriya father from the Sisunaga dynasty and a Shudra mother.  Other Sons of Mahanandin from his Khatriya wives opposed the rise of Mahapadma Nanda, on which he eliminated all of them to claim the throne. The Indologist F. E. Pargiter dated Nanda's coronation to 382 BCE, and R. K. Mookerji dated it to  be 364 BCE.Mahapadma Nanda established the first greatest North Indian empire having its power centre in Maghada. He vanquished the old dynasties of North by, dethroning all kings.The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC.Mahapadma Nanda is recognized as  most powerful  (Chhakervarti samarat ) king of the entire land. The collapse of the old Kshatriya dynasties under the rigorous power politics of Mahapadma Nanda, who is explicitly denigrated as the son of a Shudra, and he extended   support to followers of non-Vedic philosophies. But the Vedis philosophers described the rise of Mahapadma Nanda as a mark of Kali Yuga because of their religious hate and narrow mindlessness. He was the ruler of the Nanda dynasty for all but 12 years of the dynasty's 100 years Rule. He is reported to have enjoyed his life span of 88 years.



Mahapadma Nanda, defeated the Panchalas . Panchalas was an ancient region of northern India, which corresponds to the geographical area around the Ganges River and Yamuna River, the upper Gangetic plain in particular. This would encompass the modern-day states of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh , Kasis, Haihayas(Malwa region includes districts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan), Kalingas (central-eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Odisha, as well as the Andhra region of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh), Asmakas, Kurus, Maithilas, Surasenas and the Vitihotras; to name a few]. Due to his ruling qualities and military power he expanded his territory south of the Deccan plains too.                                                                                                                        The Nandas are also described as the first empire builders in the recorded history of India. The Nanda Kings made the collection of taxes methodical, by regularly appointed officials. They had a strong administrative system. Their treasury was continuously supplemented to match the government expenditure. Nandas had large stock of wealth’s. The Nanda kings also built canals and in land water ways to establish an effective  irrigation system by digging new canals. On this, basis of a typically crop cultivation-oriented agriculture developed. Agriculture infrastructure was developed in a big way. The possibility of an imperial structure based on an essentially agrarian economy began to take firm roots in the Indian mind set.  This encouraged economy to develop on sound footing. This made their subjects prosperous in all fields of life.  They are reported to have developed standered weighing and measuring mechanism. The people enjoyed prosperous life conditions with out any danger from the out side invaders. Even the Great conqueror Alexander the Great (356 –323 BCE), did not dare to cross over present day Beas river to intrude into Nanda kingdom territory when he heard of  the military might stories from the natives. The King Porus had also put up a brave fight against the Alexander army. But when intruding army heard of even mightier Nanda King’s army  , they refused to go across Beas river. So the bravest barber Chakervarti   Smart  forced the marching Alexander army  stop from further  march so his loot and massacre of Indian masses was put to stop.Alexander’s dreams of conquering whole of India were dashed to ground by the Nandasmarat Dhana Nanda. 



The Nanda King inherited the large kingdom oMagadha and wished to extend it to yet more distant frontiers. To this purpose they built up a vast army, consisting of 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 2,000 war chariots and 3,000 war elephants (at the lowest estimates).According to Plutarch, the Greek biographer the size of the Nanda army was even larger, numbering 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000 war chariots, and 6,000 war elephants (294,000 troops ).  Since the  military might of Nandas had spread far and wide so no king including the  intruder Alexander could dare to  invade Nanda territory. There for the Nandas never had the opportunity to see their army up against  even Alexander.  Nandas proved that preparedness for war is preparedness for peace and hormony. Alexander invaded India at the time of Dhana Nanda, and confined his campaign up to the plains of Punjab. Alexander’s forces were, frightened by the prospect of facing a militarily powerful enemy and so mutinied at the Hyphasis River (the modern day Beas River) refusing to march any further. This was the might of the untouchable kings. But alas their religious peers reduced them to be non fighting persons, so the country was enslaved for centuries. 



The people enjoyed freedom of following the religion of their faith with out any fear. The peoplefollowed Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. But the rulers of the Nanda Empire embraced Jainism. Once the Nanda rulers took over the kingdom of Kalinga, they made Pataliputra (Patna Bihar), their capital. Revered Jivasiddhi, the Digambar saint, was adopted as master by Dhana Nanda the last Nanda Samrat. Pataliputra was then known all over the world for being the place of enlightenment of Lord Mahavira and learning . Lord Mahavira propagated Jainism whose message was asceticism, austerity and non-violence. The Nanda dynasty rulers were also known for their appreciation of writing and art. They offered support to a number of academics and researchers. Panini, the eminent linguist, was born during this era.  The Nanda dynasty kings were great builders too. The majority of the stupas of Rajgir and at other major Hindu religious holy places were constructed during last Nanda ruler. 



The following Nanda dynasty rulers came during a short period of 12 years after great Mahapadma Nanda Smarat ,the destroyer of Kshatriyas. They were Panghupati, Pandhuka, Bhutapala, Govishanaka, Rashtrapala, Kaivarta, Dashasidkhaka, Mahendra, and Dhana Nanda (also known as Argames) (? – c. 321 BC).



The Nanda dynasty was over run by the Chandergupta the founder of Maurya Dynasty. The Maurya Dynasty ruler ruled over India between 322 BCA to 185 BCE with Chandergupta as the founder to little after Ashoka the Great. It was Ashoka the Great, who himself converted into Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism spread to other parts of Asia. During the Mauryas, the Hinduism took the shape that fundamentally taught the religious principles which are followed even to the present day.                                                            



Mahapadma Nanda Smarat was the founder of a huge  Nanda Dynasty empire and was the first non-Kshatriya ruler of northern India during that  time. Following his extensive regime and demise, the kingdom was assumed by Pandhuka. Subsequently, a succession of rulers arrived and ruled over Magadha. Mahapadma Nanda Smarat shall be long remembered as a great just ruler during whose rule his subjects enjoyed the life benefits with out fear or favour. No foreign invader could dare to cross over to the Magadha territory with an evil eye.

References:-1. Ancient India, Text Book (Class XI )NCERT 2002

                      2. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Nanda Empire

From Wikipedia
Nanda Empire
345 BCE–321 BCE
The Nanda dynasty at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda c. 325 BCE.



Asia in 323 BCE, showing borders of the Nanda Empire in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbours.


A silver coin of 1 karshapana of the Magadha Empire (ca 600-32 BC), King Mahapadma Nanda or his sons (ca 346-321 BC) Obv: different symbols Rev: different symbols including an elephant. Dimensions: 17 mm Weight: 2.5 g.




The Nanda dynasty originated from the region of Magadha in ancient India during the 4th century BCE and lasted between 345–321 BCE. At its greatest extent, the empire ruled by the Nanda Dynasty extended from Bengal in the east, to the Punjab region in the west and as far south as the Vindhya Range.The rulers of this dynasty were famed for the great wealth which they accumulated. The Nanda Empire was later conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, who founded the Maurya Empire.

Establishment of the dynasty

Mahapadma Nanda, who has been described in the Puranas as "the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas", defeated many other kingdoms, including the PanchalasKasisHaihayas, Kalingas,Asmakas, Kurus, MaithilasSurasenas and the Vitihotras; to name a few. He expanded his territory south of the Vindhya Range into the Deccan Plateau. The Nandas, who usurped the throne of the Shishunaga dynasty c. 345 BCE, were thought to be of low origin. He was the son of Mahanandin, and a Shudra mother.

Military

The Nanda kings built on the foundations laid by their Haryanka and Shishunaga predecessors to create the first great empire of north India. To achieve this objective they built a vast army, consisting of 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 2,000 war chario According to the Greek historian Plutarch, the size of the Nanda army was even larger, numbering 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000 war chariots, and 6,000 war elephants.However, the Nandas never had the opportunity to see their army face Alexander, who invaded North-western India at the time of Dhana Nanda, since Alexander was forced to confine his campaign to the plains of Punjab and Sindh, for his forces mutinied at the river Beas and refused to go any further upon encountering "the 4000 well trained and well equipped war elephants of the Gangaridei (Nanda)" according to Diodorus.
A possible indication of Nanda military victories in Kalinga is suggested by the later Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela, which mentions a King named Nanda building a canal and conquering a place. The existence of a place called Nau Nand Dehra (Nanded) on the Godavari is taken by some scholars as reflecting Nanda rule over the Deccan. The evidence for the extension of Nanda rule into trans-Vindhyan India is not, however, strong.

Wealth

The Nandas were also renowned for their immense wealth. They undertook irrigation projects and invented standardized measures for trade across their empire, and they ruled with the assistance of many ministers. The Nanda Dynasty was also mentioned in the ancient Sangam literature of the Tamil people. The famous Tamil poet Mamulanar described the capital city Pataliputra of the Nanda Dynasty and the wealth and treasure that was accumulated by the great Nanda rulers.Their unpopularity, possibly due to their "financial extortion", facilitated a revolution, leading to their overthrow by Chandragupta Maurya and Kautilya. Nevertheless, "the greatness [...] attained in the Maurya Age would hardly have been possible but for the achievements of their predecessors", the Nandas.

List of Nanda rulers

The Mahabodhivamsa lists the following as the nine Nanda kings:
  • Mahapadma Nanda (Sarvarthasidi)
  • Panduka
  • Pandugati
  • Bhutapala
  • Rashtrapala
  • Govishanaka
  • Dashasiddhaka
  • Kaivarta
  • Dhana Nanda (Agrammes / Xandrames)

Iron tribute to Dalit king: Raja Shailesh

Patna, Jan. 23: Come February, a nine-tonne iron and steel sculpture of Raja Shailesh, the king of Dusadh community in ancient Mithila, would greet visitors at Eco Park.
Rajat Kumar Ghosh, a 1978 alumni of Patna College of Arts and Crafts who won the national award for his sculptures and terracotta work in 1984, is making the statue of the Dalit king. It would be on display during the Bihar Divas celebrations.
“The sculpture of Raja Shailesh will be complete by the end of this month. It will be put on display at the Eco Park before the Bihar Divas celebrations begin (in March),” he told The Telegraph.
On his choice of Raja Shailesh as the theme of his sculpture, Ghosh said: “He was the king of the Dusadhs and worked for the welfare of his community in Mithila in ancient times. I read about him in a book by Mani Padma years ago. Since then I wanted to make a sculpture of his. Finally I got an opportunity. There can be no better occasion than the Bihar Divas celebrations.”
The sculptor has used eight tonnes of iron and a tonne of steel to make the 20ft-tall statute that would be golden in colour.
About Raja Shailesh, the artist said: “I was always fascinated by heroes of ancient times such as Reshma Chuharmal, Dina Badri, Hirni Birni and Raja Cholan. All these leaders played a major role during their times. But there is hardly any information available on them. In fact, very few have heard about them. As an artist, I have always tried to focus on these legendary characters.” He added: “My idea is to modernise ancient art.”
Ghosh’s works are on display at Unicef garden in Patna, National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi and North Zone Culture Centre in Chandigarh among other places.
Ghosh said he was “happy” with the way things are working out for artists in Bihar. “Budding artists are coming up with great ideas and even the government is giving them opportunities,” he said.



I thought I would move away from the broader Mithila tradition in this post and take a look at paintings by one particular group, the Dusadhs, and particularly at their representations of Salhesh.
In the state of Bihar of which Mithila forms the northern part, the Dalit (untouchable) castes have their own heroes and stories outside of the classical Brahmin tradition. Among the Dusadh caste, the watchman caste, which numbered over four million in the Bihar 2001 census, Lord Salhesh is revered as a hero and demigod.  
The earliest printed Salhesh story seems to be that of the British colonial official and scholar George Grierson.   In his collection of popular stories and poems in the Maithili language published in 1882 there is that of  ’King Salhes’.  Grierson says the story is known throughout the region and that in the villages one can see Salhesh shrines under pipal trees with clay figures representing the characters in the story.
The story, as told to Grierson, is both a love story and an adventure tale. Salhesh is the appointed watchman of a king’s realm and his reputation is so fierce that no one dares commit any thefts.  When the queen’s golden bed is stolen in the middle of the night by a bold thief, Salhesh is blamed and in danger of losing his life.  His lover Dauna Malin uses her magic and her beauty to rescue Salhesh and help him return the golden bed to the king. 
Today there are other stories told about Salhesh.  He is remembered as one who possessed magical powers in his own right and he is remembered as a Dalit who had to endure insults and discrimination on his way to becoming a powerful king.  There are festivals in his honor and the Dusadh as well as other Dalit castes come to workship and pray at his shrines.
Here are two small paintings I purchased in Delhi in 2010.  They are a matched pair of Salhesh and his brother Moti Ram.  Below is the Moti Ram piece.
Moti Ram sits confidently astride his horse.   Both horse and rider are at a slight angle leaning back which gives the impression that the horse is rearing or about to charge forward. The image of a warrior going into battle.  The medallion is heavily ornamented with Moti Ram tightly  framed by flowers and bushes.  In the full painting two pairs of love birds decorate the top of the painting with two Malin girls at the bottom.  Frequently in drawings of Salhesh and Moti Ram, as in both of these pieces, the faces are simply two straight lines forming an angle with a dot for the eye - just a notation to indicate the head in profile - there is no signature Mithila almond shaped eye.
The Salhesh painting is similar in style to that of Moti Ram but the scene in the medallion is quite different.  
This is not the image of a warrior about to charge but rather that of a commander firmly mounted on an elephant at the head of his army.  The pace is slow, steady and purposeful as befits the leader of a people.   Dauna Malin walks behind  Salhes.  In the background, a third figure seems to be carrying a weapon.  I would suggest this might be Kari Kant who is specifically mentioned in Grierson account as coming along with Moti Ram to help Salhesh.  The full painting has the same dense jungle foliage look as that of the Moti Ram piece but peacock tails frame the painting instead of tree trunks and the central medallion is dramatically outlined with a wide black circle within which there are small white dots where the area has deliberately not been painted black.     
Here are three more black and white paintings for this post on Salhesh. These are tattoo paintings by Dalit artists, so called because when the Dalits first began to paint they used the repetitive decorative tattoos on their bodies for inspiration.
The first is a simple but quite beautiful piece from 1988.  It takes the style of a Krishna rasa lila piece but no flute and the elephants tell us we are dealing with Salhesh and not Krishna, so the dancing figures in the circle are Salhesh’s Malin maidens and not Krishna’s milkmaid Gopis.  Note again the simple notation for the head in profile.  Also the birds and butterflies, a common motif in Salhesh paintings. 
Next is a close up of Urmila Devi’s painting, Salhesh and Moti Ram. She also uses the circular form but instead of Krishna and Radha dancing in the center we have Salhesh and Moti Ram around a tree of life.  Elephants and horses, their respective mounts, fan out in alternate circles to occupy the rest of the painting. This is a very well drawn piece. Note the elephants marching solemnly along while the horses have quite a lively look with flying manes and hoofs.
The last painting is a striking tattoo piece, Ghosts of Salhesh, by the late Chano Devi who died in the spring of 2010.  The repetition of the single black figure and the wavy uneven line adds to the other worldly effect. 


King Usinara and Kakshivat

Gautama Dirghatamas of rigid vows begat on the Sudra woman Ausinari (the daughter of king Usinara) Kakshivat and other celebrated sons (2:21, 12:172). These sons later became the kings of Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Pundra and Suhma.

King Devaka

King Devaka had a daughter endued with youth and beauty and begotten upon a Sura wife. Bringing her from her father’s abode, Bhishma married her to Vidura of great wisdom. And Vidura begot upon her many children like unto himself in accomplishments .

 by Somnath Mishra .


important dynasty of medieval south India: 
Vijayanagara empire (founded 1336).

The founder kings of Vijayanagara, brothers Harihara and Bukkaraya (two of five brothers) belonged to the Kuruba (shepherd) community of Karnataka. Harihara (or Hakka) was a pAlyagAra (regional administrator) in the Hoysala kingdom under Veera Ballala III.

When Ballala went up against the invading Alauddin Khilji and later Muhammad bin Tughlaq, the erstwhile glorious Hoysala empire was significantly weakened. In a battle with Madurai sultan Ghiyasuddin he eventually lost and was killed. Hakka and Bukka were taken captive and forcefully converted to Islam, circumcised and imprisoned in Delhi. They somehow managed to escape back to their home region and were re-converted back to Hinduism by the great sage Svami Vidyaranya. By his spiritual guidance and inspiration, Hakka and Bukka gathered the remnants of the fallen and defeated Hindu kingdoms of south India (Yadavas, Hoysalas, Gangas, Kadambas, Pandyas) and built a strong and revitalized Hindu empire to thwrt the increasing and repeated attacks from the Muslim rulers of north and Deccan.

According to foreign travelers, the empire was considered the pinnacle of law & order, administration, equality & fluidity of castes, high respect for women, and the bastion of Hindu culture, religion and philosophy, attracting scholars and artists from all over India.


  • Chamar-Satnami kingdom

    There was a Satnami Kingdom of Narnaul (Haryana). The Satnami sect of Hinduism was founded in 1657 in Narnaul (a town in today’s Indian state of Haryana, situated about 100 km south-west of Delhi), by a saint names Birbhan. They are considered to be an offshoot of the followers of the great saint Ravidas. 
    The Satnami revolt occurred in the reign of the Moghul Emperor Aurungzeb. Many Hindus resented Aurungzeb’s strict Islamic policies-which included reviving the hated Islamic Jiziya tax (poll tax on non-Muslim subjects), banning music and art, and destroying Hindu temples. The revolt began in 1672 when a Moghul soldier killed a Satnami. Other Satnamis took revenge on the Moghul soldier, and in turn the Moghul soldiers went about repressing the Satnamis. The result was that about 5,000 Satnamis were up in arms. They routed the Moghul troops situated in the town, drove away the Moghul administrators and set up their own administration in its place. The uprising gained the enthusiasm of Hindus in Agra and Ajmer also. Though totally lacking in weaponry and money, the Satnamis inflicted several defeats on the Moghul forces. The contemporary Moghul chronicler, Saqi Mustaid Khan, expressed amazement as to what came over this “destitute gang of goldsmiths, carpenters, sweepers and tanners and other… artisan castes that their conceited brains became so overclouded? Rebellious pride having found a place in their brains, their heads became too heavy for their shoulders.” This also shows the thinking of Muslim intelligentsia who regard them as untouchables. Amusingly, in contrast, Hindus have greatly respected the Satnamis throughout for their beliefs like prohibition of intoxicants and meat. The resentment of the Satnami’s against the Moghul persecution meant that they even enacted revenge by destroying mosques in the area. It was only with great difficulty that any Muslim soldiers could be brought to face the Satnamis, such was the wrath of the Satnamis at the time. It was only when Aurungzeb himself took personal command and s
  • The name Satnami reflects the major religious activity of the sect-which is the chanting and meditation of the true name (satnam, names of God), especially the names of Rama and Krishna. Fixing the mind devotedly on divine names, the fluctuations of the consciousness are stabilised, which makes one fit to receive higher intuitive knowledge of the divine. The sect is comprised mostly, but by no means exclusively, of the lower strata of Hindu society-particularly the leather working, sweeper, carpenters, and goldsmith communities-and they observe no caste distinctions-judging people only be their actions. They were known to have dressed simply like saints, and keep shaved heads (and were hence also called mundiyas), and abstain from intoxicants and animal foods. These tenets are still practiced by many today. Today the sect numbers over 15 million, and followers are to be found in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar,Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra. This huge spread is because those who survived the genocide following their rebellion against the Moghuls spread out into small units over vast tracts of land.



  • Khusro Khan

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Khusro Khan
    Sultan of Delhi
    Reign1320 CE
    PredecessorQutb ud din Mubarak Shah
    SuccessorGhiyath al-Din Tughluq
    DiedOctober 1320
    Delhi
    HouseDelhi Sultanate
    Khusro Khan (also spelled Khusrau Khan or Khusru or Khusraw Khan) was a medieval Indian military leader, and ruler of Delhi as Sultan Nasiruddin Khusrau Shah for a short period of time.

    Early career

    The conquest of the Deccan by the Delhi Sultanate began in 1296 when Alauddin Khilji raided and plundered Devagiri. Later in that year, Alauddin subsequently murdered his uncle, the reigning sultan, Jalaluddin, and took his place as head of the sultanate. Among Alauddin's subsequent actions, in 1309 he forced the Kakatiya dynasty of Telangana and Coastal Andhra to become subordinate to him.
    In 1318, Prataparudra II, the Kakatiya ruler, defied his masters in Delhi by refusing to send the annual tribute expected of him. Alauddin responded by sending Khusrau Khan, one of his generals, to the Kakatiya capital at what is now Warangal. Khan's force bristled with technology previously unknown in the area, including trebuchet-like machines, and Prataparudra had to submit once more to the sultanate. The amount of his annual tribute was changed, becoming 100 elephants and 12,000 horses.

    Khusro Khan, the Hindu, who converted

    Alaudin Khilji attacked Gujarat in 1297 AD under the command of Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan and defeated the last Hindu Ruler of Gujarat Karan Vaghela. Before Khilji forces killed leaders Hamirji Gohil and Vegado Bhil near Somnath, Vagedo took a promise from one of his loyal to escape and take revenge from Khilji. This guy came to Delhi as a war prisoner and converted to Islam.  He was given the name ‘Hasan’ and later Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah of Khilji dynasty gave him the name ‘Khusro Khan’.
    It is said that Khusro Khan got Alauddin Khilji killed through his friend Jahiriya and later managed to kill his master Mubarak Shah and declared himself the king of Delhi. But in just 4 months, he was captured and killed by Khilji’s loyal general Ghyasuddin Tughlaq, who after that formed his own dynasty by the name ‘Tughlaq Dynasty’.
    Khusro Khan was against laws which favoured tax system based on religion. It is said that he was against women being treated as war booty. He took strong steps to prevent harems and sex slaves. Perhaps his own sufferings made him think this way but this caused nobles to go against him.

    Brief rule


    Billon 2 gani of Khusro Khan
    After Alauddin's death in 1316, Khusrau Khan managed to kill Alauddin's son and successor as sultan, Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah, ending the Khilji dynasty in 1320. Khusro then assumed the throne. Khusro in turn was captured by the governor of DipalpurGhazi Malik, and beheaded in Sept. 1320.
    EVOLUTION OF CHAMAR AND JATAV MAHASABHA FOR DALIT SOCIETY IN UNITED PROVINCES 
     Dr. Om Prakash Singh, 
    Deptt. of History Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar {A Central} University, Lucknow 
    ABSTRACT Dalit a category made deep forays into academic circles. The march of Chamar and Jatav towards development trajectory in terms of socio-political and economic captured by several studies. Especially the success of Chamar and Jatav assertions in the sphere of politics in Utter Pradesh has been a stimulating factor for several studies on various aspects of Chamar and Jatav Mahasabha. This paper deals with historical frames and structural organization of these Mahasabha’s. It will also trace the initial step taken by these Mahasabha’s for the social development of Dalits and how these Lower Caste mahasabha’s worked for the inclusion of the excluded Dalits as well as marginal communities in United Provinces. 
    http://www.csirs.org.in/downloads/ijsirs/vol-3-issue-4/evolution-of-chamar-and-jatav-mahasabha-for-dalit-society-in-united-provinces.pdf

    Maharaja Bijli Pasi and Five Sikh Gurus!

    Maharaja Bijli Pasi, a Pasi king who was supposed to have ruled over some regions of UP in the medieval period, holds an important place in the Pasi caste history. He is a symbol of caste glory for all the Dalits, proving that some of the lower castes were also kings. The ruins of his fort from where he ruled are still present in Lucknow, which has been converted into a memorial. A statue of Bijli Pasi has been installed there in the image of a brave medieval warrior holding a bow and arrow.
    The story behind the creation of this image of Bijli Pasi is an interesting one. When Kanshi Ram wanted the statue to be installed, he asked the sculptors to put together the best features of five of the Sikh gurus also revered by the Dalits, like Guru Arjun Dev, Guru Govind Singh, Guru Nanak and so on. If one were to observe the statue of Bijli Pasi carefully one can identify these features.
    [Source: Women heroes and Dalit assertion in north India : culture, identity, and politics, Badri Narayan, Sage Publications, 2006, New Delhi]



    Maharaja Bijli Pasi Quila, Lucknow


    Gate of the Fort







    Information about the Bijli Pasi Fort in Lucknow

    A view of Smriti Upvan from the Fort in Lucknow

    Suhaldev

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Suhaldev is a semi-legendary Indian king from Shravasti, who is said to have defeated and killed the Ghaznavid general Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud in the early 11th century. He is mentioned in Mirat-i-Masudi, a 17th-century Persian-language historical romance. Since the 20th century, various Hindu nationalist groups have characterized him as a Hindu king who defeated a Muslim invader.




      • The legend of Salar Masud and Suhaldev is found in the Persian language Mirat-i-Masudi. It is a historical romance, and a biography of Salar Masud, with a "gossipy feel". It was written by Abd-ur-Rahman Chishti during the reign of the Mughal emperor Jahangir (r. 1605-1627). The legend has been subsequently embellished by members of various castes and political groups (see politicization section below).

    According to the legend, Suhaldev was the eldest son of King Mordhwaj of Shravasti. In different versions of the legends, he is known by different names, including Sakardev, Suhirdadhwaj, Suhridil, Suhridal-dhaj, Rai Suhrid Dev, Susaj, Suhardal, Sohildar, Shahardev, Sahardev, Suhar Deo, Suhaaldev, Suhildev, Suheldev and Suheldeo.
    Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud, a nephew of Mahmud of Ghazni, invaded India at the age of 16. He crossed the Indus river, and conquered Multan, Delhi, Meerut and finally Satrikh. At Satrikh, he established his headquarters, and dispatched armies to defeat the local kings. Sayyad Saif-ud-din and Mian Rajjab were dispatched to Bahraich. The local Raja of Bahraich and other neighbouring Hindu kings formed a confederation, but an army led by Masud's father Gazi Saiyyed Salar Sahu defeated them. Nevertheless, they continued to threaten the invaders, and therefore, in 1033 CE, Masud himself arrived in Bahraich to check their advance. Masud inflicted defeat after defeat on his enemies, until the arrival of Suhaldev. Suhaldev's army defeated Masud's forces, and Masud was killed in a battle in 1034 CE.

    Masud was buried in Bahraich, and 1035 CE, a dargah was built to commemorate him. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) claims that the site was once an ashram (hermitage) of the Hindu saint Balark Rishi, and was converted to a dargah by Feroze Tughlaq.
    In later Hindutva-influenced versions, Suhaldev is characterized as a cow protector, patron of saints and benefactor of Hindus. In one of these versions, Salar Masud plans to place a herd of cows in front of his army, so that Suhaldev could not attack him (since cows are sacred to Hindus). Suahldev comes to know about this plan, and cuts the cows loose on the night before the battle.

    Historicity

    Alexander Cunningham, based on the traditional accounts of Tharu Rajas of Gonda, came up with the following genaology of Suhaldev's family:
    1. Mayura-dhwaja or Mora-dhaj, c. 900 CE
    2. Hansa-dhwaja or Hans-dhaj, c. 925 CE
    3. Makara-dhwaja or Makar-dhaj, c. 950 CE
    4. Sudhanya-dhwaja or Sudhanwa-dhaj, c. 975 CE
    5. Suhaldev or Suhridal-dhaj, c. 1000 CE

    Politicization

    Various caste groups have attempted to appropriate Suhaldev as one of their own. According to Mirat-e-Masudi, Suhaldev belonged to the "Bhar Tharu" community. Subsequent writers have identified his caste variously as "Bhar Rajput", Rajbhar, Tharu, Bais Rajput, "Pandav Vanshi Tomar", Jain Rajput, Bharshiv, Tharu Kalhan, Nagavanshi Kshatriya and Visen Kshatriya.
    In 1940, Guru Sahay Dikshit Dwijdeen, a local schoolteacher of Bahraich, composed a long poem Sri Suhal Bavani. Influenced by the Hindu reformist organization Arya Samaj, he projected Suhaldev as a Jain king and a saviour of the Hindu culture. The poem became very popular, and was regularly recited at local get-togethers. After the religion-based partition of India in 1947, the first printed version of the poem appeared in 1950. Arya Samaj, Ram Rajya Parishad and Hindu Mahasabha Sangathan promoted Suhaldev as a Hindu hero. In April 1950, these organizations planned a fair at the dargah of Salar Masud, to commemorate the king. Khwaja Khalil Ahmad Shah, a member of the dargah committee, appealed the district administration to ban the proposed fair, in order to avoid communal tensions. Accordingly, prohibitory orders were issued under Section 144 (unlawful assembly). A group of local Hindus organized a march against the order, and were arrested for rioting. To protest their arrest, Hindus shut down the local markets for a week and offered to be arrested in batches. The Indian National Congress leaders joined the protest, and around 2000 people went to jail before the administration relented and lifted the prohibitory orders.
    Subsequently, the local Congress representative organized a rally and inaugurated the fair at Chittora. Suhaldev Smarak Samiti ("Suhaldev Monument Committee") was formed to construct a temple of Suhaldev. A princely state ruler of Prayagpur donated 500 bighas of land (including the Chittora Lake) to the Samiti. A temple of Suhaldev, with several paintings and sculptures, was constructed on this land.

    During the 1950s and 1960s, the local politicians started characterizing Suhaldev as a Pasi king to influence the Pasis, a Dalit community and an important votebank around Bahraich.[10] Gradually, the Pasis (claimed to be an offshoot of Bhars) started glorifying Suhaldev as a member of their own caste.Bahujan Samaj Party originally used the Suhaldev myth to attract Dalit voters. Later, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) also started using it to attract Dalits to their fold. Starting in the 1980s, the BJP-VHP-RSS organized fairs and nautankis to celebrate the Suhaldev myth, characterizing him as a Hindu Dalit who fought against a Muslim invader. Maharaja Suhaldev Sewa Samiti, an organization formed by Hindu nationalist activists in Bahraich in 2001, has been organizing various programmes to commemorate Suhaldev as a defender of the Hindu faith.
    Suheldev Bharatiya Samaj Party, formed in 2002, is named after the king.

    In 2017, the Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath spoke at Hindu Vijay Utsav ("Hindu Victory Festival") organized by VHP to mark Suhaldev's victory over Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud. He expressed his agreement over the VHP's demand to rebuild a Surya Temple at Balaar in Bahraich (which is currently the site of Ghazi Miya's mazaar), and to construct a memorial in the name of Suhaldev.

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