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Sant Ravidas

Guru Ravidas

Ravidas, poet and mystic, was born to Raghu and Ghurbinia, who lived near the city of Varanasi. Not much biographical information about him is available, but, from what can be made out of his own compositions, he belonged to a low-caste family. He followed the family profession of tanning hides and making shoes. Gradually he started spending most of his time in the company of saints and Sadhus and built himself a thatched hut wherein he received and entertained wandering ascetics. Many stories became current about his simplicity and piety of nature.
Guru Ravidas
Guru Ravidas
Bornuncertain, ~1450
Varanasi, India
Dieduncertain, ~1520
Varanasi, India
HonorsVenerated as a Sant in Ravidassia religion and having hymns included in the Guru Granth Sahib

He became famous as a vaisnava saint in the tradition of Ramanand. In the course of his spiritual quest, he reached a stage when he discarded images and idols and turned to the worship of the one supreme being. He wrote deeply impassioned devotional verses and left his mark on Braj Bhasha literature for the fusion of religious sentiment with the vernacular medium. Forty of his hymns have been incorporated in the Sikh scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib. He travelled fairly widely and visited Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhdra Pradesh, Maharashtra besides a number of places in the northern India such as Prayab, Mathura, Vrindavan Haridvar, Gurgaon and Multan. At most of these places , there are monuments honouring his memory.

In his lifetime, he had thousands of followers, including members of High Castes, among them being Mirabai, the Rajput princess. They hymns Ravidas included in the Guru Granth Sahib fall under Raga -

 Siri(1), Gauri (5), Asa(6), Gujari(1), Sorathi(7), Dhanasari(3), Jaitsari(1), Suhi(3),  Bilaval(2), Gaund(2), Ramkali(1), Maru(2), Kedara(1), Bhairau(1), Basant(1), and Malhar. One of the hymns in raga Maru is the same (with a few minor changes) as included in raga Sorathi.

Ravidas acknowledged the unicity and imnopresence and omnipotence of God. According to him human soul is only a particle of the Divine; the different between the two is like the difference between Gold and the ornament, the water and the wave (GG,, 93). He rejects distinctions between man and man on the basis of caste or creed, for, as he says, in the world beyond no such differentiations will be acknowledges( GG, 345). To realize God, which is the ultimate end of human life, man should concentrate on His/Her name, giving up mere forms and ritualism (GG, 658, 1106). Birth in a low caste is no hindrance in the way to spiritual development. The only condition required is freedom from duality; all else including pilgrimage to and bathing in the sixty-eight centres is in vain (GG, 875).

His Wonders -

1. Kangan from Kathauti(a pot full of water).
2. Janeu from leather taning
3. Drink milk out of mother niple as Gurudakshina
4. Floating Shligram Stone in Ganga
5. Dead son became alive
6. A Brahman Boy Rescued

Ravidas (also RaidasRohidas[and Ruhidas in eastern India) was a North Indian Sant mystic of the bhakti movement who was active in the 15th century CE. Venerated in the region of Uttar Pradesh as well as the Indian state of Maharashtra, his devotional songs and verses made a lasting impact upon the bhakti movement. He is often given the honorific "Bhagat" or "Sant".

A shoemaker of the Chamar caste, all of his devotional songs were preserved included in the Sikh holy book, the Adi Granth, by the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev.There is also a larger body of hymns passed on independentlythat is claimedand attributed by some to Ravidas ji. Ravidas was subversive in that his devotionalism implied a levelling of the social divisions of caste and gender, yet ecumenical in that it tended to promote crossing of sectarian divides in the name of a higher spiritual unity.He taught that one is distinguished not by one's caste (jāti) but by one's actions (karma) and that every person has the right to worship God and read holy texts.

In the mid 20th centuries there emerged a distinct sect, the Ravidasis, for whom he is the chief Guru. Ravidasis are mainly Punjabi Chamar caste and their faith, the Ravidassia Religion, is a socia-religious identity. A temple was built at his birthplace in 1978. Ravidas Jayanti is celebrated with a procession, bearing the portrait of the great ascetic in the main streets and bazaars of the city with music.


The details of Guru Ravidas' life are controversial. According to some he was born in 1376/7 or else 1399 CE but many scholars offer later dates. Schaller estimates his lifespan as 1450-1520 while the Encyclopædia Britannica contents itself with a floreat of 15th-16th century CE Partly this is due to traditions that make him, one one hand, like his contemporary Kabir the disciple of Ramananda (he is mentioned as such c.1600 CE in Nabhadas' Bhaktamal) but also, on the other, the guru of Meera (according to a song attributed to her: "guru miliyaa raidasjee"). However, as Schaller points out, the importance of such claims lies in their establishing the authority of a lineage of gurus (parampara). One may count oneself a disciple of a master without having actually met him.

His origin and parents are also given differently. According to one account he was born in a village named Seer Govardhanpur, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, India: his father Baba Santokh Das was a leather merchant (chamar) and Mata Kalsa Devi was his mother. His father got him married to Mata Lona Devi at early age and according to the Ravidas Purana he had a son named Vijaydas. A region between Ahmednagar and Benares is named after him.

The queen of Chittorgarh is said to have been a disciple (this may be connected with Meera, who was married to the ruler of Chittorgarh). It is said that the conservative Brahmins of Kashi could not stand the popularity of this "untouchable saint". A complaint was made to the king that he was working against age-old norms of social order (varnashrama dharma) - a cobbler was not supposed to talk of God or do work of advising or teaching. The ruler arranged for an assembly of learned men. Ravidas was also invited and was felicitated publicly. A procession was arranged (shobha yatra) and the king himself participated.
Today he is respected, as when Bangaru Laxman (Organiser, 6-8-1995) accused Congress leader Sitaram Kesri of showing "disrespect to Dalit saints like Ravidas, Satyakam Jabali, Sadhna Kasai, Banka Mahar, Dhanna Chamar and others who protected Hindus against foreign onslaughts.

Songs and teachings

How to escape? I recite the name Ram.
Lord, if you are sandalwood, I am water;
With the fragrance in all parts of my body.
Lord, if you are a cloud, I am a peacock;
Looking for you like a chakora for the moon.
Lord, if you are a lamp, I am the wick;
With a light burning day and night.
Lord, if you are a pearl, I am the thread;
Together like gold and bracelet.
Lord, you are the master and I servant;
thus is the devotion of Raidas.
This song demonstrates several key facets of Ravidas' sant bhakti'. His similes for the divine - water, cloud, light, gold - suggest the one god (Ik Onkar) and state that he himself is inseparable from that formless(Waheguru) yet that he is the one who gives it form.

Meera Bai Saved

Meera Bai was the only child of her parents. Meera Bai was a queen of Chittor and a daughter of the king of Rajasthan. Her mother died when Meera Bai was still in her infancy. She was brought up under the custody of Duda Ji, her grandfather who was a worshipper of God. He had met Guru Ravidass Ji several times. He was under his influence. Meera Bai was also influenced by the devotional bent of mind of her grandfather. It is said that at the time of marriage of Meera Bai, Guru Ravidass Ji blessed the couple.

After her marriage, she adopted Guru Ravidass Ji as her Guru, with the consent of her husband and other elderly members of the family. Religious discourses were held daily at the open compound of 1800 ft. high Kumbh Shyam Mandir near Vijay Sitambh, Chittorgarh. These discourses had deep impact on innocent conscience of Meera Bai. In this compound, Meera used to dance in ecstasy of deep Divine devotion. She used to sing the praise of her Guru.

Guru milya Ravidass ji dini gyan ki gutki.
Chot lagi nijnam hari ki mharey hivrey khatki.

By this time, Meera Bai had become a truthful devotee of Guru Ravidass Ji She had unshakeable faith in Guru Ji. She was absorbed in mediation and company of saints all the time. After the death of her father-in-law, her troubles started. Bikramjit the younger brother of her deceased husband was apprehensive and did not like her remaining aloof in meditation and company of saints. But Meera Bai did not relent.

Bikramjit got her thrown in Gambhiri river at mid-night. She glimpsed Guru Ravidass Ji in the turmoil of waves. The waves comfortably sprang her out to the bank of river. This incident confirmed purity of Meera and she felt blissful.

On another day in her intuitional devotional state of meditation, Meera Bai was talking and laughing with Guru Ravidass Ji in her room. Bikramjit apprehended that she was talking and laughing with some outsider in her room. Out of wrath he unsheathed his sword to kill her. He knocked at the door and asked her angrily to open the door open. There was no man. Room was filled with dazzling light. Meera was absorbed in meditation. This shook him. His conscience cursed him. He fainted. After some time he gained consciousness. Feeling helpless he came out.

Meera Bai faced yet another crucial test. A cushioned bed was prepared. Piercing sharp nails were studded on it. Meera Bai was asked to sit on it as it was purported to be manufactured for her comfortable sleep. She did as directed. By virtue of protection by Guru Ravidass Ji the piercing nails became flowers. She had sound sleep on the bed.

Bikramjit was still haunted by the phobia of killing Meera Bai. He chalked out a strategy to kill Meera Bai in consultation with his ministers. She was to be offered milk mixed with poison by posing it as nectar sent to her by Guru Ravidass Ji. Uda Bai, sister of Bikramjit, secretly told Meera Bai that poison in the milk is going to be offered to her posing as nectar sent to her by Guru Ravidass Ji; that she should not drink it. Meera Bai replied that if it is said to have been sent by Guru Ravidass Ji, she would drink it as nectar. Milk mixed with poison was offered to Meera Bai through Pandit Daya Ram stating that it is nectar sent by Guru Ravidass Ji and she should drink it. In meditation Guru Ravidass Ji told her that although it is poison-mixed-milk yet she should unhesitatingly drink it as nectar. Meera Bai repeated Name of Guru Ravidass Ji devotionally and carried the pot containing poisonous milk. It became nectar. She drank it and became blissful. She sang in ecstasy:

Vish ko pyala Rana Ji melio dyo

mertani ne paye

Kar charanamit pee gayee re,

gun Gobind ra gaye.
Bikramjit Still thought of killing Meera Bai. He thought out another plan. A poisonous snake was to be sent to Meera Bai posing as garland sent by Guru Ravidass Ji for her. The snake would sting her when the pot is opened. Pot carrying poisonous cobra snake was taken to Meera Bai and she was told that it is a garland sent by Guru Ravidass Ji for her. She should wear it. She meditated Guru Ji. By spiritual power of Guru Ravidass Ji the snake became a beautiful garland. She removed disc of the pot. It was a beautiful garland. She picked it up and wore it. She was moved and sang spontaneously:
Saanp pitaro Rana Ji bhejyo, dyo mertani gal Daar

Hans hans Meera kanth lagayo,yo to mhan Re nausar haar
Meera Bai thanked Guru Ravidass Ji. She was saved.
Bikramjit was now helpless. He yielded to Meera Bai and begged apology for past attempts to kill her. She forgave him. Bikramjit and members of his family developed deep regard for Guru Ravidass Ji.

Guru Ravidass Ji was a great saint. Meera Bai was his equally great disciples. Her heart beat with Guru Ji; her soul vibrated with Guru Ji. She wrote and sang profuse devotional poetry in praise of Guru Ravidass Ji. Sweet and melodious tunes of hymns of Meera Bai can be heard even today in air in the serene vicinity of Chittor. Radio and Television too sing her devotional songs as the day dawns.

The Chittaurgarh Fort

Meera regarded Guru Ravidas as her spiritual Guru. This enlightened saint was a shoemaker by caste and profession. In 15th century itself he propagated the message that caste has no meaning and its one’s own karmas that decide one’s fate.

One of the many incidents associated with him is that one morning some of his neighbors were going to take bath in the sacred Ganga and asked him also to accompany them. Guru Ravidas had promised to deliver shoes to one of his customers. So, he was not able to join them. When one of his neighbors persisted, then Guru Ravidas uttered his belief saying that: “Man changa tow kathoti mein Ganga”. That is if your heart is pious then the holy river is right in your tub and you need not go anywhere else.

Udasis of Guru Ravidass Ji
Guru Ravidass Ji was an institution in himself. He wanted to make amends in the social and religious system. He set out for spreading his teachings to far off places. Guru Ji travelled to distant places to spread his message. Due to discrimination the spots built in his memory have been destroyed. Today there is no remnant showing his visit to any distant place. He not only wrote amritbani but also travelled all corners of the countries, as below, to make common man understand his philosophy of removing caste system, discrimination, ignorance, illiteracy, poverty, illusion.
Udasi – 1 
1. Ranipur, Malpi, Maadhopur, Bhagalpur, Naraingarh, Kalpi and Nagpur.
2. Barhanpur, Bijapur and Bhopal.
3. Chandehi, Jhansi, Toad, Bundi,Udaipur.
4. Jodhpur, Ajmer, Bombay.
5. Amarkot, Hyderabad, Kathiawar, Bombay.
6. Bombay to Karachi, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Bahawalpur.
7. Kalabagh, Kohat, Darra Khaibar, Jalalabad.
8. Jalalabad to Kafirstan, Srinagar.
9. Dalhousi to Gorakhpur, Gorakhpur to Kashi

Udasi – 2 
Kashipur to Gorakhpur, Partapgarh,Shahjahanpur. Then he proceeded up to Himachal mountains. All the devotees accompanying him were asked to go back to their places. He directed that henceforth his son would initiate the disciples and that he would come back after a long time. Guru Ji was instrumental in bringing about many revolutionary reforms in society. The age old unhealthy rituals and traditions were abandoned. Large number of sinful bodies were blessed who started their fresh pious lives. When they were shown the right path even the religious hard core fanatics repented and begged apology. Many patients struggling for life and death were cured. Whosoever came to his shelter, all were emancipated and they became pious

Udasi – 3 
Satguru Ravidass Ji travelled to Arabs countries also. He held dialogues with chiefs of various religions and innumerable persons were blessed with the powers he had. We find mention of various places in Guru Ji’s bani. In shabad ‘Begumpura sehar ko naon’ there is mention of Abadaan . As per mahan kosh of Bhai Kahan Singh it is a famous place in Iran. It indicates that Guru Ji visited Arab country also. He visited Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arab, Madina and Mecca and Afghanistan. In his journey to all these places large number of muslims became his disciples. Some monuments might have been erected in Guru Ji’s memory by his followers in these countries. But these could not have been maintained.

Travel to Himachal and Sirdhar Parbat : 

There is mention in Guru Nanak Dev Janam Sakhi that Guru Nanak Dev Ji along with Bhai Bala and Mardana visited Himachal and Sirdhar Parbat. Bhai Bala and Mardana asked Guru Nanak Dev Ji if any body else has also visited this place before them. Guru Nanak Dev Ji told them that Guru Kabir Ji and Guru Ravidass Ji have visited his place. As such Guru Ravidass Ji, visited Himachal and Sirdhar parbat also. Virtually Guru Ravidass Ji travelled entire India and Arabian countries. There is, however, utmost need of research work in travels of Guru Ji.

Ravidassia religion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Ravidassia religion (also Ravidassia Dharam; Punjabi: ਰਵਿਦਾਸੀ ਧਰਮ, Hindi: रविदास्सिया धर्म, Urdu: راویدسیہ دھرم‎) is a Dharmic religion, founded in the 21st-century out of Sikhism, and is based on the teachings of the 14th century Indian guru Ravidass, revered as a satguru.
Historically Ravidassia represented a range of beliefs in South Asia, with some devotees of Ravidass counting themselves as Ravidassia Sikhs, but there is evidence that Ravidassia Dera first formed in the early 20th-century in colonial British India. The Ravidassia community began to take on more cohesion following 1947, and the establishment of successful Ravidassia communities in the diaspora.
Ravidassias, states Ronki Ram, accept present Sants of Ravidass Deras as Guru (saint) whereas the Sikhs do not. A new Ravidassia religion was launched following the murder of their cleric Ramanand Dass in Vienna in 2009, where the movement declared itself to be a religion fully separated from Sikhism.
Prior to their break from Sikhism, the Dera Bhallan revered and recited the Guru Granth Sahib of Sikhism in Dera Bhallan.However, following their split from mainstream Sikhism, the Dera Bhallan compiled their own holy book based exclusively on Ravidass teachings, the Amritbani Guru Ravidass Ji, and these Dera Bhallan Ravidassia temples now use this book in place of the Guru Granth Sahib.


Procession of Ravidassias in Bedford
Festival of Shri Guru Ravidass at Arzignano, Italy
Guru Ravidass was born on 15 January 1377 CE (Indian calendar Sunday Sukhal Falgin Parvithta 1433) to the untouchable chamar community. His birthplace was a locality known as Mandhuadhe in the city of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh state, India. The birthplace is now marked by the Shri Guru Ravidass Janam Asthan (Begampura), and is a major place of pilgrimage for the followers of Guru Ravidass today. Ravidassia believe that Ravidass died in Benares at the age of 126.


Ravidass' teachings represent an offshoot of the bhakti movement of the fifteenth century, a religious renaissance in India. Ravidass taught the following principles:
  • The oneness, omnipresence and omnipotence of God
  • The human soul is a particle of God
  • The rejection of the notion that God cannot be met by lower castes.
  • To realize God, which is the goal of human life, man should concentrate on God during all rituals of life.
  • The only way of meeting with God (moksha) is to free the mind from duality.


The Shri Guru Ravidas Mission states that the conditions on being a member of the community are:
  • That one who preaches Guru Ravidass's philosophy is a Ravidassia.
  • It is not a condition that one should have been born in the Ravidassia community to become or to be initiated as one.
  • To celebrate Shri Guru Ravidass Jayanti according to the Punjabi calendar, Sunday, Sukhal Falgin Parvithta.


Dera Sach Khand Ballan of Jallandhar, Punjab on 30 January 2010 at the 633rd birth anniversary of Ravidass announced the objectives of Ravidassia religion as, "to propagate the Bani and teachings of Satguru Ravidass. Besides, the teachings and thought of Maharishi Bhagwan Balmiki, Satguru Namdev, Satguru Kabir, Satguru Trilochan, Satguru Sain and Satguru Sadna would also be propagated".

Places of worship

The Ravidassia place of worship is called a BhawanSabha or 'Darbar. It is considered respectful towards Guru Ravidass if one covers his head and takes off his or her shoes while entering the Place of Worship. It is believed that everyone must follow it as a respect to Guru Ravidass.
Outside the Sabha there is always a flag upon which is written the Nishaan, and above it the "Harr" symbol which symbolising enlightenment from Guru Ravidass's teachings.
Langar takes place inside the Sabha continuously as a practice, all are free to partake of it.
In some Ravidassia Sabhas the Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Holy Book) is still installed as the focal point in the main worship room. The Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is respected at all times. However most Ravidassia Sabhas have replaced it with the new Holy Book, the Guru Ravidass Amrit Bani.
Aarti and Kirtan of all Saints and Gurus takes place daily at the closing of the day's formal services, this consists of the famous Arti written by Guru Ravidass in which he tells God is one and equality is among all in the eyes of God.
Some Saints which Ravidassias refer to whilst at the end of every prayer is Satguru Kabir, Satguru Sain, Satguru Sadhna, Satguru Trilochan, Sant Meera Bai, Baba Farid and Bhagwan Valmik.


The Ravidassia temples "Sabha" contain the holy book Amritbani Guru Ravidass Ji which contains all the hymns by Guru Ravidass. This book contains the following hymns: Raga – Siri (1), Gauri (5), Asa (6), Gujari (1), Sorath (7), Dhanasari (3), Jaitsari (1), Suhi (3), Bilaval (2), Gaund (2), Ramkali (1), Maru (2), Kedara (1), Bhairau (1), Basant (1), and Malhar (3). The book contains 140 shabads, 40 pade, and 231 salok. There are 177 pages in all of the book.
A version of the holy book Amrit Bani containing 240 hymns of Guru Ravidass was installed at the Guru Ravidass temple in Jalandhar, Punjab, on 1 February 2012 on the occasion of birth anniversary of Guru Ravidass. The Dera Sach Khand Ballan religious community had announced the formation of the new Ravidassia religion and separation from Sikhism at Varanasi. The split from Sikhism was triggered after the killing of its deputy head Sant Ramanand Dass in May 2009 at a temple in Vienna by some Sikh radicals.
President of newly formed Begumpura Lok Party and a supporter of the new religion, Satish Bharti, said that the copies of the new Bani were put on display during the religious processions in order to assert that the community members are firm believers of the new religion.


Ravidassias are aligned with a sant who mentors them on their spiritual path, providing personalised mantras and advice. The head of the Ravidassia Dharam, known as the sadhus are present mainly in Punjab and the Dera Sach Khand Ballan consists of sadhus, also known as Sant Samaj who in turn lead and are heads of all Ravidassias deras around the world. The leader of the Ravidassia religion, known as the Gaddi Nashin is Sant Niranjan Dass alongside Sant Surinder Dass Bawa. Former leaders include Sant Hari Dass, Sant Sarwan Dass, Sant Garib Dass and Sant Baba Pippal Dass.


The Ravidassia employ the greeting "ਜੈ ਗੁਰੂਦੇਵ" (Jai Gurdev) "जय गुरुदेव " the motto of the religion.


Religious Flag
The Ravidassia religious symbol is known as the Harr Nishaan ("sign of God"). The Gurmukhi transliteration of the name Harr is the main symbol of the Ravidassia religion. It is also called as Koumi Nishan.
The religion is also represented by a flag, with the insignia "Har" which, states Ronki Ram, includes:
  • A bigger circle with 40 rays of sunlight signifying forty hymns of Guru Ravidass;
  • Inside the big circle is a small circle, inside which is written "Har" in Gurmukhi language (ਹਰਿ) with a flame on top of it;
  • The flame represents the Naam (word) that would illuminate the entire world, and reaches the outer circle;
  • Between the two circles is written a couplet composed by Ravidass: ਨਾਮ ਤੇਰੇ ਕਿ ਜੋਤੀ ਲਗਾਈ, ਭੇਈਓ ਓ ਭਵਣ ਸਗਲਈ (Naam tere kee jot lagayi, Bhaio Ujiaaro Bhawan saglaare, "Your Name is the flame I light; it has illuminated the entire world")
The insignia Har, states Ram, represents the "very being of Ravidass and his teachings". It is chosen after the name of their Guru, as ravi means "illumination" and dass "servant of god".

Relationship with Sikhism

Dera Bhallan Ravidasis claim that their religion was created after they were excluded from Sikh gurdwaras in Punjab. There are many similarities with mainstream Sikhism and indeed temple worship is almost identical. The primary difference is the reverence of Ravidas as their main prophet or teacher.
The Dera Bhallan community insists they are separate from Sikhism as Guru Ravidass and not the Guru Granth Sahib is their spiritual Satguru.


Devotees at 635th Anniversary of Guru Ravidass at Sri Guru Ravidass Janamsthan Mandir, Varanasi
The birthday of Guru Ravidass is celebrated every year at the Seer Gowardhapur village temple in the state of Uttar Pradesh in January or February and the government of India has declared it a gazetted holiday.
Every year more than 1 million devotees from India and abroad visit the Seer Goverdhanpur temple. In India, devotees pour in from Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, MP, Bihar, UP and Uttarakhand while foreign devotees from the US, Canada and UK throng the village.
On the day there is a Path of Amritbani Guru Ravidass read, the Harr(i) nishaan sahib is changed ceremonially, and there is a special Ravidassia Arti and a Nagar Kirtan procession bearing Shri Guru Ravidass' portrait are taken out to the accompaniment of music through the streets of the temple locality.
Special pilgrim trains have been run to and from Varanasi for the last 12 years on the occasion of Parkash Ustav of Guru Ravi Dass. A special train is run from Jalandhar to Varanasi and back every year on Guru Ravidass Jyanti Purb for the convenience of the pilgrims since 2000.

The 17th-century changes to Anantadas's

 hagiography on Ravidas

Anantadas, a writer who belonged to the bhakti poet-sant Ramananda group, wrote a biography of major bhakti poet-sants about 1600 CE. This text, called the Parcaīs (or Parchais), included Ravidas among the sants whose biography and poems were included. Over time new manuscripts of Parcais of Anantadas were reproduced, some in different local languages of India. Winnand Callewaert notes that some 30 manuscripts of Anantadas's hagiography on Ravidas have been found in different parts of India. Of these four manuscripts are complete, collated and have been dated to 1662, 1665, 1676 and 1687. The first three are close with some morphological variants without affecting the meaning, but the 1687 version systematically inserts verses into the text, at various locations, with caste-related statements, new claims of Brahmins persecuting Ravidas, notes on the untouchability of Ravidas, claims of Kabir giving Ravidas ideas, ridicules of nirguni and saguni ideas, and such text corruption:
Examples of inserted verses in the 1687 version of Anantadas's hagiography on Ravidas, that are not found in the older versions of Ravidas' biography:

Then the king called Raidas, who went to see him along with his companions,
The king said: "Listen Raidas; the Brahmins are disturbed and make a lot of noise. (inserted before Chapter 5, verse 1)

We organize donations and worship, but Raidas replied: "Listen to me Brahmins,
You deceive the king and the people, you leave the right path and take them on the wrong path. (inserted into Chapter 5, verse 6)

In a low caste you were born, you have no right to perform rituals. (inserted into Chapter 5, verse 12)

Since the earliest times Brahmins have been respected, and even more so in this Kaliyug,
Nobody will touch an untouchable, how can he become like a Dahma Brahmin. (inserted into Chapter 5, verse 15)

This nirgun devotion concentrating only on the Name, could not at all appeal to the queen. (inserted into Chapter 6, verse 12)
— Winnand Callewaert, The Hagiographies of Anantadas: The Bhakti Poets of North India
Callewaert considers the 1676 version as the standard version, his critical edition of Ravidas's hagiography excludes all these insertions, and he remarks that the cleaner critical version of Anantadas's parcais suggests that there is more in common in the ideas of bhakti movement's Ravidas, Kabir and Sen than previously thought.
Khare similarly has questioned the textual sources on Ravidas, and mentions there are few "readily available and reliable textual sources on the Hindu and Untouchable treatment of Ravidas

Guru ji Escaped Attempt on Life
Ever since his childhood, Guru Ravidass Ji had religious bent of mind. His talks were not conventional. Even his family members were astonished at his strange actions. He was an undaunted boy. When he became adult, he started worshipping God like the Brahmans. He blew conch-shell applied Tilak (mark) on forehead wore Janju (sacred thread) and tied Dhoti (cloth sheet used instead of trousers) like the Brahmans. He vehemently condemned caste system and untouchability.
He preached equality, secularism, truthfulness, oneness of God and human rights. Since his message was of universal brotherhood, people of all shades irrespective of caste, sex or creed came to listen his sermons. His following was fast increasing. At this, the Brahmans and Piran Ditta Mirasi planned a strategy to kill Guru Ravidass Ji. A meeting of several young-men was to be arranged in desolate and lonely place away from the village where Guru Ravidass Ji would also be invited. In the course of discussion, Guru Ravidass Ji would be manhandled and killed. Guru Ji knew it before hand due to his spiritual power.

The meeting started at the venue. In course of discussion a group of persons caught hold of him and tried to kill him. At this juncture, by virtue of his spiritual powers, Guru Ravidass Ji cast his appearance on one Bhalla Nath. As a result, Bhalla Nath, their companion, looked to others as Ravidass. They killed him. After a short while, Guru Ji blew conch-shell at his hut. The killers were astonished to hear the sound of the conch-shell. They went back to the spot of the scuffle and found that Bhalla Nath had been killed instead of Guru Ravidass Ji. They repented and prayed Guru Ravidass Ji for forgiveness.

Meera Bai Saved
Meera Bai was the only child of her parents. Meera Bai was a queen of Chittor and a daughter of the king of Rajasthan. Her mother died when Meera Bai was still in her infancy. She was brought up under the custody of Duda Ji, her grandfather who was a worshipper of God. He had met Guru Ravidass Ji several times. He was under his influence. Meera Bai was also influenced by the devotional bent of mind of her grandfather. It is said that at the time of marriage of Meera Bai, Guru Ravidass Ji blessed the couple.
After her marriage, she adopted Guru Ravidass Ji as her Guru, with the consent of her husband and other elderly members of the family. Religious discourses were held daily at the open compound of 1800 ft. high Kumbh Shyam Mandir near Vijay Sitambh, Chittorgarh. These discourses had deep impact on innocent conscience of Meera Bai. In this compound, Meera used to dance in ecstasy of deep Divine devotion. She used to sing the praise of her Guru.
Guru milya Ravidass ji dini gyan ki gutki.
Chot lagi nijnam hari ki mharey hivrey khatki.
By this time, Meera Bai had become a truthful devotee of Guru Ravidass Ji She had unshakeable faith in Guru Ji. She was absorbed in mediation and company of saints all the time. After the death of her father-in-law, her troubles started. Bikramjit the younger brother of her deceased husband was apprehensive and did not like her remaining aloof in meditation and company of saints. But Meera Bai did not relent.
Bikramjit got her thrown in Gambhiri river at mid-night. She glimpsed Guru Ravidass Ji in the turmoil of waves. The waves comfortably sprang her out to the bank of river. This incident confirmed purity of Meera and she felt blissful.
On another day in her intuitional devotional state of meditation, Meera Bai was talking and laughing with Guru Ravidass Ji in her room. Bikramjit apprehended that she was talking and laughing with some outsider in her room. Out of wrath he unsheathed his sword to kill her. He knocked at the door and asked her angrily to open the door open. There was no man. Room was filled with dazzling light. Meera was absorbed in meditation. This shook him. His conscience cursed him. He fainted. After some time he gained consciousness. Feeling helpless he came out.
Meera Bai faced yet another crucial test. A cushioned bed was prepared. Piercing sharp nails were studded on it. Meera Bai was asked to sit on it as it was purported to be manufactured for her comfortable sleep. She did as directed. By virtue of protection by Guru Ravidass Ji the piercing nails became flowers. She had sound sleep on the bed.
Bikramjit was still haunted by the phobia of killing Meera Bai. He chalked out a strategy to kill Meera Bai in consultation with his ministers. She was to be offered milk mixed with poison by posing it as nectar sent to her by Guru Ravidass Ji. Uda Bai, sister of Bikramjit, secretly told Meera Bai that poison in the milk is going to be offered to her posing as nectar sent to her by Guru Ravidass Ji; that she should not drink it. Meera Bai replied that if it is said to have been sent by Guru Ravidass Ji, she would drink it as nectar.
Milk mixed with poison was offered to Meera Bai through Pandit Daya Ram stating that it is nectar sent by Guru Ravidass Ji and she should drink it. In meditation Guru Ravidass Ji told her that although it is poison-mixed-milk yet she should unhesitatingly drink it as nectar. Meera Bai repeated Name of Guru Ravidass Ji devotionally and carried the pot containing poisonous milk. It became nectar. She drank it and became blissful. She sang in ecstasy:
Vish ko pyala Rana Ji melio dyo
mertani ne paye
Kar charanamit pee gayee re,
gun Gobind ra gaye.
Bikramjit Still thought of killing Meera Bai. He thought out another plan. A poisonous snake was to be sent to Meera Bai posing as garland sent by Guru Ravidass Ji for her. The snake would sting her when the pot is opened. Pot carrying poisonous cobra snake was taken to Meera Bai and she was told that it is a garland sent by Guru Ravidass Ji for her. She should wear it. She meditated Guru Ji. By spiritual power of Guru Ravidass Ji the snake became a beautiful garland. She removed disc of the pot. It was a beautiful garland. She picked it up and wore it. She was moved and sang spontaneously:
Saanp pitaro Rana Ji bhejyo,
dyo mertani gal Daar
Hans hans Meera kanth lagayo,
yo to mhan Re nausar haar
Meera Bai thanked Guru Ravidass Ji. She was saved.
Bikramjit was now helpless. He yielded to Meera Bai and begged apology for past attempts to kill her. She forgave him. Bikramjit and members of his family developed deep regard for Guru Ravidass Ji.
Guru Ravidass Ji was a great saint. Meera Bai was his equally great disciples. Her heart beat with Guru Ji; her soul vibrated with Guru Ji. She wrote and sang profuse devotional poetry in praise of Guru Ravidass Ji. Sweet and melodious tunes of hymns of Meera Bai can be heard even today in air in the serene vicinity of Chittor. Radio and Television too sing her devotional songs as the day dawns.
Karma Bai Ji: Tthe disciple of Ravidass Ji
Karma Bai: The disciple of Satguru Ravidass Ji. Karma Bai was divinely enlightened lady. Karma Bai’s fame spread all around. Saints visited her place from far and near. One day a saint said, ‘Karma ! how is it that God takes meals at your home daily.’ She told while preparing meals chapattis, khichri for the God, I chant the sacred Name of God. When the meals are ready, all the items are kept in proper manner and are covered with a clean cloth. The saint told her that this is not the proper manner. She should wash wood needed as fuel, mud plaster the kitchen, bathe and then prepare meals. From next day she started the new process.
One day while observing the new process, the meals were prepared late. God had to wait. God was still busy in eating khichri, Sant Rama Nand also prayed him to take meals with him. God had to go to Sant Rama Nand Ji immediately. He could not even cleanse khichri from his face and hands. Sant Rana Nand Ji enquired all about from the God. God told that he daily took Khichri at the house of Karma Bai. Today she was late in preparing Khichri. ‘I was still taking Khichri that you called me’.
Hearing all this, Sant Rama Nand Ji was astonished to know that God takes meals at the house of Karma Bai! The priest went to Karma Bai and enquired on to how God comes to her house daily. She told him that while preparing meals she did simran of naam on blessings of Satguru Ravidass Ji that God takes meals at my house every day. Sant Rama Nand requested Karma Bai to pray to God to show me His appearance.
Next day she requested God to let Sant Rama Nand have His darshan. God told that Sant Rama Nand is not clean at heart; he nurtures duality. She again requested that kindly do have mercy on him and bless him with your darshan. At the instance of Karma Bai God blessed Sant Rama Nand Ji with His darshan.

Bibi Bhanmati Become Disciple
Bibi Bhanmati of Multan (now in Pakistan) was a pious lady who remained busy in thakur pooja for major time of the day. However, she did not have any enlightenment. Her mind remained upset. Somehow, she heard of fame of Guru Ravidass Ji of being divinely enlightened saint. She was told that if she aspires for supreme spiritual bliss, she should go to Guru Ravidass Maharaj Ji and seek his blessings. Bibi Bhanmati along with her husband reached Guru Ji’s place at Benaras. They bowed at the sacred feet of Guru Ji. Incidentally, Gorakh Nath had also come to Guru Ji for goshti. Gorakh Nath tried to take away stealthily spiritual powers of Guru Ravidass Ji but he failed to shake Guru Ji. Guru Ji spared time for Bibi Bhanmati. She told Guru Ji her spiritual and mental position. Guru Ji recited following shabad:

Har(i) har(i) har(i) har(i) har(i) har(i) hare 
Har(i) simrat jan gaye nistar(i) tare (Rahao)
Har(i) ke naam kabir ujjagar.
Janam janam ke kate kagar.
Nimat naamdeo doodh peeaia.
Tuo jag janam sankat nahi aaya.
Jan Ravidass ram rang raataa
Eiou gur prasad narak nahi jataa.

When Bibi Bhanmati understood the meaning of the shabad, she was highly impressed with divine enlightenment of Guru Ji. She was moved. She humbly prayed to Guru Ji for initiation. Guru Ji blessed her and asked her to chant the Name of God as Har(i) har(i) har(i) har(i) for attainment of supreme bliss and to avoid the pains of transmigration. She became disciple of Satguru Ravidass Ji.

Dead son became alive
In his childhood when Guru Ravidass Ji was studying in the Pathshala of Pt. Sharda Nand, he developed friendship with his son. They used to play together.
One day in game of hide and seek, Guru Ravidass Ji won and his friend lost the game. As a result, his friend was to seek hidden Ravidass Ji in his next turn. By this time night had fallen. It was munually agreed that the friend (son of Pt. Sharda Nand) would play his turn of seeking Guru Ravidass Ji tomorrow in the morning.
In the next morning, Guru Ravidass Ji, along with other play-mates waited for his friend for a long time but he did not turn up. At last Guru Ravidass Ji himself went to his residence with other play-mates.
The parents and other members of family of friend of Guru Ravidass Ji were weeping. The neighbours and others were also sitting in remorse. Guru Ravidass Ji enquired as to what had happened. He was apprised that his friend (son of Pt. Sharda Nand) had died during night. Guru Ji wondered as to why he had died without playing his turn of seeking Guru Ji in the game of hide and seek. He wanted to see his friend. Pt. Sharda Nand took Guru Ravidass Ji along to the place where dead body of his son was lying. In a friendly tone, Guru Ravidass Ji, asked his friend that it was not the time to sleep and he should get up and play his turn of seeking him in the game of hide and seek. By virtue of spiritual powers of Guru Ravidass Ji, His friend became alive. He got up and was willing to play. His parents and others were astonished. They were happy again.

The parents and relatives of the friend of Guru Ji and others bowed at sacred feet of Guru Ji and thanked him.
A Brahman Boy Rescued
A Brahman boy named Ram Lal was a close friend of Guru Ravidass Ji. For most of the time they remained together and played together. The Brahman boy did not observe untouchability also. He loved Guru Ji very much. The Brahmans were jealous and could not tolerate that a Brahman boy should play with an untouchable boy. They emphatically impressed upon his parents to detract their son from moving and playing with a boy of low-caste. But Ram Lal obeyed none.
The Brahmans being jealous of Guru Ravidass Ji, complained to the king about the friendship of Ram Lal (a Brahman) and Guru Ravidass Ji (an untouchable). The king called Ram Lal to the court. He was decided to be killed by throwing before a hungry lion. As such, he was thrown before a hungry lion. The lion thundered. Ram Lal cried at his high pitch and fainted. When the lion came near the boy it became calm. It looked around. Instead of killing the boy it looked frightened. It saw Guru Ravidass Ji sitting near and protecting Ram Lal. The lion bowed before Ram Lal and receded. Ram Lal came to senses. He got up and came straight to his friend Guru Ravidass Ji and thanked him for his protection from the lion.

The King and Brahmans felt ashamed. The King realized that Ram Lal has been protected by some spiritual power. The king freed him.

Floating of Pathri (Stone)
According to Hindu scriptures, worship of God was the sole right of Brahmins only. On the contrary Shri Guru Ravidass Ji, who belonged to Chamar caste, also started worship of God. He started blowing conch-shell and ringing the bell. He was enlightened and had realized God. He simplified mode of worship and discarded rituals. His religious discourses were most convincing and truthful.
As a result, cutting across caste barriers, large number of people became his followers. All this irked the Brahmans. It was a challenge not only to their priestly supremacy but an adverse impact on their source of livelihood also. Brahmans forbade him from worshipping God. But he did not relent and took worship as his birth-right.
At last Brahmans approached the then Kashi Naresh Hardev Singh and complained against Guru Ravidass Ji for practicing worship of God. Guru Ravidass Ji was summoned to appear in the court of the king. Guru Ji explained in the court that worship is everybody’s right and that he is the truthful worshipper of God. The Pandit priests and Guru Ravidass Ji were asked to bring their Thakur (Idol) whom they worshipped, to the river Ganga on the appointed day. Only that party will be adjusted as the true worshipper whose Thakur floats in the river.
Brahman priests and Guru Ravidass Ji arrived at Rajghat of the river Ganga as directed by the king. The Pandits had brought small Thakur stones wrapped in the cotton. But Guru Ravidass Ji was stoutly carrying a 40 kg heavy-weight square stone on his shoulders with unshakeable confidence. A huge crowd of residents of Benaras gathered on Rajghat of river Ganga to witness the fateful and decisive event.
The king and the courtiers also reached the spot. The Brahman priests who were the aggrieved party were given first turn to float their Thakur stones in the river. All the tall fleshy, head shaven, Janju (thick thread) wearing and Tilak applied Brahman priests blew conch-shells and fumbled Vedic Mantras and gently placed their Thakur stones in the river one by one. To their great dismay, all their Thakur stone gently sank down deep into the water. All of them bowed down their heads. The on-lookers were stunned to see the sinking Thakurs of Brahmans.
Then was the turn of Guru Ravidass Ji, He lifted his heavy-weight stone on his shoulders. There was thaw. All eyes were focused on Guru Ji and the stone he carried. Curiosity prevailed. It was a decisive moment. In case his stone also sinks, there will be further gloom for the lowly. Guru Ji closed his eyes and stood erect. His face blushed and with all humility he prayed to God.
Meri sangat poch soch din raati
Mera karam kutilta janam kubhati.
Raam gosaeeaa jeea ke jeewnaa
Mohi naa bisaarho main jan tera. (Rahaao)
Meri haro vipt jan karo subhaaiee
Charn naa chhadoo sareer kall jaaiee.
Kaho Ravidass pario teri saabha.
Beig milho jan karu naa bilanbaa.
At this moment there was dazzling light in the sky. All the on-lookers expected something miraculous. Guru Ji moved ahead to the water and gently placed the stone in light-blue transparent water of the river. To great astonishment of the on-lookers the stone (Pathri) floated majestically. Guru Ji gently smiled and thanked God for coming to his rescue. There was spontaneous applause from the viewers.
The Pandits had failed in the test. They had been proved false worshippers. The on-lookers made a mockery of the Pandits. The king announced victory of Guru Ravidass Ji as a Truthful worshipper. All respectfully fell at his feet. Guru Ravidass Ji was seated in a golden palanquin and moved in a procession in the city. The minds of the masses were changed and they developed regard for him and the lowly. They were blissful after having glimpses of Guru Ji.
A gala-function was organized after sometime in the honour of Guru Ravidass Ji to celebrate his victory. He was seated at a raised cushioned and beautiful seat decorated with jewels. All the courtiers, diwans, intelligentsia, chieftains and selected people former the gathering. All spoke high of Guru Ravidass Ji. The king and member of his family instantly became followers of Guru Ji. At the end of the functions sweets were distributed. The people touched sacred feet of Guru Ji and went back home singing his praise. This event was recorded in the annals of court in calligraphic golden letters.
It was an unprecedented and eventful day for the untouchables. New glorious history was created for them on that fateful day. Truth had come out victorious against falsehood. False beliefs had been belied.
Display of Janjus of 4 Ages
The Hindu religious books have put a bar on the so-called Shudras from worshipping God. The Shudras were not allowed to wear the Janju (Sacred thick thread), put mark (Tilak) on forehead and observe other religious practices. Guru Ravidass was born to face the brunt. He started wearing Janju, put Tilak (religious mark) on forehead and wearing Dhoti like that of Pandits.
He also observed other practices which were peculiar to the Brahmans only. All this was taken very ill by the Pandits. In the beginning they tried to impress upon Guru Ravidass Ji not to resort to the practices followed by them. But Guru Ji would not agree. He told them that they were wearing false Janju.
Aggrieved by the intransigent attitude of Guru Ravidass Ji, the Brahmans brought to the notice of the king, the religious practices followed by Ravidass Ji which are peculiar to the Brahmans only. The King was furious on this issue. He sent for Guru Ravidass Ji appeared in the court of the king. The Brahmans too had come in large numbers. The issue of wearing Janju (sacred thick thread) was discussed.
Brahmans said that as per Hindu scriptures, Janju is to be worn by the Brahmans only. Ravidass being untouchable should stop wearing it. Guru Ravidass Ji told the king that it has falsely been written in the scriptures that non-brahmans will not wear Janju. It is injustice with others. However, he will stop wearing Janju on one condition. The Pandits would show him what he was just going to show to the king. Guru Ji took out a Rambi (knife) and pushed it into his chest making four-inch long cut. Blood blew profusely.
There was a pool of blood on the floor. He pulled out four Janjus from his chest-one of gold, second of silver, third of copper and fourth of thread- signifying his wearing these Janjus in Satyuga, Treta, Duapper and Kalyuga. This also demonstrated that the untouchables are pure, truthful and innocent. The Brahmans cut a sorry figure. Their faces turned pale. Understanding the reality, the king fell on the feet of Guru Ji and begged apology for the harassment caused to him. A broad-minded Guru Ji forgave him.
At the end of the event, Guru Ji told the king and the gathering that in fact Janju has no significance in attainment of God. He wore it only to demonstrate its futility and to show the right path to the Brahmans. Guru Ji took off his Janju and gave it to the king. Thereafter, he never wore any Janju as such.
The pains taken by Guru Ravidass Ji to wrest human rights should not be allowed to go unfelt and unsung. It should further kindle the spirit to continue the pace. Blood flowed from his chest may energise blood of the generations to tread his foot-prints and thrill the era.
Disgrace Ravidas Begot Leprosy
Saintly persons belong to entire mankind. They do not represent any single caste or creed. They cherish universal well-being; and persuade humanity to follow the path of Truth and Equality. Guru Ravidass Ji was a reputed enlightened saint of medieval Age. Influenced by the truthfulness of his sacred sermons of worship of God, devotees from all castes became his disciples. After having learnt of his fame as an Emancipated saint, a wealthy Seth visited his place to hear his religious discourses. On that day Guru Ji threw light on importance of human birth. It was elucidated that our rare birth is a result of our benevolent deeds in our previous life.
Dulabh janam pun phal payo
The Almighty should, therefore, be worshipped to enlighten our this life. Other than his Name all show of rituals is false.
At the end of Sat Sang (religious discourses) Guru Ji distributed nectar from shallow earthen pot lying near his seat. It was offered to rich Seth also. On observing it as dirty water, he threw nectar behind his head and back instead of drinking it. It fell partially on his clothes and partially on the floor.
The gathering dispersed. The Seth came back home. Thinking that his clothes had been spoiled and polluted by dirty water given by Guru Ravidass Ji, he took off the clothes and donated to a poor man who was suffering from leprosy.
The poor man wore the clothes donated by the Seth. The clothes bore blots of nectar given by Guru Ravidass Ji to the Seth. The poor man felt soothing effect on his body as soon as he put on the clothes. The wounds of leprosy started healing up. He started having sound sleep at night. In a short period, the poor man became completely healthy as if he had never suffered from the disease.
On the other hand, leprosy developed on the body of the Seth. He got lot of treatment from highly qualified and experienced Vaids and Hakims but the disease continued becoming serious. The wounds of leprosy became wet. Continuous intense pricking pain upset the psyche of the Seth and plunged him in gloom. He sat alone and pondered as to whether the disease was due to disgrace of the saint. He went to Guru Ravidass Ji and apologized for throwing nectar on his earlier visit. Guru Ji forgave him. He got relief from the disease automatically within a few days. Thereafter, the entire family of the Seth became Guru Ji’s disciples.

The Episode of Damri (Small Coin)
Kumbh festival was held at Haridwar on the bank of the river Ganga. Pandit Ganga Ram set out to attend this festival. On the way he visited Guru Ravidass Ji at Benaras and paid homage to him. On being asked by Guru Ji he apprised him that he was going to attend Kumbh festival at Haridwar. Guru Ravidass Ji gave one Damri (small coin) to Pandit Ganga Ram with the direction that he should offer this Damri to Ganga Mata only if she accepts it by taking her hand out of water.
He was amazed at the unprecedented condition. However, he took the Damri and went away to Haridwar. He thought in his mind that since time immemorial innumerable devotees have offered money, gold and silver ornaments and other precious jewels but Ganga Mata has never accepted these offers by taking out her hand. This was something impossible and unheard of. He took it very lightly.
At Har Ki Pauri, Haridwar, after taking his bath, Pandit Ganga Ram said his prayers and started his journey back home. The Pandit had forgotten to offer Damri of Guru Ravidass Ji to Ganga Mata. Soon his way back home the Pandit felt giddy and fainted and sat down. He fell asleep. He realized that he had forgotten to offer Damri to Ganga Mata. As he woke up, he immediately went back to the holy river.
Pandit Ganga Ram spoke loudly towards the river not believing that he would get any response. He uttered that Ravidass Ji has sent a Damri to her. But it is to be given only if it is accepted by taking out your hand. At this, Ganga Mata lifted her right hand out of water and accepted Damri sent by Guru Ravidass Ji, leaving the Pandit in the shock. In return, Ganga Mata gave a golden Kangan (bangle) to Pandit Ganga Ram and asked him to give it to Guru Ravidass Ji as her gift. Pandit Ganga Ram came back home and gave the Kangan to his wife instead of giving it to Guru Ravidass Ji.
After a few days, at the instance of his wife, he went to the market to sell the precious Kangan as he was in great need of money. Jeweler was astonished to see the precious Kangan. He had never seen such a bangle before. He apprehended the mischief and passed on the bangle to the king that Pandit Ganga Ram had stolen it from somewhere. The king showed the beautiful bangle to his queen. She liked it very much and insisted for one more matching kangan of same type.
The Pandit was helpless. The king directed him to arrange one matching bangle, failing which he would be punished. Pandit Ganga Ram broke down and narrated the whole episode as to how he got this bangle. He requested the king and queen to accompany him to Guru Ravidass Ji for the purpose. When they reached there, Guru Ji extended a hearty welcome to them. Pandit Ganga Ram narrated the whole tale of bangle to Guru Ji and repented for the perfidious act and humbly sought forgiveness. He also implored that a matching bangle is needed by the king and the queen.
Mun changa to kathauti mein Ganga
(If mind is pure, the Ganga flows in the small earthen shallow pot). Translation
Broad minded Guru Ji asked them to see in the earthen shallow pot. To their amazement, river Ganga was flowing and there were innumerable bangles floating in it. Guru Ji asked them to identify the matching bangle. All this shook their spirit. They were fascinated and highly impressed by the spiritual power of Guru Ji that they became his followers. They listened evening religious discourses and went back home singing the praise of Guru Ravidass Ji.
Dinner of Ravidass Ji at Chittorgarh
Once Rani Jhalan Bai of Chittorgarh visited Benaras on pilgrimage. She paid homage at many temples. There she heard of perfection in enlightenment of Guru Ravidass Ji. She went to the place of Guru Ravidass Ji at Seer Govardhanpur, Benaras and listened his religious discourses. She was highly convinced and influenced by Guru Ji. She was so much impressed that she prayed Guru Ji to make her his disciple. Guru Ji told her to adopt some high-caste saint as Guru as she belonged to Rajput caste. But she implored and insisted to become his disciple. Seeing her truthfulness and perseverance in conviction, Guru Ji initiated her and made her his disciple.
The Pandits could not bear that a Rajput queen should become disciple of a low caste saint. They complained to Raja Sangram Singh that his queen had adopted Ravidass Ji as her Guru. At this the king was annoyed with the queen. However, she talked high of Guru Ji and his enlightenment and charismatic powers that he had. After hearing this, the king also developed regard for Guru Ji and cherished to see him.
The king and queen arranged a Sat Sang (religious congregation for discourses) at Chittorgarh. Guru Ji was prayed to attend the Sat Sang as the Chief Guest. After spiritual deliberations community dinner was arranged in honour of Guru Ravidass Ji. Guru Ravidass Ji knew spiritually that Pandits would not take meals if he sits in line with them. Therefore, he preferred to sit alone in a separate room. However, when service of food was ready the Brahmans stood away and refused to sit with Guru Ravidass Ji, because they said, he belonged to low caste. When Guru Ji came to know all about it he agreed to sit alone in another room.
Then the Pandits agreed to take meals. The food was served. When the Pandits began to eat food they were astonished to see that Guru Ravidass Ji was sitting on both sides of each of the Pandits. On right side, he was there and on left side he was again there. The Pandits felt ashamed and repented for their unruly behavior with Guru Ravidass Ji. They prayed Guru Ji to forgive them. They were forgiven. All of them became Guru Ji’s disciples.

Freeing a She-deer from a Hunter
Long ago the area of present LEHARTARA in Benaras was a jungle. Deers and other species of animals inhabited it. Guru Ravidass Ji also used to visit this forest and mediate there in lonely place. Once a hunter laid net to catch a deer. A she-deer was entrapped; it was caught by the hunter and was to kill it. The she-deer implored the hunter that its small children are hungry and are waiting for her for feed.
It will come back after feeding them. The hunter would not let it go. However, he agreed to free it against a surety. Guru Ravidass Ji incidentally listened all this. He offered to stand surely for the she-deer. In case it did not come back Guru Ji was willing to pay the price.
The she-deer was allowed to go to see its children. It fed its children and told them the tale of having been caught by the hunter and freed for a short-while on the surety of Guru Ravidass Ji. The children said, “We do not want to survive without you. We also accompany you to be killed with you.” Within the agreed time the she-deer and its children came back to Guru Ji where the hunter was also waiting.
The hunter was astonished to see the truthfulness of she-deer and thought that Guru Ji knew all the episode before hand.
The hunter repented for past killings and took a vow not to kill animals in future. The she-deer and its children were freed. The hunter fell on the feet of Guru Ji and became his follower. The she-deer and its children bowed at the sacred feet of Guru Ji and expressed their gracefulness. Thereafter, the she-deer and its children would bow to Guru Ji whenever he visited the forest.
King Pipa lost Nectar
Guru Ravidass Ji was famous for his enlightened Realisation. He had written many hymns in the praise of God. His sermons discussed in religious discourses were most convincing. His message was of universal appeal. As a result, large number of people attended his religious congregations.
King Pipa had a religious bent of mind. One day he attended Sat Sang (religious discourses) of Guru Ravidass Ji. He was highly impressed with truthful sermons. At the end of Sat Sang, Guru Ravidass Ji distributed nectar to the visitor. King Pipa thought of low caste of Guru Ji and hated water being posed as nectar. Guru Ji poured nectar on his hands to be drunk. Thinking it as polluted water he threw it down through the gap in both the hands together. As a result, nectar fell on the clothes of king Pipa. It left indelible blots on the clothes.
After reaching his home, King Pipa sent the clothes to washerman for washing. The indelible blots could not be removed. Daughter of the washerman sucked the blots for their removal. The moment she sucked the blots, she was enlightened. She could tell as to what was happening in the distant places. All this came to the notice of king Pipa. He enquired from the girl as to how she got this spiritual power. She told him that the moment she sucked blots on his clothes, she was enlightened. King Pipa repented. He realised that he had wasted nectar taking it as water of low caste saint.
He went to Guru Ravidass Ji and begged apology for throwing nectar. He prayed Guru Ji to give him the same again. Guru Ji told him that he had missed the opportunity, as the nectar was not available now. However, on his insistence, Guru Ji initiated him and made him his disciple. King Pipa worshipped God as guided by Guru Ravidass Ji. As a result of Divine devotion he became emancipated. Other members of his family and many visitors also became followers of Guru Ji.
Freedom Jail of King Sikandar Lodhi
Sikandar Lodhi was the ruler of Delhi. He was very cruel towards Hindus and their traditions. He even converted a large number of Hindus to Islam.
The Pandits saw Guru Ravidass Ji dressed like a Hindu (Brahman) and reported it to the king. The king ordered his soldiers to put Ravidass Ji in prison and had him locked up. As usual Guru Ji was in meditational mood. It so happened that locks of the jail broke away automatically. Soldiers were amazed to see all this. Guru Ji was seen moving freely outside the jail inspite of strict supervision by the soldiers. All this was brought to the notice of king. The king realized his high-handedness and set Guru Ji free from prison. He begged apology from him. Thereafter, the king never interfered with Guru Ravidass Ji’s affairs.
Reverse Flow of Ganga River
Benaras is a sacred city inhabited on the bank of river Ganga. In Benaras it is a custom to perform last rites of the dead bodies on bank of pious river Ganga. Even from the distant places surrounding Benaras, dead bodies are brought here.
Revered father of Guru Ravidass Ji grew very old. He fell ill and died. Guru Ravidass Ji called his neighbors for performing last rites.
Guru Ravidass Ji along with his companions carried the dead body to the bank of the river where last rites of dead bodies are performed. The Brahmans forbade on the plea that water of river Ganga flows from the spot towards the main city where Brahmans take bath and they would be polluted. Guru Ji felt very much harassed. They again carried the dead boy to a distant place named Nagwa on bank of the river where Brahmans were not likely to be defiled by untouchability.
The last rites were performed on dead body of revered father of Guru Ravidass Ji at that spot. They prayed peace of the departed soul. At this time due to spiritual power of Guru Ji there was thunder. Water of river Ganga flowed reverse and a strong wave sprang up towards the dead body and washed away and immersed all the mortal remains. From that moment, at this spot reverse flow of Ganga water continued. Reverse flow of river water took place due to spiritual power of Guru Ravidass Ji.
At this pious place at Nagwa, a fascinating ‘Guru Ravidass Smark and Park’ have been set up. Guru Ravidass Ghat is also proposed to be built on the bank of the river quite adjacent to the park.
Blessings of Gold coins
Guru Ravidass Ji had not accepted the God’s offer of Philosopher’s stone earlier. Once again God visited the place of Guru Ji. He told Guru Ji that large number of devotees visit him daily. There is dire need of running of free community kitchen and a good sarai accommodation for the pilgrims. It is said that a large number of devotees, kings, courtiers used to visit the place of Guru Ji.
You need money for all these facilities for the followers. You will, therefore, be getting 5 gold coins daily. Thereafter, 5 gold coins were found daily at Guru’s place. A splendid Satsang Bhawan, residential accommodation and Dharamshala were constructed. Community kitchen was also run. Mandir Mehal kya bahutera Jahan tahan bhagtan ka dera. Satsang is as necessary now as it was in olden times. All of us should attend satsang and adopt sacred teachings of Guru Ravidass Ji.
Jealousy of Piran Ditta Mirasi
Guru Ravidass Ji was well wisher of human beings. He never discriminated between anybody on any ground. He preached sat margin his religious discourses. He became famous amongst the people. People of all varnas and castes became disciples of Guru Ravidass Ji. Piran Ditta Mirasi did not like increasing fame of Guru Ji.
One day Piran Ditta Mirasi called a meeting of his favourites. They planned to kill Guru Ravidass Ji. On some pretext Guru Ji was called to the Sabha. When Guru Ji arrived, some started hot talk with him. Guru Ji argued with them as to why they were talking rough with him without any reason. Some of them suddenly jumped over Guru Ji to kill him. At this Guru Ji remembered God and recited shabad:
Ram gusaaeaa jeea ke jeewnaa
Moh na bisaar(u) mai jan tera (Rahaao)
Meri har(u) bipit jan krhu subhaaiee
Charan na chhaadao sareer kaljaaiee
Kaho Ravidass parao teri sabha.
Beig milhu jan karu na bilanma
As soon as Guru Ji humbly and devotionally recited above shabad there was dazzling light in the sky. All members of the Sabha started seeing appearance of Guru Ji on all sides. They all were confused and scared. At the same time Guru Ji was seen blowing conch-shell at his house. Guru Ji was rescued by God. They failed in their plan. The Sabha members repented on their action and begged apology from Guru Ji. The sacred place of occurrence of this incident is located towards Ganga near Lotu Baba Pir at Seer Govardhanpur Varanasi.
A Sheikh begged for mercy
Shri Guru Ravidass Ji held religion discourses everyday. He inspired the audience to shun discrimination on any ground. Equality and fraternity, worship of the Almighty with devotion and detachment from material belongings were the essence of his discourses. He cherished universal well-being. It was appealing to all the Hindus and Muslims alike. His fame spread all around. One Sheikh of Varanasi also heard the fame of Guru Ji.
He came to the place of Guru Ravidass Ji and heard his satsang. He observed that many kings, queens and others prominent figures were also there raptly listening the satsang. He was very much impressed with Guru Ji truthful sermons having universal appeal. His many misconceptions were clarified and removed. At the end of satsang, Guru Ji distributed nectar (amrit) from his dauri (shallow earthan pot which he used for soaking leather).
Its colour was brown. It was served to all those present including Sheikh. Thinking it as polluted water, he hated and threw it aside. In this process, some drops of the nectar fell on his clothes. After reaching home he took off the clothes and handed over to the maid servant for washing. The maid servant tried to wash off the blots on the clothes but these could not be removed.
She put the clothes bearing blots in mouth and sucked so that the blot was removed. When she sucked the blots, she was divinely enlightened. She started talking God and heavenly bodies. Sheikh also came to know the spiritual powers of the maid servant. He enquired from her as to how she has attained all these powers. She told him that when she sucked the blots on the clothes, she became spiritually emancipated.
The Sheikh repented that he had wasted and disregarded the nectar offered to him by Guru Ravidass Ji. He felt himself sinful and disgraced. He came to Guru a few days later and begged apology for throwing nectar thinking it polluted water. All the truthful saints are kind hearted. Guru Ji forgave and told him that you have missed the opportunity. However, he was initiated and asked to chant God’s Name Har(i) Har(i) Har(i). Even now those who want to be spiritually elevated should chant God’s Name Har(i) Har(i) Har(i).
Ganga Ji as a girl
Guru Ravidass Ji arranged a Bhandara. Ganga Ji also appeared in the shape of an unmarried girl to take part in Bhandara. Seeing her unique beauty, the king sent a message to Guru Ji that the girl be married to him. Guru Ji told all to Ganga Ji. Ganga Ji told Guru Ji that king will harass him. So let the king come for marriage. On the appointed day, the marriage procession arrived at the place of Guru Ravidass Ji.
Fully adorned Ganga appeared. When she saw the king, she disappeared in the shallow earthen pot showing flowing Ganga. At this such a strong stream of water out-flowed from the pot that the entire marriage procession was drowned. Every body realised that it was Ganga Ji in the shape of girl who had come to seek blessings from Guru Ravidass Ji.

*Bhandara and feeding the poor. Bhandara means Auspicious food or gifted food. It is also known as Anna danam.
Dialogue of Ravidass Ji with Alawadi King
Shri Jasbir Singh Sabar, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar has mentioned on Page 71
of his book “Bhakt Ravidass” that the dialogue being narrated is written at Page 463, 466, 487 of manuscript Sikh Reference Library Amritsar written in Samvat 1786. Alwadi was king at Benaras. The qazis were jealous of increasing popularity of Satguru Ravidass Ji. They complained to the king that a chamar is preaching religious tenets. Many persons have become his disciples. On their instigation king Alawadi called Guru Ji to his court.
Guru Ji was seated beside the seat of the king. Beside several persons of Guru Ravidass’s community carrying leather on their heads also accompanied Guru Ravidass Ji. The king felt foul smell of leather. The persons carrying leather were beaten and expelled from the court yard. The king asked Guru Ravidass Ji that you were initiating others as your disciples, show some miracle. Guru Ji said that miracle has already been shown. He told that “I was worshipping God by chanting His Naam, you have seated me by your side although I am also Chamar whereas you have expelled others of my community from your darbar.”
Naagar Janan meri jaat(i) bikhiaat Chamaarun
Ride raam govind gun saaran.
Guru Ji told, “O! residents of Benaras I am
Chamar by caste. I am seated near the seat of
the king in darbar because I am worshipping God
whereas my companions carrying leather had
been shunted out.”
Sursari salal krit baaruni re
Sant jan karat nahi paann
Suraa apviter nat awar jal re
Sursari milat nahi hoie aann.
If alcohol is prepared out of Ganga water, it
is disliked. When alcohol is prepared with well
water and thrown in Ganga it mixes with Ganga
water. It is worshiped.
Tar tar(i) apviter kar(i) maaneeaai re
Jaise kaagaraa karat bichaarn
Bhagat(i) bhaguot likheeaai tih(i) uoopre
Poojeeai kar(i) namaskarn
Leaves of TAR tree are considered impure.
But when paper is prepared out of Tar leaves
and God’s praise is written on this paper, every
body bows before it.
Meri jaat(i) kut bandhla dhor dhouwanta
Nith(i) baanaarasi aas paasaa
Ab bipar pardhan tih(i) karih dhanduout(i)
Tere naam sarnaaie Ravidass daasaa.
Traslation : I am cobbler by caste. People of my caste still carry away dead bodies around Benaras every day. Since I worship God, I am divinely emancipated. Even the distinguished pandits lay flat before me in reverence.
After hearing all this, the king was highly impressed and gave gold chowki and large sums of money to Guru Ji. The qazis again complained to the king that Ravidass Ji has disregarded the offerings given to him. He had distributed entire money to the destitutes and threw gold chowki in the Ganga. The king felt angry. He again called for Guru Ravidass Ji and asked all about the gold chowki. The king insisted to return him the same gold chowki. Guru Ji took the king to the Ganga. He spoke to Ganga that his gold chowki may be given back to him. Ganga threw seven gold chowkis out in a strong wave.
The king said that his is only one chowki, how it is that these are seven chowkis. Guru Ji told the king that in a single day one gold chowki has multiplied to seven chowkis. Had it remained there for more days it would have multiplied manifold. All these would have been for your comfort. Since the original gold chowki has been taken back from the Ganga, nothing will increase now. The king realised his blunder and begged apology from Guru Ravidass Ji. He bowed to the sacred feet of Guru Ravidass Ji in reverence and scolded the Qazis.
Raja Chander Partap
Raja Chander Partap of Ghazipur had heard the fame of Guru Ravidass Ji. He attended the mass feeding function (Yagg) organized by Maharana Sangha at Udaipur where Guru Ravidass Ji was also invited. At the end of the function, Raja Chander Partap humbly prayed to Satguru Ji to pay his pious visit to his palace at Ghazipur to grace the occasion of mass feeding function. Rana Sangha assured that in case Satguru Ji wished, he would escort him to Ghazipur. Satguru Ji blessed and accepted the invitation. Meera Bai and Karma Bai would also accompany Guru Ji.
On the scheduled day Guru Ji reached the palace of Raja Chander Partap. He was received honourably by the king, his queens, courtiers and other dignitaries. He was garlanded profusely.
Guru Ji was seated in the specially decorated room in the palace. A big mass feeding function (yagg) was organized in which Guru Ji participated. All neighboring kings and relatives also attended the ceremony. Next day Guru Ji came back to his place
Meeting with Sadhna Ji
Sadhna Pir used to kill birds and sell their meat in the market. On the other hand Guru Ravidass Ji preached non-killing of animals. Sadhna Ji did not like his preachings. One day he came to the place of Guru Ravidass Ji and asked him to be converted to Islam as it did not observe caste system. It is a sacred religion. Guru Ravidass Ji told Sadhna Ji to shun his pride and chant God’s Name. Sadhna Ji was highly impressed with the arguments of Guru Ji and became his disciple.
At some other time Sadhna Ji visited King Sikandar Lodhi and spoke high of Guru Ravidass Ji and that he had become his disciple. Sikandar Lodhi was annoyed. He called Guru Ravidass Ji through Sadhna Ji. Sikandar Lodhi was a cruel king. As Guru Ravidass Ji appeared in the court he was asked to be converted to Islam but Guru Ji refused to oblige the king. At this Guru Ravidass Ji was sent to jail.
He sat in Samadhi and worshipped God. God took pity on Guru Ji. He appeared before him and talked with him. When Sikandar Lodhi visited jail in the evening, he overheard voice of God. “You have troubled my worshipper. Your dynasty will be annihilated.” The king was stunned and trembled to hear all this. He went to Guru Ravidass Ji, repented and begged his apology. He was released immediately.
King Sikandar Lodhi gave a word to Guru Ji that in future he will not harass any body. Sikandar Lodhi had a precious diamond. He offered it to Guru Ravidass Ji. Guru Ji refused the offer. Guru Ji told the king that he was worshipper of Diamond- the God.
Har(i) so heera chhadh(i) kai karih aan kee aas,
Te nar dojak jaahige sat bhaakhai Ravidass.
 Sachkhand gaman of Guru Ravidass Ji
Satguru Kabir Ji, Satguru Namdev Ji, Satguru Tirlochan Ji and Satguru Dhanna Ji were asked by God to visit Satguru Ravidass Ji and convey him that he has attained supreme emancipation and that he will he called to sachkhand after 21 days. All these saints came to Guru Ji. He humbly welcomed and offered them seats. Guru Ji served them well. They told Guru Ji that God has ordained him 21 days more in this world, and they went away. Guru Ji was at Benaras. Members of his family relatives and devotees were told all about the message of God.
On the 21st day Guru Ji had a bath early in the morning and meditated. He mystically chanted the pious Name of God and mingled with Him on Asarh Sakranti of Bikrami Samvat 1584 (1528 A.D.) Banaras. His followers remember him devotionally and get inspiration from his teachings. He was successful in bringing about sea change in the social and religious thought. His teachings and amritbani are as truthful and valid today as these were during his era and will continue to guide humanity in future.
Dialogue with Gorakh Nath
Gorakh Nath heard popularity of Guru Ravidass Ji. One day Gorakh Nath visited Seer Govardhanpur, Varanasi and enquired about the place of Guru Ravidass Ji. He came to the place where Guru Ji lived. Guru Ji welcomed Gorakh Nath and offered him the seat. He thanked Gorakh Nath for having visited him. Gorakh Nath told Guru Ji that he has heard his fame.
As such, he had come to see him. Gorakh Nath gave his shoe to Guru Ji to be mended. Gorakh Nath said that mending shoes is a mean occupation. You should not carry it on. I give you a precious herb. Warm it and touch any metal; it will turn the metal into gold. Construct a good house in place of the hut. Guru Ji replied that he had appeared on this earth for joining the souls which are departed from the Almighty. He cut a piece of leather. Put it at a proper place on the shoe of Gorakh Nath. He put the yarn in his mouth for readying it for sewing the shoe. As the cotton thread passed through Guru Ji’s mouth, it turned into gold.
Gorakh Nath was astonished to see all this. He came to know that Guru Ravidass Ji possessed supreme spiritual powers. Ignorant people misunderstand him as lowly. He wished Guru Ravidass Ji to become his disciple. Gorakh Nath asked Guru Ji to look into his toombi. Guru Ji saw that in toombi there were jewels, diamonds, and golden Sumer Parbat. Guru Ji said that you are great. I praise you. He then asked Gorakh Nath to look into his dauri ( shallow earthen pot containing water in which leather is soaked for repair of shoes).
Gorakh Nath saw viraat swaroop , jarh, chetan, Asthawar, Jangam, life, 5 elements- sky, air, fire, water, earth, Kuber, Inder, other devtas, moon, sun, stars, Vishnu, Brahma, Shiv and the Universe. Gorakh Nath became numb to see all this. His pride was shaken. He prayed to Guru Ji to be apologized. He fell on Guru Ji’s feet. Guru Ji told him that ridhian sidhian are nothing before God’s Name. God’s Name is source of all comforts. Guru Ji preached that he who mingles with God, all the godly powers appear in his palm.
Teachings of Ravidass Ji on Babur
As a result of his victory in Battle of Panipat in 1526 Babur was the first Mughal King who occupied throne in Delhi. He had brutally massacred lakhs of innocent bodies. However, whatever he did, he did in the name of God. During the course of advance in Indian Territory he came across pirs, saints, rishis also. He also heard of spiritual powers of Guru Ravidass Ji. Once he took his son Humayun along and went to see Guru Ravidass Ji. At that time Guru Ji was sitting at his place.
Babur bowed at the feet of Guru Ji in reverence. Guru Ji scolded Babur for murdering innocent bodies. He asked him to shun pride. Kyon Babur hua babra, man mein adhik ghumaan Kroron prani maar kar, tu ne kiya paap mahaan. Therefore, Babur developed regard for Guru Ji. His teachings stunned Babur. In remorse he distributed money of his treasures at Delhi and Agra to the poor and destitute. Now the subjects developed respect for Babur and called him QALANDAR or Faqir.

( Ravidas Biography in Hindi)

जय गुरू देव धन गुरू देव

संत रविदास से संबंधित तथ्य

जन्म: 1377 एडी में (अर्थात् विक्रम संवत-माघ सुदी 15, 1433, हालाँकि कुछ लोगों का मानना है कि ये 1440 एडी था) सीर गोवर्धनपुर, वाराणसी, यूपी।
पिता: श्री संतोक दास जी
माता: श्रीमती कालसा देवी जी
दादा: श्री कालूराम जी
दादी: श्रीमती लखपती जी
पत्नी: श्रीमती लोनाजी
पुत्र: विजय दास जी
मृत्यु: वाराणसी में 1540 एडी में।

संत रविदास से संबंधित तथ्य

जन्म: 1377 एडी में (अर्थात् विक्रम संवत-माघ सुदी 15, 1433, हालाँकि कुछ लोगों का मानना है कि ये 1440 एडी था) सीर गोवर्धनपुर, वाराणसी, यूपी।
पिता: श्री संतोक दास जी
माता: श्रीमती कालसा देवी जी
दादा: श्री कालूराम जी
दादी: श्रीमती लखपती जी
पत्नी: श्रीमती लोनाजी
पुत्र: विजय दास जी
मृत्यु: वाराणसी में 1540 एडी में।

रविदास की जीवनी

आरंभिक जीवन
संत रविदास का जन्म भारत के यूपी के वाराणसी शहर में माता कालसा देवी और बाबा संतोख दास जी के घर 15 वीं शताब्दी में हुआ था। हालाँकि, उनके जन्म की तारीख को लेकर विवाद भी है क्योंकि कुछ का मानना है कि ये 1376, 1377 और कुछ का कहना है कि ये 1399 सीइ में हुआ था। कुछ अध्येता के आँकड़ों के अनुसार ऐसा अनुमान लगाया गया था कि रविदास का पूरा जीवन काल 15वीं से 16वीं शताब्दी सीइ में 1450 से 1520 के बीच तक रहा।
रविदास के पिता मल साम्राज्य के राजा नगर के सरपंच थे और खुद जूतों का व्यापार और उसकी मरम्मत का कार्य करते थे। अपने बचपन से ही रविदास बेहद बहादुर और ईश्वर के बहुत बड़े भक्त थे लेकिन बाद में उन्हें उच्च जाति के द्वारा उत्पन्न भेदभाव की वजह से बहुत संघर्ष करना पड़ा जिसका उन्होंने सामना किया और अपने लेखन के द्वारा रविदास ने लोगों को जीवन के इस तथ्य से अवगत करवाया। उन्होंने हमेशा लोगों को सिखाया कि अपने पड़ोसियों को बिना भेद-भेदभाव के प्यार करो।
पूरी दुनिया में भाईचारा और शांति की स्थापना के साथ ही उनके अनुयायीयों को दी गयी महान शिक्षा को याद करने के लिये भी संत रविदास का जन्म दिवस का मनाया जाता है। अपने अध्यापन के आरंभिक दिनों में काशी में रहने वाले रुढ़ीवादी ब्राह्मणों के द्वारा उनकी प्रसिद्धि को हमेशा रोका जाता था क्योंकि संत रविदास अस्पृश्यता के भी गुरु थे। सामाजिक व्यवस्था को खराब करने के लिये राजा के सामने लोगों द्वारा उनकी शिकायत की गयी थी। रविदास को भगवान के बारे में बात करने से, साथ ही उनका अनुसरण करने वाले लोगों को अध्यापन और सलाह देने के लिये भी प्रतिबंधित किया गया था।
रविदास की प्रारंभिक शिक्षा
बचपन में संत रविदास अपने गुरु पंडित शारदा नंद के पाठशाला गये जिनको बाद में कुछ उच्च जाति के लोगों द्वारा रोका किया गया था वहाँ दाखिला लेने से। हालाँकि पंडित शारदा ने यह महसूस किया कि रविदास कोई सामान्य बालक न होकर एक ईश्वर के द्वारा भेजी गयी संतान है अत: पंडित शारदानंद ने रविदास को अपनी पाठशाला में दाखिला दिया और उनकी शिक्षा की शुरुआत हुयी। वो बहुत ही तेज और होनहार थे और अपने गुरु के सिखाने से ज्यादा प्राप्त करते थे। पंडित शारदा नंद उनसे और उनके व्यवहार से बहुत प्रभावित रहते थे उनका विचार था कि एक दिन रविदास आध्यात्मिक रुप से प्रबुद्ध और महान सामाजिक सुधारक के रुप में जाने जायेंगे।
पाठशाला में पढ़ने के दौरान रविदास पंडित शारदानंद के पुत्र के मित्र बन गये। एक दिन दोनों लोग एक साथ लुका-छिपी खेल रहे थे, पहली बार रविदास जी जीते और दूसरी बार उनके मित्र की जीत हुयी। अगली बार, रविदास जी की बारी थी लेकिन अंधेरा होने की वजह से वो लोग खेल को पूरा नहीं कर सके उसके बाद दोनों ने खेल को अगले दिन सुबह जारी रखने का फैसला किया। अगली सुबह रविदास जी तो आये लेकिन उनके मित्र नहीं आये। वो लंबे समय तक इंतजार करने के बाद अपने उसी मित्र के घर गये और देखा कि उनके मित्र के माता-पिता और पड़ोसी रो रहे थे।
उन्होंने उन्हीं में से एक से इसका कारण पूछा और अपने मित्र की मौत की खबर सुनकर हक्का-बक्का रह गये। उसके बाद उनके गुरु ने संत रविदास को अपने बेटे के लाश के स्थान पर पहुँचाया, वहाँ पहुँचने पर रविदास ने अपने मित्र से कहा कि उठो ये सोने का समय नहीं है दोस्त, ये तो लुका-छिपी खेलने का समय है। जैसै कि जन्म से ही गुरु रविदास दैवीय शक्तियों से समृद्ध थे, रविदास के ये शब्द सुनते ही उनके मित्र फिर से जी उठे। इस आश्चर्यजनक पल को देखने के बाद उनके माता-पिता और पड़ोसी चकित रह गये।
वैवाहिक जीवन
भगवान के प्रति उनके प्यार और भक्ति की वजह से वो अपने पेशेवर पारिवारिक व्यवसाय से नहीं जुड़ पा रहे थे और ये उनके माता-पिता की चिंता का बड़ा कारण था। अपने पारिवारिक व्यवसाय से जुड़ने के लिये इनके माता-पिता ने इनका विवाह काफी कम उम्र में ही श्रीमती लोना देवी से कर दिया जिसके बाद रविदास को पुत्र रत्न की प्रति हुयी जिसका नाम विजयदास पड़ा।
शादी के बाद भी संत रविदास सांसारिक मोह की वजह से पूरी तरह से अपने पारिवारिक व्यवसाय के ऊपर ध्यान नहीं दे पा रहे थे। उनके इस व्यवहार से क्षुब्द होकर उनके पिता ने सांसारिक जीवन को निभाने के लिये बिना किसी मदद के उनको खुद से और पारिवारिक संपत्ति से अलग कर दिया। इस घटना के बाद रविदास अपने ही घर के पीछे रहने लगे और पूरी तरह से अपनी सामाजिक मामलों से जुड़ गये।
बाद का जीवन
बाद में रविदास जी भगवान राम के विभिन्न स्वरुप राम, रघुनाथ, राजा राम चन्द्र, कृष्णा, गोविन्द आदि के नामों का इस्तेमाल अपनी भावनाओं को उजागर करने के लिये करने लगे और उनके महान अनुयायी बन गये।
बेगमपुरा शहर से उनके संबंध
बिना किसी दुख के शांति और इंसानियत के साथ एक शहर के रुप में गुरु रविदास जी द्वारा बेगमपुरा शहर को बसाया गया। अपनी कविताओं को लिखने के दौरान रविदास जी द्वारा बेगमपुरा शहर को एक आदर्श के रुप में प्रस्तुत किया गया था जहाँ पर उन्होंने बताया कि एक ऐसा शहर जो बिना किसी दुख, दर्द या डर के और एक जमीन है जहाँ सभी लोग बिना किसी भेदभाव, गराबी और जाति अपमान के रहते है। एक ऐसी जगह जहाँ कोई शुल्क नहीं देता, कोई भय, चिंता या प्रताड़ना नहीं हो।
मीरा बाई से उनका जुड़ाव
संत रविदास जी को मीरा बाई के आध्यात्मिक गुरु के रुप में माना जाता है जो कि राजस्थान के राजा की पुत्री और चित्तौड़ की रानी थी। वो संत रविदास के अध्यापन से बेहद प्रभावित थी और उनकी बहुत बड़ी अनुयायी बनी। अपने गुरु के सम्मान में मीरा बाई ने कुछ पंक्तियाँ लिखी है-
“गुरु मिलीया रविदास जी-”।
वो अपने माता-पिता की एक मात्र संतान थी जो बाद में चितौड़ की रानी बनी। मीरा बाई ने बचपन में ही अपनी माँ को खो दिया जिसके बाद वो अपने दादा जी के संरक्षण में आ गयी जो कि रविदास जी के अनुयायी थे। वो अपने दादा जी के साथ कई बार गुरु रविदास से मिली और उनसे काफी प्रभावित हुयी। अपने विवाह के बाद, उन्हें और उनके पति को गुरु जी से आशीर्वाद प्राप्त हुआ। बाद में मीराबाई ने अपने पति और ससुराल पक्ष के लोगों की सहमति से गुरु जी को अपने वास्तविक गुरु के रुप में स्वीकार किया। इसके बाद उन्होंने गुरु जी के सभी धर्मों के उपदेशों को सुनना शुरु कर दिया जिसने उनके ऊपर गहरा प्रभाव छोड़ा और वो प्रभु भक्ति की ओर आकर्षित हो गयी। कृष्ण प्रेम में डूबी मीराबाई भक्ति गीत गाने लगी और दैवीय शक्ति का गुणगान करने लगी।
अपने गीतों में वो कुछ इस तरह कहती थी:
“गुरु मिलीया रविदास जी दीनी ज्ञान की गुटकी,
चोट लगी निजनाम हरी की महारे हिवरे खटकी”।
दिनों-दिन वो ध्यान की ओर आकर्षित हो रही थी और वो अब संतों के साथ रहने लगी थी। उनके पति की मृत्यु के बाद उनके देवर और ससुराल के लोग उन्हें देखने आये लेकिन वो उन लोगों के सामने बिल्कुल भी व्यग्र और नरम नहीं पड़ी। बल्कि उन्हें तो आधी रात को उन लोगों के द्वारा गंभीरी नदी में फेंक दिया गया था लेकिन गुरु रविदास जी के आशीर्वाद से वो बच गयी।
एक बार अपने देवर के द्वारा दिये गये जहरीले दूध को गुरु जी द्वारा अमृत मान कर पी गयी और खुद को धन्य समझा। उन्होंने कहा कि:
“विष को प्याला राना जी मिलाय द्यो
मेरथानी ने पाये
कर चरणामित् पी गयी रे,
गुण गोविन्द गाये”।
संत रविदास के जीवन की कुछ महत्वपूर्णं घटनाएँ
एक बार गुरु जी के कुछ विद्यार्थी और अनुयायी ने पवित्र नदी गंगा में स्नान के लिये पूछा तो उन्होंने ये कह कर मना किया कि उन्होंने पहले से ही अपने एक ग्राहक को जूता देने का वादा कर दिया है तो अब वही उनकी प्राथमिक जिम्मेदारी है। रविदास जी के एक विद्यार्थी ने उनसे दुबारा निवेदन किया तब उन्होंने कहा उनका मानना है कि “मन चंगा तो कठौती में गंगा” मतलब शरीर को आत्मा से पवित्र होने की जरुरत है ना कि किसी पवित्र नदी में नहाने से, अगर हमारी आत्मा और ह्दय शुद्ध है तो हम पूरी तरह से पवित्र है चाहे हम घर में ही क्यों न नहाये।
एक बार उन्होंने अपने एक ब्राहमण मित्र की रक्षा एक भूखे शेर से की थी जिसके बाद वो दोनों गहरे साथी बन गये। हालाँकि दूसरे ब्राहमण लोग इस दोस्ती से जलते थे सो उन्होंने इस बात की शिकायत राजा से कर दी। रविदास जी के उस ब्राहमण मित्र को राजा ने अपने दरबार में बुलाया और भूखे शेर द्वारा मार डालने का हुक्म दिया। शेर जल्दी से उस ब्राहमण लड़के को मारने के लिये आया लेकिन गुरु रविदास को उस लड़के को बचाने के लिये खड़े देख शेर थोड़ा शांत हुआ। शेर वहाँ से चला गया और गुरु रविदास अपने मित्र को अपने घर ले गये। इस बात से राजा और ब्राह्मण लोग बेहद शर्मिंदा हुये और वो सभी गुरु रविदास के अनुयायी बन गये।
सामाजिक मुद्दों में गुरु रविदास की सहभागिता
वास्तविक धर्म को बचाने के लिये रविदास जी को ईश्वर द्वारा धरती पर भेजा गया था क्योंकि उस समय सामाजिक और धार्मिक स्वरुप बेहद दु:खद था। क्योंकि इंसानों द्वारा ही इंसानों के लिये ही रंग, जाति, धर्म तथा सामाजिक मान्यताओं का भेदभाव किया जा चुका था। वो बहुत ही बहादुरी के साथ सभी भेदभाव को स्वीकार करते और लोगों को वास्तविक मान्यताओं और जाति के बारे में बताते। वो लोगों को सिखाते कि कोई भी अपने जाति या धर्म के लिये नहीं जाना जाता, इंसान अपने कर्म से पहचाना जाता है। गुरु रविदास जी समाज में अस्पृश्यता के खिलाफ भी लड़े जो उच्च जाति द्वारा निम्न जाति के लोगों के साथ किया जाता था।
उनके समय में निम्न जाति के लोगों की उपेक्षा होती थी, वो समाज में उच्च जाति के लोगों की तरह दिन में कहीं भी आ-जा नहीं सकते थे, उनके बच्चे स्कूलों में पढ़ नहीं सकते थे, मंदिरों में नहीं जा सकते थे, उन्हें पक्के मकान के बजाय सिर्फ झोपड़ियों में ही रहने की आजादी थी और भी ऐसे कई प्रतिबंध थे जो बिल्कुल अनुचित थे। इस तरह की सामाजिक समयस्याओं को देखकर गुरु जी ने निम्न जाति के लोगों की बुरी परिस्थिति को हमेशा के लिये दूर करने के लिये हर एक को आध्यात्मिक संदेश देना शुरु कर दिया।
उन्होंने लोगों को संदेश दिया कि “ईश्वर ने इंसान बनाया है ना कि इंसान ने ईश्वर बनाया है” अर्थात इस धरती पर सभी को भगवान ने बनाया है और सभी के अधिकार समान है। इस सामाजिक परिस्थिति के संदर्भ में, संत गुरु रविदास जी ने लोगों को वैश्विक भाईचारा और सहिष्णुता का ज्ञान दिया। गुरुजी के अध्यापन से प्रभावित होकर चितौड़ साम्राज्य के राजा और रानी उनके अनुयायी बन गये।
सिक्ख धर्म के लिये गुरु जी का योगदान
सिक्ख धर्मग्रंथ में उनके पद, भक्ति गीत, और दूसरे लेखन (41 पद) आदि दिये गये थे, गुरु ग्रंथ साहिब जो कि पाँचवें सिक्ख गुरु अर्जन देव द्वारा संकलित की गयी। सामान्यत: रविदास जी के अध्यापन के अनुयायी को रविदासीया कहा जाता है और रविदासीया के समूह को अध्यापन को रविदासीया पंथ कहा जाता है।
गुरु ग्रंथ साहिब में उनके द्वारा लिखा गया 41 पवित्र लेख है जो इस प्रकार है; “रागा-सिरी(1), गौरी(5), असा(6), गुजारी(1), सोरथ(7), धनसरी(3), जैतसारी(1), सुही(3), बिलावल(2), गौंड(2), रामकली(1), मारु(2), केदारा(1), भाईरऊ(1), बसंत(1), और मलहार(3)”।
ईश्वर के द्वारा उनकी महानता की जाँच की गयी थी
वो अपने समय के महान संत थे और एक आम व्यक्ति की तरह जीवन को जीने की वरीयता देते है। कई बड़े राजा-रानियों और दूसरे समृद्ध लोग उनके बड़े अनुयायी थे लेकिन वो किसी से भी किसी प्रकार का धन या उपहार नहीं स्वीकारते थे। एक दिन भगवान के द्वारा उनके अंदर एक आम इंसान के लालच को परखा गया, एक दर्शनशास्त्री गुरु रविदास जी के पास एक पत्थर ले कर आये और उसके बारे में आश्चर्यजनक बात बतायी कि ये किसी भी लोहे को सोने में बदल सकता सकता है। उस दर्शनशास्त्री ने गुरु रविदास को उस पत्थर को लेने के लिये दबाव दिया और साधारण झोपड़े की जगह बड़ी-बड़ी इमारतें बनाने को कहा। लेकिन उन्होंने ऐसा करने से मना कर दिया।
उस दर्शनशास्त्री ने फिर से उस पत्थर को रखने के लिये गुरुजी पर दबाव डाला और कहा कि मैं इसे लौटते वक्त वापस ले लूँगा साथ ही इसको अपनी झोपड़ी के किसी खास जगह पर रखने को कहा। गुरु जी ने उसकी ये बात मान ली। वो दर्शनशास्त्री कई वर्षों बाद लौटा तो पाया कि वो पत्थर उसी तरह रखा हुआ है। गुरुजी के इस अटलता और धन के प्रति इस विकर्षणता से वो बहुत खुश हुए। उन्होंने वो कीमती पत्थर लिया और वहाँ से गायब हो गये। गुरु रविदास ने हमेशा अपने अनुयायीयों को सिखाया कि कभी धन के लिये लालची मत बनो, धन कभी स्थायी नहीं होता, इसके बजाय आजीविका के लिये कड़ी मेहनत करो।
एक बार जब उनको और दूसरे दलितों को पूजा करने के जुर्म में काशी नरेश के द्वारा उनके दरबार में कुछ ब्राह्मणों की शिकायत पर बुलाया गया था, तो ये ही वो व्यक्ति थे जिन्होंने सभी गैरजरुरी धार्मिक संस्कारों को हटाने के द्वारा पूजा की प्रकिया को आसान बना दिया। संत रविदास को राजा के दरबार में प्रस्तुत किया गया जहाँ गुरुजी और पंडित पुजारी से फैसले वाले दिन अपने-अपने इष्ट देव की मूर्ति को गंगा नदी के घाट पर लाने को कहा गया।
राजा ने ये घोषणा की कि अगर किसी एक की मूर्ति नदी में तैरेगी तो वो सच्चा पुजारी होगा अन्यथा झूठा होगा। दोनों गंगा नदी के किनारे घाट पर पहुँचे और राजा की घोषणा के अनुसार कार्य करने लगे। ब्राह्मण ने हल्के भार वाली सूती कपड़े में लपेटी हुयी भगवान की मूर्ति लायी थी वहीं संत रविदास ने 40 कि.ग्रा की चाकोर आकार की मूर्ती ले आयी थी। राजा के समक्ष गंगा नदी के राजघाट पर इस कार्यक्रम को देखने के लिये बहुत बड़ी भीड़ उमड़ी थी।
पहला मौका ब्राह्मण पुजारी को दिया गया, पुजारी जी ने ढ़ेर सारे मंत्र-उच्चारण के साथ मूर्ती को गंगा जी ने प्रवाहित किया लेकिन वो गहरे पानी में डूब गयी। उसी तरह दूसरा मौका संत रविदास का आया, गुरु जी ने मूर्ती को अपने कंधों पर लिया और शिष्टता के साथ उसे पानी में रख दिया जो कि पानी की सतह पर तैरने लगा। इस प्रकिया के खत्म होने के बाद ये फैसला हुआ कि ब्राह्मण झूठा पुजारी था और गुरु रविदास सच्चे भक्त थे।
दलितों को पूजा के लिये मिले अधिकार से खुश होकर सभी लोग उनके पाँव को स्पर्श करने लगे। तब से, काशी नरेश और दूसरे लोग जो कि गुरु जी के खिलाफ थे, अब उनका सम्मान और अनुसरण करने लगे। उस खास खुशी के और विजयी पल को दरबार की दिवारों पर भविष्य के लिये सुनहरे अक्षरों से लिख दिया गया।
संत रविदास को कुष्ठरोग को ठीक करने के लिये प्राकृतिक शक्ति मिली हुई थी
समाज में उनकी महान प्राकृतिक शक्तियों से भरी गज़ब की क्रिया के बाद ईश्वर के प्रति उनकी सच्चाई से प्रभावित होकर हर जाति और धर्म के लोगों पर उनका प्रभाव पड़ा और सभी गुरु जी के मजबूत विद्यार्थी, अनुयायी और भक्त बन गये। बहुत साल पहले उन्होंने अपने अनुयायीयों को उपदेश दिया था और तब एक धनी सेठ भी वहाँ पहुँचा मनुष्य के जन्म के महत्व के ऊपर धार्मिक उपदेश को सुनने के लिये।
धार्मिक उपदेश के अंत में गुरु जी ने सभी को प्रसाद के रुप में अपने मिट्टी के बर्तन से पवित्र पानी दिया। लोगों ने उसको ग्रहण किया और पीना शुरु किया हालाँकि धनी सेठ ने उस पानी को गंदा समझ कर अपने पीछे फेंक दिया जो बराबर रुप से उसके पैरों और जमींन पर गिर गया। वो अपने घर गया और उस कपड़े को कुष्ठ रोग से पीड़ित एक गरीब आदमी को दे दिया। उस कपड़े को पहनते ही उस आदमी के पूरे शरीर को आराम महसूस होने लगा जबकि उसके जख्म जल्दी भरने लगे और वो जल्दी ठीक हो गया।
हालाँकि धनी सेठ को कुष्ठ रोग हो गया जो कि महँगे उपचार और अनुभवी और योग्य वैद्य द्वारा भी ठीक नहीं हो सका। उसकी स्थिति दिनों-दिन बिगड़ती चली गयी तब उसे अपनी गलतियों का एहसास हुआ और वो गुरु जी के पास माफी माँगने के लिये गया और जख्मों को ठीक करने के लिये गुरु जी से वो पवित्र जल प्राप्त किया। चूँकि गुरु जी बेहद दयालु थे इसलिये उसको माफ करने के साथ ही ठीक होने का ढ़ेर सारा आशीर्वाद भी दिया। अंतत: वो धनी सेठ और उसका पूरा परिवार संत रविदास का भक्त हो गया।
संत रविदास का सकारात्मक नज़रिया
उनके समय में शुद्रों (अस्पृश्य) को ब्राह्मणों की तरह जनेऊ, माथे पर तिलक और दूसरे धार्मिक संस्कारों की आजादी नहीं थी। संत रविदास एक महान व्यक्ति थे जो समाज में अस्पृश्यों के बराबरी के अधिकार के लिये उन सभी निषेधों के खिलाफ थे जो उन पर रोक लगाती थी। उन्होंने वो सभी क्रियाएँ जैसे जनेऊ धारण करना, धोती पहनना, तिलक लगाना आदि निम्न जाति के लोगों के साथ शुरु किया जो उन पर प्रतिबंधित था।
ब्राह्मण लोग उनकी इस बात से नाराज थे और समाज में अस्पृश्यों के लिये ऐसे कार्यों को जाँचने का प्रयास किया। हालाँकि गुरु रविदास जी ने हर बुरी परिस्थिति का बहादुरी के साथ सामना किया और बेहद विनम्रता से लोगों का जवाब दिया। अस्पृश्य होने के बावजूद भी जनेऊ पहनने के कारण ब्राह्मणों की शिकायत पर उन्हें राजा के दरबार में बुलाया गया। वहाँ उपस्थित होकर उन्होंने कहा कि अस्पृश्यों को भी समाज में बराबरी का अधिकार मिलना चाहिये क्योंकि उनके शरीर में भी दूसरों की तरह खून का रंग लाल और पवित्र आत्मा होती है
संत रविदास ने तुरंत अपनी छाती पर एक गहरी चोट की और उस पर चार युग जैसे सतयुग, त्रेतायुग, द्वापर और कलयुग की तरह सोना, चाँदी, ताँबा और सूती के चार जनेऊ खींच दिया। राजा समेत सभी लोग अचंभित रह गये और गुरु जी के सम्मान में सभी उनके चरणों को छूने लगे। राजा को अपने बचपने जैसे व्यवहार पर बहुत शर्मिंदगी महसूस हुयी और उन्होंने इसके लिये माफी माँगी। गुरु जी ने सभी माफ करते हुए कहा कि जनेऊ धारण करने का ये मतलब नहीं कि कोई भगवान को प्राप्त कर लेता है। इस कार्य में वो केवल इसलिये शामिल हुए ताकि वो लोगों को वास्तविकता और सच्चाई बता सके। गुरु जी ने जनेऊ निकाला और राजा को दे दिया इसके बाद उन्होंने कभी जनेऊ और तिलक का इस्तेमाल नहीं किया।
कुंभ उत्सव पर एक कार्यक्रम
एक बार पंडित गंगा राम गुरु जी से मिले और उनका सम्मान किया। वो हरिद्वार में कुंभ उत्सव में जा रहे थे गुरु जी ने उनसे कहा कि ये सिक्का आप गंगा माता को दे दीजीयेगा अगर वो इसे आपके हाथों से स्वीकार करें। पंजित जी ने बड़ी सहजता से इसे ले लिया और वहाँ से हरिद्वार चले गये। वो वहाँ पर नहाये और वापस अपने घर लौटने लगे बिना गुरु जी का सिक्का गंगा माता को दिये।
वो अपने रास्ते में थोड़ा कमजोर होकर बैठ गये और महसूस किया कि वो कुछ भूल रहे हैं, वो दुबारा से नदी के किनारे वापस गये और जोर से चिल्लाए माता, गंगा माँ पानी से बाहर निकली और उनके अपने हाथ से सिक्के को स्वीकार किया। माँ गंगा ने संत रविदास के लिये सोने के कँगन भेजे। पंडित गंगा राम घर वापस आये वो कँगन गुरु जी के बजाय अपनी पत्नी को दे दिया।
एक दिन पंडित जी की पत्नी उस कँगन को बाजार में बेचने के लिये गयी। सोनार चालाक था, सो उसने कँगन को राजा और राजा ने रानी को दिखाने का फैसला किया। रानी ने उस कँगन को बहुत पसंद किया और एक और लाने को कहा। राजा ने घोषणा की कि कोई इस तरह के कँगन नहीं लेगा, पंडित अपने किये पर बहुत शर्मिंदा था क्योंकि उसने गुरुजी को धोखा दिया था। वो रविदास जी से मिला और माफी के लिये निवेदन किया। गुरु जी ने उससे कहा कि “मन चंगा तो कठौती में गंगा” ये लो दूसरे कँगन जो पानी से भरे जल में मिट्टी के बर्तन में गंगा के रुप में यहाँ बह रही है। गुरु जी की इस दैवीय शक्ति को देखकर वो गुरु जी का भक्त बन गया।
उनके पिता के मौत के समय की घटना
रविदास की पिता की मृत्यु के बाद उन्होंने अपने पड़ोसियों से विनती की कि वो गंगा नदी के किनारे अंतिम रिवाज़ में मदद करें। हालाँकि ब्राह्मण रिती के संदर्भ में खिलाफ थे कि वो गंगा के जल से स्नान करेंगे जो रस्म की जगह से मुख्य शहर की ओर जाता है और वो प्रदूषित हो जायेगा। गुरु जी बहुत दुखी और मजबूर हो गये हालाँकि उन्होंने कभी भी अपना धैर्य नहीं खोया और अपने पिता की आत्मा की शांति के लिये प्रार्थना करने लगे। अचानक से वातावरण में एक भयानक तूफान आया और नदी का पानी उल्टी दिशा में बहना प्रारंभ हो गया और जल की एक गहरी तरंग आयी और लाश को अपने साथ ले गयी। इस भवंडर ने आसपास की सभी चीजों को सोख लिया। तब से, गंगा का पानी उल्टी दिशा में बह रहा है।
कैसे बाबर प्रभावित हुए रविदास के अध्यापन से
इतिहास के अनुसार बाबर मुगल साम्राज्य का पहला राजा था जो 1526 में पानीपत का युद्ध जीतने के बाद दिल्ली के सिहांसन पर बैठा जहाँ उसने भगवान के भरोसे के लिये लाखों लोगों को कुर्बान कर दिया। वो पहले से ही संत रविदास की दैवीय शक्तियों से परिचित था और फैसला किया कि एक दिन वो हुमायुँ के साथ गुरु जी से मिलेगा। वो वहाँ गया और गुरु जी को सम्मान देने के लिये उनके पैर छूए हालाँकि; आशीर्वाद के बजाय उसे गुरु जी से सजा मिली क्योंकि उसने लाखों निर्दोष लोगों की हत्याएँ की थी। गुरु जी ने उसे गहराई से समझाया जिसने बाबर को बहुत प्रभावित किया और इसके बाद वो भी संत रविदास का अनुयायी बन गया तथा दिल्ली और आगरा के गरीबों की सेवा के द्वारा समाज सेवा करने लगा।

संत रविदास की मृत्यु

समाज में बराबरी, सभी भगवान एक है, इंसानियत, उनकी अच्छाई और बहुत से कारणों की वजह से बदलते समय के साथ संत रविदास के अनुयायीयों की संख्या बढ़ती ही जा रही थी। दूसरी तरफ, कुछ ब्राह्मण और पीरन दित्ता मिरासी गुरु जी को मारने की योजना बना रहे थे इस वजह से उन लोगों ने गाँव से दूर एक एकांत जगह पर मिलने का समय तय किया। किसी विषय पर चर्चा के लिये उन लोगों ने गुरु जी को वहाँ पर बुलाया जहाँ उन्होंने गुरु जी की हत्या की साजिश रची थी हालाँकि गुरु जी को अपनी दैवीय शक्ति की वजह से पहले से ही सब कुछ पता चल गया था
जैसे ही चर्चा शुरु हुई, गुरु जी उन्ही के एक साथी भल्ला नाथ के रुप में दिखायी दिये जो कि गलती से तब मारा गया था। बाद में जब गुरु जी ने अपने झोपड़े में शंखनाद किया, तो सभी हत्यारे गुरु जी को जिंदा देख भौंचक्के रह गये तब वो हत्या की जगह पर गये जहाँ पर उन्होंने संत रविदास की जगह अपने ही साथी भल्ला नाथ की लाश पायी। उन सभी को अपने कृत्य पर पछतावा हुआ और वो लोग गुरु जी से माफी माँगने उनके झोपड़े में गये।
हालाँकि, उनके कुछ भक्तों का मानना है कि गुरु जी की मृत्यु प्राकृतिक रुप से 120 या 126 साल में हो गयी थी। कुछ का मानना है उनका निधन वाराणसी में 1540 एडी में हुआ था।

गुरु रविदासजी का इतिहास – Guru Ravidass Ji History in Hindi

पूरा नाम :- श्री गुरु रविदासजी
जन्मस्थान :- कांशी (बनारस)
पिता :- बाबा संतोख दास जी
माता :- कालसी जी
गुरु रविदास जी 15 और 16 वी शताब्दी में भक्ति अभियान के उत्तर भारतीय आध्यात्मिक सक्रीय कवी-संत थे. पंजाब, उत्तर प्रदेश, राजस्थान और महाराष्ट्र में उन्हें गुरु कहा जाता है. और रविदास जी के भक्ति गीतों ने भक्ति अभियान पर एक आकर्षक छाप भी छोड़ी थी. वे एक कवी-संत, सामाजिक सुधारक और आध्यात्मिक व्यक्ति थे. रविदास 21 वि शताब्दी में गुरु रविदास जी धर्म के संस्थापक थे.
गुरु रविदास जी के भक्ति गीतों में सिक्ख साहित्य, गुरु ग्रन्थ साहिब शामिल है. पञ्च वाणी की दादूपंथी परंपरा में भी गुरु रविदास जी की बहोत सी कविताये शामिल है. गुरु रविदास ने समाज से सामाजिक भेदभाव और जाती प्रथा और लिंग भेद को हटाने का बहोत प्रभाव पड़ा. उनके अनुसार हर एक समाज में सामाजिक स्वतंत्रता का होना बहोत जरुरी है.
संत रविदास को कभी संत, गुरु और कभी-कभी रविदास, रायदास और रुहिदास भी कहा जाता था.

रविदास के जीवन चरीत्र की पर्याप्त जानकारी भी उपलब्ध नही है. लेकिन बहोत से विद्वानों का ऐसा मानना है की श्री गुरु रविदासजी का जन्म 15 वि शताब्दी में भारत के उत्तर प्रदेश के कांशी (बनारस) में हुआ था. हर साल उनका जन्मदिन पूरण मासी के दिन माघ के महीने में आता है. उनकी माता का नाम माता कालसी जी और पिता का नाम बाबा संतोख दास जी था.
गुरु रविदासजी – Guru Ravidass सामाजिक भेदभाव के विरुद्ध थे, वे हमेशा से ही जातिभेद, रंगभेद के खिलाफ लड़ रहे थे. बचपन से ही उन्हें भक्तिभाव काफी पसंद था, बचपन से ही भगवान पूजा में उन्हें काफी रूचि थी. परम्पराओ के अनुसार रविदास पर संत-कवी रामानंद का बहोत प्रभाव पड़ा. उनकी भक्ति से प्रेरित होकर वहा के राजा भी उनके अनुयायी बन चुके थे.
गुरु रविदास वैश्विक बंधुता, सहिष्णुता, पड़ोसियों के लिये प्यार और देशप्रेम का पाठ पढ़ाते थे.
गुरु रविदास ने गुरु नानक देव की प्रार्थना पर पुरानी मनुलिपि को दान करने का निर्णय लिया. उनकी कविताओ का संग्रह श्री गुरु ग्रन्थ साहिब में देखा जा सकता है. बाद में गुरु अर्जुन देव जी ने इसका संकलन किया था, जो सिक्खो के पाँचवे गुरु थे. सिक्खो की धार्मिक किताब गुरु ग्रन्थ साहिब में गुरु रविदास के 41 छन्दों का समावेश है.
ऐसा कहा जाता है की गुरु रविदास जी इस दुनिया से काफी नाराज़ थे और अपने पीछे केवल अपने पदचिन्ह ही छोड़ गए थे. कुछ लोगो का मानना था की अपने अंतिम दिनों में वे बनारस में रहते थे.

आज भी सन्त रविदास के उपदेश समाज के कल्याण तथा उत्थान के लिए अत्यधिक महत्वपूर्ण हैं. उन्होंने अपने आचरण तथा व्यवहार से यह प्रमाणित कर दिया है कि मनुष्य अपने जन्म तथा व्यवसाय के आधार पर महान नहीं होता है. विचारों की श्रेष्ठता, समाज के हित की भावना से प्रेरित कार्य तथा सद्व्यवहार जैसे गुण ही मनुष्य को महान बनाने में सहायक होते हैं. इन्हीं गुणों के कारण संत रविदास को अपने समय के समाज में अत्यधिक सम्मान मिला और इसी कारण आज भी लोग इन्हें श्रद्धापूर्वक स्मरण करते हैं.

रैदास के दोहे (काव्य) 
रचनाकार: रैदास | Ravidas
जाति-जाति में जाति हैं, जो केतन के पात।
रैदास मनुष ना जुड़ सके जब तक जाति न जात।।
रैदास कनक और कंगन माहि जिमि अंतर कछु नाहिं।
तैसे ही अंतर नहीं हिन्दुअन तुरकन माहि।।
हिंदू तुरक नहीं कछु भेदा सभी मह एक रक्त और मासा।
दोऊ एकऊ दूजा नाहीं, पेख्यो सोइ रैदासा।।
कह रैदास तेरी भगति दूरि है, भाग बड़े सो पावै।
तजि अभिमान मेटि आपा पर, पिपिलक हवै चुनि खावै।।
कृस्न, करीम, राम, हरि, राघव, जब लग एक न पेखा।
वेद कतेब कुरान, पुरानन, सहज एक नहिं देखा।।

Ravdas Amrit Vani

संत श्री गुरु रविदास जी महाराज ने अपने जीवन काल में 40 वाणियों की रचना की थी। जो सिखों के गुरु ग्रन्थ साहिब जी में भी लिखी गई है, इतनी महान वाणियाँ आज इन्टरनेट पर कही भी उपलब्ध नहीं है। संत श्री गुरु रविदास जी महाराज की ये अनमोल वाणियाँ सभी को उपलब्ध हो इसी उदेश्य से गुरु जी महाराज की वाणियों को यहाँ डाउनलोड के लिए दी गई है। ये 40 वाणियाँ गुरु जी की अनमोल रचनाएँ है और हर मूल निवासी इन वाणियों को पढ़ और समझ सके इस लिए ये वाणियाँ हिंदी और पंजाबी दोनों भाषाओँ में यहाँ उपलब्ध है। कृपया नीचे दिए गए हिंदी और पंजाबी लिंक पर क्लिक करे और गुरु महाराज की वाणियों को PDF में प्राप्त करें। आप इन वाणियों को प्रिंट भी कर सकते है, और अपने समाज से सभी वर्गों तक पहुंचा सकते है:

गुरु रविदास जी के लिये स्मारक

वाराणसी में श्री गुरु रविदास पार्क
वाराणसी में श्री गुरु रविदास पार्क है जो नगवा में उनके यादगार के रुप में बनाया गया है जो उनके नाम पर “गुरु रविदास स्मारक और पार्क” बना है
गुरु रविदास घाट
वाराणसी में पार्क से बिल्कुल सटा हुआ उनके नाम पर गंगा नदी के किनारे लागू करने के लिये गुरु रविदास घाट भी भारतीय सरकार द्वारा प्रस्तावित है
संत रविदास नगर
ज्ञानपुर जिले के निकट संत रविदास नगर है जो कि पहले भदोही नाम से था अब उसका नाम भी संत रविदास नगर है।

  • Melbourne - Gurudwara Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha Aust Inc.24 Malcolm Place, Campbellfield 3061 , MELBOURNE
Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha Australia Inc 
Address: 24 Malcolm Pl, Campbellfield VIC 3061, Australia
Phone: +61 425 225 777

United Kingdom

The Ravidassia Community in Britain

The Ravidassia Community in Britain

Contributed by Opinderjit Kaur Takhar
On entering a Ravidassia place of worship for the first time, a student may not necessarily notice that it is any different from a Sikh Gurdwara. It has the palki housing the Guru Granth Sahib with a Granthi (one learned in the language of the Scripture) showing it the respect of the eternal Guru.  However, on closer observation, students will notice that there are a number of points of departure from that of a Gurdwara.   Portraits of the fifteenth century lower caste Sant, Ravidass (referred to as Guru Ravidass by his followers) adorn the walls and the palki in the Ravidassia place of worship (see Takhar 2005: 89-123).  This brings in an element of confusion for the students. In Takhar and Jacob’s experience, it is this element of confusion that probes students into further enquiry and thus highlights the complexities of clear-cut religious boundaries (see Takhar and Jacobs 2011).   Current issues within the Ravidassia community are geared towards separating their identity from the Sikhs and declaring a distinct identity as the Ravidassia Dharm, which is neither Sikh and neither Hindu (see Takhar 2012). However, the confusion further embeds itself with regard to those followers of Guru Ravidass whom are content with being labelled as ‘Ravidassia Sikhs’ or ‘Dalit Sikhs’. Is it actually possible to regard both the Guru Granth Sahib and Bhagat Ravidass as one’s Guru? Current dialogue amongst Ravidassias is proposing to follow in the footsteps of their communities elsewhere in Europe and India whereby copies of the Guru Granth Sahib have been removed from places of worship and have been replaced by Amritbani Shri Guru Ravidass. This has not taken place in the UK as yet and could be an indicator of retaliation from those Ravidassias who are intent on being defined as Sikhs.  The 2011 UK Census was used as a rallying tool for promoting a distinct identity amongst Ravidassias who were encouraged to record their religion as ‘other’ from Sikhs and Hindus.
Attempting to categorize religious faiths into neatly boxed categories thus  raises a number of issues when teaching students about religious communities which may be associated with multiple religious identities.  This topic has been discussed in length by Ballard (1999) and Oberoi (1994).  It is a good idea for students to familiarize themselves with both works after they have visited a Ravidassia place of worship.
The Ravidassia places of worship in the UK currently house the Guru Granth Sahib since it contains forty-one hymns composed by Ravidass. These are regarded as the most authentic  of his works.  Ravidass belonged to the caste of cobblers, the Chamars. His community of followers are almost exclusively also from this Dalit caste.  It is often regarded as derogatory to use the term Chamar since it has connotations of untouchability due to the occupation of working with animal hides. Hence the term Dalit, meaning oppressed and crushed is preferred by Ravidassias as a true reflection of their treatment in Indian society based on Manusmriti (or The Laws of Manu).  Many former Chamars converted to Sikhism in their masses in the hope of achieving equal status with fellow Sikhs as the result of the teachings about caste equality by the Sikh Gurus. However, the Ravidassias strongly argue that the stigma of untouchability remained with them despite their adoption of the Sikh way of life which aimed to seek caste equality on both a practical and spiritual level. Discussing the role of caste amongst Sikhs is a sensitive issue; many Sikhs will out-rightly reject the suggestion that caste has survived amongst Sikhs. So why the current tensions between Sikhs and Ravidassias?  In an apparently caste-free society, where and why the label as a  Dalit-Sikh? Surely this contradicts the very essence of the egalitarian hermeneutics of Sikh religious philosophy?…
Examine the photograph below which is from the Guru Ravidass Temple, Dudley Road, Wolverhampton:
You may have noticed that Guru Ravidass occupies a prominent position at this place of worship due to the two large representations on the wall behind the palki. In what ways does the photograph highlight the identity of the Ravidassias as not strictly Sikh?  What features on the other hand are indicative of a Sikh identity, or at least a Sikh character of the place of worship? It may help to look at the photograph below taken at the Guru Nanak Sikh Temple, Sedgeley Street, Wolverhampton:
From the two photographs above, what particular emphasis is being placed on a separate identity for the followers of Guru Ravidass?  What factors do you think initially led the  governing body of Sikhs, the SGPC (Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee) in believing that the Guru Granth Sahib was being disrespected (beadbi) in  Ravidassia places of worship? Important to note however, is that after visiting Ravidassia Sabhas the SGPC were convinced that it was being given the respect it deserves.
The Constitution of India defines a Sikh as the follower of a sect within Hinduism.  Sikhs practice endogamy, that is, they marry within their caste.  What does this suggest about the often quoted reference to Sikhism being a caste-free faith? Is there are a contradiction then, bearing in mind Guru Nanak’s teaching that:
Worthless is caste and worthless an exalted name, For all mankind there is but a single refuge. (AG 83).

  • Bedford - Shri Guru Ravidass Bhawan, Guru Ravidass Lane, Off Ashburnham Lane, Bedford
  • Bilston - Sant Dera Baba Gobind Dass Temple (Ravidass), 95 Wellington Road, Bilston
  • Birmingham - Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha, Union Row, Handsworth, Birmingham
  • Bradford - Gurudwara Shri Guru Ravidass Bhavan, 8 Breaton Street, Bradford
  • Coventry - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple (1), 19 Jesmond Road, Coventry
  • Coventry - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple (2), 475 Foleshill Road, Folesshill, Coventry
  • Darlaston - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, 37-38 Pinford Street, Darlaston
  • Derby - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, Duncan Road, Derby
  • Erith - Shri Guru Ravidass Bhawan, 57 Battle Road, Erith, Kent
  • Gravesend - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, Brandon Street, Gravesend, Kent
  • Hitchin - Shri Guru Ravidass Community Centre, 2 Knowlpiece, Hitchin
  • Leicester - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, 196 Harrison Road, Leicester
  • Letchworth - Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha, 167 Glebe Road, Letchworth
  • Luton - Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha, 31A Cardigan Street, Luton
  • Newham - Shri Guru Ravidass Bhawan, 28 Carlyle Road, Manor Park, London
  • Southall - Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha, 282 Western Road, Southall
  • Southampton - Shri Guru Ravidass Bhawan, 130 Northumberland Road, Southampton
  • Strood - Shri Guru Ravidass Bhawan, 1 Viarage Road, Strood, Kent
  • Walsall - Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha, 186 Stafford Road, Walsall
  • Willenhall - Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha, 13 Somerford Road, Willenhall
  • Wolverhampton - Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha, 181 Dudley Road, Wolverhampton
  • Glasgow - Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha , 251 Nithdele Road , Pollockshield , Glasgow


  • Brampton - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, 86 Newport Street, Brampton, ON
  • Calgary - Guru Ravidass Community Centre, 1835 40 Street SE, Calgary
  • Montreal - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, 8205 Duroucher, Montreal
  • Toronto - Gurdwara Ravidass Sikh Temple, 2284 Queensway Dr, Burlington, ON
  • West Toronto - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, 6795 Steels Avenue, West Toronto, ON
  • Vancouver - Gurudwara Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha, 7271 Gilley Avenue, Burnaby, BC

New Zealand

  • Auckland - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, Bombay Hills


  • Nasinu Suva - Gurudwara Ravidass

United States

  • Bay Area - Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha, 5785 Robertson Avenue, Newark, California
  • Fresno - Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha Central Valley, 5025 S. Cherry Avenue, Fresno, California
  • Houston - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, 7902 Boone Road, Houston, Texas
  • New York - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, 6001 Broadway, New York, New York
  • Pittsburgh - Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha, 2150 Crestview Drive, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • Sacramento - Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha, Sacramento, California
  • Seattle - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, Seattle, Washington
  • Selma - Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha, 2650 Baline Avenue, Selma, California
  • Yuba City - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, 2269 Bouge Road, Yuba City, California


  • Bergamo - Gurudwara Shri Guru Ravidass Darbar
  • Vernon - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple
  • Vicenza - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple

  • Paris - Gurudwara Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha, 97 Rue Anatole, Lacournehve, France


  • Amsterdam - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, Brink-1B 1097 TT, Amsterdam
  • The Hague - Shri Guru Ravidass Temple, DlfeseLaan 105, 2512 RC, The Hague

Veeru Ji
#गुरु_रविदास के बारे में कुछ विशेश जानकारी
रविदास जी एकमात्र ऐसे संत थे,,जिन्हें संत शिरोमणि की उपाधि मिली थी। ना तो इससे पहले किसी संत को यह उपाधि मिली और ना ही उनके बाद,,सन 1416 मे राजा #नागरमल के समय काशी में गंगा नदी के किनारे ब्राह्मणो से शास्त्रार्थ हुआ। यह शास्त्रार्थ अद्वितीय था। एक तरफ अकेले गुरु रविदास जी थे तथा दूसरी तरफ हजारों पंडित–पुजारी,जो अपने धर्म शास्त्रों के अनुसार बोले और संत रविदास जी ने उनके इस पाखंड के विरुद्ध अनेकों तर्क दिये थे।और उस शास्त्रार्थ में गुरु रविदास जी ने अपनी विजय पताका फहराई थी। इसी विजय पताका को #शिला_का_तैरना_कहते_हैं और ब्राह्मणों की हार को #पोथी_पत्रा_डूबने_की_संज्ञा_दी_गई_थी
इस विजय पर बनारस नरेश नागर मल ने अपना निर्णय दिया था कि ब्राह्मण समाज संत शिरोमणि गुरू रविदास जी को सोने की पालकी में बैठाकर अपने कंधों पर पूरे काशी शहर में चवँर झुलाते हुए घुमाएेंगे साथ ही साथ रविदास जी को #संत_शिरोमणि की उपाधि भी दी गई थी। संत शिरोमणि गुरु रविदास जी को राजा नागर मल द्वारा अपना गुरू बनाते हुए, बनारस राज्य” का राजगुरु भी घोषित किया तथा पालकी को स्वयं कन्धा दिया।

1494 मे बादशाह सिकंदर लोधी ने संत रविदास जी को मुस्लिम धर्म स्वीकार न करने के कारण जेल की काल कोठरी मे डाल दिया। परन्तु कालांतर उनके ज्ञान से प्रभावित होकर ससम्मान छोड़ दिया और उनका शिष्य बन गए।

संत शिरोमणि गुरु रविदास जी मीरा बाई के भी गुरु थे।वह केवल मीराबाई के ही गुरु नहीं थे बल्कि मीराबाई के ससुर महाराजा चित्तौड़गढ़ राणा सांगा, उनकी पत्नी झाला रानी तथा उनके पुत्र राजाभोज के भी गुरु थे। एवं चित्तौड़गढ़ राज्य के राजगुरु भी थे।

इसके अलावा 

राजा संग्राम सिंह, राजा चंद्र प्रताप, बादशाह अलाबदी, बिजली खान, राणा रतन सिंह, महाराजा कुंभा सिंह, राजा चंद्रहास उनके लाखों की संख्या मे शिष्य थे।

सिखों के पांचवे गुरू अर्जुन देव जी द्वारा 1604 में कंपोजीशन कराते समय #गुरू_ग्रंथसाहब में गुरू रविदास जी द्वारा रचित 40 वाणियाँ भी शामिल की गई।

गुरु महाराज जी के द्वारा लाखों दलित बेरोजगार युवकों को अपने शिष्य राजाओं के राज्य मे,दरबार व सेना मे नौकरियां दिलवाई।
आज पंजाब में #रविदासिया_धर्म अपनी स्वतंत्र पहचान बना चुका है,,और देश बिदेश में अपना परचम लहरा रहा है।


Mahendra Kumar said…
Thanks nice to know about it

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