Various Dalit Community

Dalit

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Dalit, meaning "oppressed" in Sanskrit and "broken/scattered" in Hindi, is a term mostly used for the aboriginal communities that have been subjected to untouchability. Dalits were excluded from the four-fold varna system of Hinduism and were seen as forming a fifth varna, also known by the name of Panchama. Dalits now profess various religious beliefs, including Buddhism, Christianity and Sikhism.
The term dalits was in use as a translation for the British Raj census classification of Depressed Classes prior to 1935. It was popularised by the economist and reformer B. R. Ambedkar (1891–1956), himself a Dalit, and in the 1970s its use was invigorated when it was adopted by the Dalit Panthers activist group. India's National Commission for Scheduled Castes considers official use of dalit as a label to be "unconstitutional" because modern legislation prefers Scheduled Castes; however, some sources say that Dalit has encompassed more communities than the official term of Scheduled Castes and is sometimes used to refer to all of India's oppressed peoples. A similar all-encompassing situation prevails in Nepal.
Scheduled Caste communities exist across India, although they are mostly concentrated in four states; they do not share a single language or religion. They comprise 16.6 per cent of India's population, according to the 2011 Census of India. Similar communities are found throughout the rest of South Asia, in Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. They have emigrated to countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and the Caribbean.
In 1932, the British Raj recommended separate electorates to select leaders for Dalits in the Communal Award. This was favoured by Ambedkar but when Mahatma Gandhi opposed the proposal it resulted in the Poona Pact. That in turn influenced the Government of India Act, 1935, which introduced the reservation of seats for the Depressed Classes, now re-named as Scheduled Castes.
From soon after its independence in 1947, India introduced a reservation system to enhance the ability of Dalits to have political representation and to obtain government jobs and education. In 1997, India elected K. R. Narayanan as the nation's President. Many social organisations have promoted better conditions for Dalits through education, healthcare and employment. Nonetheless, while caste-based discrimination was prohibited and untouchability abolished by the Constitution of India, such practices still continue. To prevent harassment, assault, discrimination and similar acts against these groups, the Government of India enacted the Prevention of Atrocities Act on 31 March 1995.
Etymology and usage
The word dalit is a vernacular form of the Sanskrit दलित (dalita). In Classical Sanskrit, this means "divided, split, broken, scattered". This word was repurposed in 19th-century Sanskrit to mean "(a person) not belonging to one of the four Brahminic castes". It was perhaps first used in this sense by Pune-based social reformer Jyotirao Phule, in the context of the oppression faced by the erstwhile "untouchable" castes from other Hindus.
Dalit is mostly used to describe aboriginal communities that have been subjected to untouchability. Such people were excluded from the four-fold varna system of Hinduism and thought of themselves as forming a fifth varna, describing themselves as Panchama.
The term was in use as a translation for the British Raj census classification of Depressed Classes prior to 1935. It was popularised by the economist and reformer B. R. Ambedkar (1891–1956), himself a Dalit, and in the 1970s its use was invigorated when it was adopted by the Dalit Panthers activist group.
Dalit has become a political identity, similar to the way African Americans in the United States moved away from the use of the term Negro, to the use of Black or indeed African-American and Native Americans instead of Red Indians . Socio-legal scholar Oliver Mendelsohn and political economist Marika Vicziany wrote in 1998 that the term had become "intensely political ... While use of the term might seem to express an appropriate solidarity with the contemporary face of Untouchable politics, there remain major problems in adopting it as a generic term. Although the word is now quite widespread, it still has deep roots in a tradition of political radicalism inspired by the figure of B. R. Ambedkar." They suggested its use risked erroneously labelling the entire population of untouchables in India as being united by a radical politics. Anand Teltumbde also detects a trend towards denial of the politicised identity, for example among educated middle-class people who have converted to Buddhism and argue that, as Buddhists, they cannot be Dalits. This may be due to their improved circumstances giving rise to a desire not to be associated with the what they perceive to be the demeaning Dalit masses.

Official term

Scheduled Castes is the official term for Dalits in the opinion of India's National Commissions for Scheduled Castes (NCSC), who took legal advice that indicated modern legislation does not refer to Dalit and that therefore, it says, it is "unconstitutional" for official documents to do so. In 2004, the NCSC noted that some state governments used Dalits rather than Scheduled Castes in documentation and asked them to desist.
Some sources say that Dalit encompasses a broader range of communities than the official Scheduled Caste definition. It can include nomadic tribes and another official classification that also originated with the British Raj positive discrimination efforts in 1935, being the Scheduled Tribes. It is also sometimes used to refer to the entirety of India's oppressed peoples, which is the context that applies to its use in Nepalese society. An example of the limitations of the Scheduled Caste category is that, under Indian law, such people can only be followers of Buddhism, Hinduism or Sikhism, yet there are communities who claim to be Dalit Christians and the tribal communities often practise folk religions.

Harijan

Mahatma Gandhi coined the word Harijan, translated roughly as people of God, to identify untouchables in 1933. The name was disliked by Ambedkar as it emphasised the Dalits as belonging to the Greater Hindu Nation rather than being an independent community like Muslims.. When untouchability was outlawed after Indian independence, the use of the word Harijan to describe the ex-untouchables was more common among other castes than the Dalits themselves.

Regional terms

In Southern India, Dalits are sometimes known as Adi DravidaAdi Karnataka, and Adi Andhra. This practice began around 1917, when the Adi- prefix was appropriated by Dalit leaders in the region. It embodies a theory that they were the original inhabitants of India, although this is dubious. The terms are used in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, respectively, to identify people of "untouchable" castes in official documents.
In the Indian state of Maharashtra, according to historian and women's studies academic Shailaja Paik, Dalit is a term mostly used by members of the Mahar caste, into which Ambedkar was born. Most other communities prefer to use their own caste name.
In Nepal, aside from Harijan and, most commonly, Dalit, terms such as Haris (among Muslims), Achhootoutcastes and neech jati are used.

Demographics



Scheduled Caste communities exist across India and comprised 16.6 per cent of the country's population, according to the 2011 Census of India. Uttar Pradesh (21 per cent), West Bengal (11 per cent), Bihar (8 per cent) and Tamil Nadu (7 per cent) between them accounted for almost half the country's total Scheduled Caste population. They were most prevalent as a proportion of the states' population in Punjab, at about 32 per cent, while Mizoram had the lowest at approximately zero.
Similar groups are found throughout the rest of South Asia, in
Nepal, Pakistan,Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. They have emigrated to countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore, and the Caribbean,

Social status

Dalits have had lowest social status in the traditional Hindu social structure but James Lochtefeld, a professor of religion and Asian studies, said in 2002 that the "adoption and popularization of [the term Dalit] reflects their growing awareness of the situation, and their greater assertiveness in demanding their legal and constitutional rights".
In the past, they were believed to be so impure that caste Hindus considered their presence to be polluting. The impure status was related to their historic hereditary occupations that Hindus considered to be "polluting" or debased, such as working with leather, working with night soil and other dirty work.

Histor

Dharavi View 1
Dharavi View 2
Dharavi is a slum in Mumbai, founded in the 1880s during the British colonial era. The colonial government expelled Dalits, along with their traditional profession of leather and tannery work, from Mumbai (Bombay) peninsula to create Dharavi. Currently, about 20 per cent of the Dharavi population are Dalits, compared to 16 per cent nationwide. Dalits live together with Muslims (who constitute about a third of Dharavi's population) and other castes and tribes.
Gopal Baba Walangkar (ca. 1840-1900) is generally considered to be the pioneer of the Dalit movement, seeking a society in which they were not discriminated. This is despite the work of Harichand Thakur (ca. 1812-1878) with his Matua organisation that involved the Namasudra (Chandala) community in Bengal Presidency, British India. Ambedkar himself believed Walangkar to be the progenitor. Another early social reformer who worked to improve conditions for Dalits was Jyotirao Phule (1827-1890).
The 1950 Constitution of India, introduced after the country gained independence, included measures to improve the socioeconomic conditions of Dalits. Aside from banning untouchability, these included the reservation system, a means of positive discrimination that created the classifications of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes (OBCs). Communities that were categorised as being one of those groups were guaranteed a percentage of the seats in the national and state legislatures, as well as in government jobs and places of education. The system has its origins in the 1932 Poona Pact between Ambedkar and Gandhi, when Ambedkar conceded his demand that the Dalits should have an electorate separate from the caste Hindus in return for Gandhi accepting measures along these lines. The notion of a separate electorate had been proposed in the Communal Award made by the British Raj authorities, and the outcome of the Pact - the Government of India Act of 1935 - both introduced the new term of Scheduled Castes in replacement for Depressed Classes and reserved seats for them in the legislatures.
By 1995, of all federal government jobs in India - 10.1 per cent of Class I, 12.7 per cent of Class II, 16.2 per cent of Class III, and 27.2 per cent of Class IV jobs were held by Dalits. Of the most senior jobs in government agencies and government-controlled enterprises, only 1 per cent were held by Dalits, not much change in 40 years. In the 21st century, Dalits have been elected to India's highest judicial and political offices.
In 2001, the quality of life of the Dalit population in India was not similar to that of the overall Indian population, on metrics such as access to health care, life expectancy, education attainability, access to drinking water and housing. In 2010, Dalits received international attention due to a portrait exhibition by Marcus Perkins that depicted Dalits.
According to a 2007 report by Human Rights Watch (HRW), the treatment of Dalits has been like a "hidden apartheid" and that they "endure segregation in housing, schools, and access to public services". HRW noted that Manmohan Singh, then Prime Minister of India, saw a parallel between the apartheid system and untouchability. Eleanor Zelliot also notes Singh's 2006 comment but says that, despite the obvious similarities, race prejudice and the situation of Dalits "have a different basis and perhaps a different solution."Though the Indian Constitution abolished untouchability, the oppressed status of Dalits remains a reality. In rural India, stated Klaus Klostermaier in 2010, "they still live in secluded quarters, do the dirtiest work, and are not allowed to use the village well and other common facilities". In the same year, Zelliot noted that "In spite of much progress over the last sixty years, Dalits are still at the social and economic bottom of society."

Economic status

According to a 2014 report to the Ministry of Minority Affairs, over 44.8 per cent of Scheduled Tribe (ST) and 33.8 per cent of Scheduled Caste (SC) populations in rural India were living below the poverty line in 2011–12. In urban areas, 27.3 per cent of ST and 21.8 per cent of SC populations were poor.
Some Hindu Dalits have achieved affluence, although most remain poor. Some Dalit intellectuals, such as Chandra Bhan Prasad, have argued that the living standards of many Dalits have improved since the economic liberalisation began in 1991 and have supported their claims through large surveys. According to the Socio Economic and Caste Census 2011, nearly 79 per cent of Adivasi households and 73 per cent of Dalit households were the most deprived among rural households in India. While 45 per cent of SC households are landless and earn a living by manual casual labour, the figure is 30 per cent for Adivasis.
A 2012 survey by Mangalore University in Karnataka found that 93 per cent of Dalit families still live below the poverty line.

Education

According to an analysis by The IndiaGoverns Research Institute, Dalits constituted nearly half of primary school dropouts in Karnataka during the period 2012-14.
A sample survey in 2014, conducted by Dalit Adhikar Abhiyan and funded by ActionAid, found that among state schools in Madhya Pradesh, 88 per cent discriminated against Dalit children. In 79 per cent of the schools studied, Dalit children are forbidden from touching mid-day meals. They are required to sit separately at lunch in 35 per cent of schools, and are required to eat with specially-marked plates in 28 per cent.
There have been incidents and allegations of SC and ST teachers and professors being discriminated against and harassed by authorities, upper castes colleagues and upper caste students in different education institutes of India. In some cases, such as in Gujarat, state governments have argued that, far from being discriminatory, their rejection when applying for jobs in education has been because there are no suitably qualified candidates from those classifications.

Healthcare and nutrition

Discrimination can also exist in access to healthcare and nutrition. A sample survey of Dalits, conducted over several months in Madhya Pradesh and funded by ActionAid in 2014, found that health field workers did not visit 65 per cent of Dalit settlements. 47 per cent of Dalits were not allowed entry into ration shops; and 64 per cent were given less grains than non-Dalits. In Haryana state, 49 per cent of Dalit children under five years were underweight and malnourished while 80 per cent of those in the 6–59 months age group were anaemic in 2015.

Crime

Dalits comprise a slightly disproportionate number of India's prison inmates. While Dalits (including both SCs and STs) constitute 25 per cent of the Indian population, they account for 33.2 per cent of prisoners. About 24.5 per cent of death row inmates in India are from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes which is proportionate to their population. The percentage is highest in Maharashtra (50 per cent), Karnataka (36.4 per cent) and Madya Pradesh (36 per cent).
Caste-related violence between Dalit and non-Dalits allegedly stems from Dalit's economic success amidst ongoing prejudice. The Bhagana rape case, which arose out of a dispute of allocation of land, is an example of atrocities against Dalit girls and women.] In August 2015, due to continued alleged discrimination from upper castes of the village, about 100 Dalit inhabitants converted to Islam in a ceremony at Jantar Mantar, New Delhi. Inter-caste marriage has been proposed as a remedy, but according to a 2014 survey of 42,000 households by the New Delhi-based National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) and the University of Maryland, it was estimated that only 5 per cent of Indian marriages cross caste boundaries.
A 2006 article reported incidents of violence, disputes and discrimination against Dalits in Maharashtra. The article noted that non-Dalit families claimed they do not treat Dalits differently. A carpenter caste person said, "We tell them anything and they tell us you are pointing fingers at us because of our caste; we all live together, and there are bound to be fights, but they think we target them."
There have been reports of Dalits being forced to eat human faeces and drink urine by Christian Thevars, an OBC. In one such instance, a 17-year-old girl was set on fire by Yadav (an OBC) youth, allegedly because she was allowed school-education. In September 2015, a 45-year-old dalit woman was allegedly stripped naked and was forced to drink urine by perpetrators from the Yadav community in Madhya Pradesh.

Prevention of Atrocities Act

The Government of India has attempted on several occasions to legislate specifically to address the issue of caste-related violence that affects SCs and STs. Aside from the Constitutional abolition of untouchability, there has been the Untouchability (Offences) Act of 1955, which was amended in the same year to become the Protection of Civil Rights Act. It was determined that neither of those Acts were effective, so the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) Act of 1989 (POA) came into force.
The POA designated specific crimes against SCs and STs as "atrocities" - a criminal act that has "the quality of being shockingly cruel and inhumane" - which should be prosecuted under its terms rather than existing criminal law. It created corresponding punishments. Its purpose was to curb and punish violence against Dalits, including humiliations such as the forced consumption of noxious substances. Other atrocities included forced labour, denial of access to water and other public amenities, and sexual abuse. The Act permitted Special Courts exclusively to try POA cases. The Act called on states with high levels of caste violence (said to be "atrocity-prone") to appoint qualified officers to monitor and maintain law and order.
In 2015, the Parliament of India passed the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act to address issues regarding implementation of the POA, including instances where the police put procedural obstacles in the way of alleged victims or indeed outright colluded with the accused. It also extended the number of acts that were deemed to be atrocities. One of those remedies, in an attempt to address the slow process of cases, was to make it mandatory for states to set up the exclusive Special Courts that the POA had delineated. Progress in doing so, however, was reported in April 2017 to be unimpressive. P. L. Punia, a former chairman of the NCSC, said that the number of pending cases was high because most of the extant Special Courts were in fact not exclusive but rather being used to process some non-POA cases, and because "The special prosecutors are not bothered and the cases filed under this Act are as neglected as the victims". While Dalit rights organisations were cautiously optimistic that the amended Act would improve the situation, legal experts were pessimistic.

Segregation

Fa Xian, a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim who recorded his visit to India in the early 5th century, mentioned segregation in the context of the untouchable Chandala community:
Throughout the country the people kill no living thing nor drink wine, nor do they eat garlic or onions, with the exception of Chandalas only. The Chandalas are named 'evil men', and dwell apart from others; if they enter a town or market, they sound a piece of wood in order to separate themselves; then men, knowing who they are, avoid coming in contact with them.
— Fa Xian, 399-414 CE
While discrimination against Dalits has declined in urban areas and in the public sphere, it still exists in rural areas and in the private sphere, in everyday matters such as access to eating places, schools, temples and water sources. Some Dalits successfully integrated into urban Indian society, where caste origins are less obvious. In rural India, however, caste origins are more readily apparent and Dalits often remain excluded from local religious life, though some qualitative evidence suggests that exclusion is diminishing.
According to the 2014 NCAER/University of Maryland survey, 27 per cent of the Indian population still practices untouchability. The figure may be higher because many people refuse to acknowledge doing so when questioned, although the methodology of the survey was also criticised for potentially inflating the figure. Across India, Untouchability was practised among 52 per cent of Brahmins, 33 per cent of Other Backward Classes and 24 per cent of non-Brahmin forward castes. Untouchability was also practiced by people of minority religions – 23 per cent of Sikhs, 18 per cent of Muslims and 5 per cent of Christians. According to statewide data, Untouchability is most commonly practiced in Madhya Pradesh (53 per cent), followed by Himachal Pradesh (50 per cent), Chhattisgarh (48 per cent), Rajasthan and Bihar (47 per cent), Uttar Pradesh (43 per cent ), and Uttarakhand (40 per cent).
Examples of segregation have included the Madhya Pradesh village of Ghatwani, where the Scheduled Tribe population of Bhilala do not allow Dalit villagers to use public borewell for fetching water and thus they are forced to drink dirty water. In metropolitan areas around New Delhi and Bangalore, Dalits and Muslims face discrimination from upper caste landlords when seeking places to rent.

Traditions, rituals and customs

In several incidents if dalits found burning holika for Holika Dahan ceremony, they are tonsured and paraded naked in the villages. Also in some parts of India, there have been allegations that Dalit grooms riding horses for wedding ceremonies have been beaten up and ostracised by upper caste people. In August 2015, upper caste people burned houses and vehicles belonging to Dalit families and slaughtered their livestock in reaction Dalits daring to hold a temple car procession at a village in Tamil Nadu. In August 2015, it was claimed that a Jat Khap Panchayat ordered the rape of two Dalit sisters because their brother eloped with a married Jat girl of the same village. The claim was denied.

Religion

Most Dalits in India practice Hinduism. According to the 61st round Survey of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, 90 per cent of Buddhists, one-third of Sikhs, and one-third of Christians in India belonged to Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes.

History

Ambedkar said that untouchability came into Indian society around 400 AD, due to the struggle for supremacy between Buddhism and Brahmanism (an ancient term for Brahmanical Hinduism) Some Hindu priests befriended Dalits and were demoted to low-caste ranks. One example was Dnyaneshwar, who was transferred into Dalit status in the 13th century, but continued to compose the Dnyaneshwari, a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita. Eknath, another excommunicated Brahmin, fought for the rights of untouchables during the Bhakti period. Historical examples of Dalit priests include Chokhamela in the 14th century, who was India's first recorded Dalit poet. Raidas (Ravidass), born into a family of cobblers, is considered a guru by Dalits and is held in high regard. His teachings and writings form part of the Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib. The 15th-century saint Ramananda Ray accepted all castes, including Untouchables, into his fold. Most of these saints subscribed to the medieval era Bhakti movement in Hinduism that rejected casteism. The story of Nandanar describes a low-caste Hindu devotee who was rejected by the priests but accepted by God.
Due to isolation from the rest of Hindu society, many Dalits continue to debate whether they are "Hindu" or "non-Hindu". Traditionally, Hindu Dalits were barred from many activities that central to Vedic religion and Hindu practices of orthodox sects. Among Hindus, each community followed its own variant of Hinduism. The wide variety of practices and beliefs observed in Hinduism makes any clear assessment difficult.

Reform movements


A school of untouchables near Bangalore, by Lady Ottoline Morrell.

Birbal Jha speaking for SCST Welfare Dept Bihar
In the 19th century, the Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj and the Ramakrishna Mission actively participated in Dalit emancipation. While Dalits had places to worship, the first upper-caste temple to openly welcome Dalits was the Laxminarayan Temple in Wardha in 1928. It was followed by the Temple Entry Proclamation issued by the last King of Travancore in the Indian state of Kerala in 1936.[
The Punjabi reformist Satnami movement was founded by Dalit Guru Ghasidas. Guru Ravidas was also a Dalit. Giani Ditt Singh, a Dalit Sikh reformer, started Singh Sabha movement to convert Dalits. Other reformers, such as Jyotirao Phule, Ayyankali of Kerala and Iyothee Thass of Tamil Nadu worked for Dalit emancipation.
In the 1930s, Gandhi and Ambedkar disagreed regarding retention of the caste system. Whilst Ambedkar wanted to see it destroyed, Gandhi thought that it could be modified by reinterpreting Hindu texts so that the untouchables were absorbed into the Shudra varna. It was this disagreement that led to the Poona Pact. Despite the disagreement, Gandhi began the Harijan Yatra to help the Dalits.
The declaration by princely states of Kerala between 1936 and 1947 that temples were open to all Hindus went a long way towards ending Untouchability there. However, educational opportunities to Dalits in Kerala remain limited.
Other Hindu groups attempted to reconcile with the Dalit community. Hindu temples are increasingly receptive to Dalit priests, a function formerly reserved for Brahmins.
The fight for temple entry rights for Dalits continues to cause controversy. Brahmins such as Subramania Bharati passed Brahminhood onto a Dalit, while in Shivaji's Maratha Empire Dalit warriors (the Mahar Regiment) joined his forces In an 2015 incident in Meerut, when a Dalit belonging to Valmiki caste was denied entry to a Hindu temple he converted to Islam In September 2015, four Dalit women were fined by the upper-caste Hindus for entering a temple in Karnataka.
There have been allegations that Dalits in Nepal are denied entry to Hindu temples In at least one reported case were beaten up by some upper caste people for doing so.

Buddhism

In Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and a few other regions, Dalits came under the influence of the neo-Buddhist movement initiated by Ambedkar. In the 1950s, he turned his attention to Buddhism and travelled to Ceylon to attend a convention of Buddhist scholars and monks. While dedicating a new Buddhist vihara near Pune, he announced that he was writing a book on Buddhism, and that he planned a formal conversion. Ambedkar twice visited Burma in 1954; the second time to attend a conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in Rangoon. In 1955, he founded the Bharatiya Bauddha Mahasabha (Buddhist Society of India). He completed writing The Buddha and His Dhamma in 1956.
After meetings with the Buddhist monk Hammalawa Saddhatissa, Ambedkar organised a public ceremony for himself and his supporters in Nagpur on 14 October 1956. Accepting the Three Refuges and Five Precepts in the traditional manner, he completed his conversion. He then proceeded to convert an estimated 500,000 of his supporters. Taking the 22 Vows, they explicitly condemned and rejected Hinduism and Hindu philosophy.

Sikhism

Guru Nanak in Guru Granth Sahib calls for everyone to treat each other equally. Subsequent Sikh Gurus, all of whom came from the Khatri caste, also denounced the hierarchy of the caste system. Despite this, social stratification exists in the Sikh community. The bulk of the Sikhs of Punjab belong to the Jat caste; there are also two Dalit Sikh castes in the state, called the Mazhabis and the Ramdasias.
Sunrinder S. Jodhka says that, in practice, Sikhs belonging to the landowning dominant castes have not shed all their prejudices against the dalit castes. While dalits would be allowed entry into the village gurudwaras they would not be permitted to cook or serve langar (the communal meal). Therefore, wherever they could mobilise resources, the Sikh dalits of Punjab have tried to construct their own gurudwara and other local-level institutions in order to attain a certain degree of cultural autonomy. In 1953, Sikh leader, Master Tara Singh, succeeded in winning the demands from the Government to include Sikh castes of the converted untouchables in the list of scheduled castes. In the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC), 20 of the 140 seats are reserved for low-caste Sikhs.
Sikhs adopt standard surnames such as Singh to disguise caste identities. Nevertheless, families generally do not marry across caste boundaries.

Jainism

Historically Jainism was practiced by many communities across India. They are often conservative and are generally considered upper-caste.
In 1958, a Sthanakvasi Jain called Muni Sameer Muni came into contact with members of the Khatik community in the Udaipur region, who decided to adopt Jainism. Their centre, Ahimsa Nagar, located about four miles from Chittorgarh, was inaugurated by Mohanlal Sukhadia in 1966. Sameer Muni termed them Veerwaal, i.e. belonging to Mahavira. A 22-year-old youth, Chandaram Meghwal, was initiated as a Jain monk at Ahore town in Jalore district in 2005. In 2010 a Mahar engineer called Vishal Damodar was initiated as a Jain monk by Acharya Navaratna Sagar Suriji at Samet Shikhar. Acharya Nanesh, the eighth Achayra of Sadhumargi Jain Shravak Sangha had preached among the Balai community in 1963 near Ratlam. His followers are called Dharmapal. In 1984, some of the Bhangis of Jodhpur came under the influence of Acharya Shri Tulsi and adopted Jainism

Christianity

Many Christian communities in South India follow the caste system. The social stratification in some communities such as the Goan Catholics remained but varied from the Hindu system.

Political involvemen


Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is an Indian Dalit party.
Dalit political parties include:
  • Bahujan Samaj Party
  • Republican Party of India factions, active in Maharashtra
  • Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi and Puthiya Tamilagam are the two major dalit parties in Tamil Nadu
  • Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh, led by Prakash Yashwant Ambedkar, Ambedkar's grandson
  • Lok Janshakti Party, Bihar
  • Bahujan Shakti Party, Nepal
  • Dalit Janajati Party, Nepal
Anti-Dalit prejudices exist in groups such as the extremist militia Ranvir Sena, largely run by upper-caste landlords in Bihar. They oppose equal treatment of Dalits and have resorted to violence. The Ranvir Sena is considered a terrorist organisation by the government of India. In 2015, Cobrapost exposed many leaders especially like C. P. Thakur alongside former PM Chandra Shekhar associated with Ranvir Sena in Bihar Dalit massacres while governments of Nitish Kumar (under pressure from BJP), Lalu Prasad Yadav and Rabri Devi did nothing to get justice for Dalits.
The rise of Hindutva's (Hindu nationalism) role in Indian politics has accompanied allegations that religious conversions of Dalits are due to allurements like education and jobs rather than faith. Critics argue that laws banning conversion and limiting social relief for converts mean that conversion impedes economic success. However, Bangaru Laxman, a Dalit politician, was a prominent member of the Hindutva movement.
Another political issue is Dalit affirmative-action quotas in government jobs and university admissions. About 8 per cent of the seats in the National and State Parliaments are reserved for Scheduled Caste and Tribe candidates.
Jagjivan Ram(1908 – 1986) was the first scheduled caste leader to emerge at the national level from Bihar. He was member of the Constituent assembly that drafted India's constitution. Ram also served in the interim national government of 1946 He served in the cabinets of Congress party Prime ministers Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri and Indira Gandhi His last position in government was as Deputy Prime Minister of India in the Janata Party government of 1977-1979,
In modern times several Bharatiya Janata Party leaders were Dalits, including Dinanath BhaskarRamchandra Veerappa and Dr. Suraj Bhan.
In India's most populous state, Uttar Pradesh, Dalits have had a major political impact. The Dalit-led Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) had previously run the government and that party's leader, Mayawati, served several times as chief minister. Regarding her election in 2007, some reports claimed her victory was due to her ability to win support from both 17 per cent of Muslims and nearly 17 per cent Brahmins alongside 80 per cent of Dalits. However, surveys of voters on the eve of elections, indicated that caste loyalties were not the voters' principal concern. Instead, inflation and other issues of social and economic development dictated the outcome. Mayawati's success in reaching across castes has led to speculation about her as a potential future Prime Minister of India.
Aside from Mayawati in Uttar Pradesh, Damodaram Sanjivayya was chief minister of Andhra Pradesh (from 11 January 1960 – 12 March 1962) and Jitan Ram Manjhi was chief minister of Bihar for just less than a year. In 1997, K. R. Narayanan, who was a Dalit, was elected as President of India.

United Kingdom

After World War II, immigration from the former British Empire was largely driven by labour shortages. Like the rest of the Indian subcontinent diaspora, Dalits immigrated and established their own communities.
A 2009 report alleged that caste discrimination is "rife" in the United Kingdom. The report alleged that casteism persists in the workplace and within the National Health Servi and at doctor's offices.
Indians are divided on the subject and such claims are disputed by the UK Hindu Council who assert that the issue was being "manipulated" by Christians and other anti-Indian activists eager to convert Hindus.
Hindu groups asserted that caste issues will be resolved as generations pass and that a trend towards inter-caste marriages should help. Some claim that caste discrimination is non-existent. Some have rejected the government's right to interfere in the community. The Hindu Forum of Britain conducted their own research, concluding that caste discrimination was "not endemic in British society", that reports to the contrary aimed to increase discrimination by legislating expression and behaviour and that barriers should instead be removed through education.
A 2010 study found that caste discrimination occurs in Britain at work and in service provision. While not ruling out the possibility of discrimination in education, no such incidents were uncovered. The report found favourable results from educational activities. However, non-legislative approaches were claimed to be less effective in the workplace and would not help when the authorities were discriminating. One criticism of discrimination law was the difficulty in obtaining proof of violations. Perceived benefits of legislation were that it provides redress, leads to greater understanding and reduces the social acceptance of such discrimination.
More recent studies in Britain were inconclusive and found that discrimination was "not religion specific and is subscribed to by members of any or no religion" Equalities Minister Helen Grant found insufficient evidence to justify specific legislation, while Shadow Equalities minister Kate Green said that the impact is on a relatively small number of people.Religious studies professor Gavin Flood of the Oxford Centre for Hindu Studies concluded that the Hindu community in Britain is particularly well integrated, loosening caste ties.Casteist beliefs were prevalent mainly among first generation immigrants, with such prejudices declining with each successive generation due to greater assimilation.
From September 2013 to February 2014, Indian philosopher Meena Dhanda led a project on ‘Caste in Britain’ for the UK Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC), which focused on the proposed inclusion of a provision in the Equality Act 2010 to protect British citizens against caste discrimination.
Supporters of anti-caste legislation include Lord Avebury and Lady Thornton.

Dalits in the film industry

Until the 1980s, Dalits had little involvement in Bollywood or other film industries of India and the community were rarely depicted at the heart of storylines. Chirag Paswan(son of Dalit leader Ram Vilas Paswan) launched his career in Bollywood with his debut film Miley Naa Miley Hum in 2011. Despite political connections and the financial ability to struggle against ingrained prejudices, Chirag was not able to "bag" any other movie project in the following years. Chirag, in his early days, described Bollywood as his "childhood dream", but eventually entered politics instead. When the media tried to talk to him about "Caste in Bollywood", he refused to talk about the matter, and his silence speaks for itself. The first Bollywood film to portray a Dalit character in the leading role, although it was not acted by a Dalit, was Eklavya: The Royal Guard (2007). The continued use of caste based references to Dalit sub-castes in South Indian films (typecast and pigeonholed in their main socio-economic sub-group) angers many Dalit fans.

Internal conflicts

Several Dalit groups are rivals and sometimes communal tensions are evident. A study found more than 900 Dalit sub-castes throughout India, with internal divisions.Emphasising any one caste threatens what is claimed to be an emerging Dalit identity and fostering rivalry among SCs.
A DLM party leader said in the early 2000s that it is easier to organise Dalits on a caste basis than to fight caste prejudice itself.
Balmikis and Pasis in the 1990s refused to support the BSP, claiming it was a Jatav party but over 80 per cent of dalits from all united Dalit castes voted BSP to power in 2007.
Many converted Dalit Sikhs claim a superior status over the Hindu Raigars, Joatia Chamars and Ravidasis and sometimes refuse to intermarry with them. They are divided into gotras that regulate their marriage alliances. In Andhra Pradesh, Mala and Madiga were constantly in conflict with each other but as of 2015 Mala and Madiga students work for common dalit cause at University level.
Although the Khateek (butchers) are generally viewed as a higher caste than Bhangis, the latter refuse to offer cleaning services to Khateeks, believing that their profession renders them unclean. They also consider the Balai, Dhobi, Dholi and Mogya as unclean and do not associate with them.


A History of the Untouchables: The Buraku and the Dalit 

 To understand the discrimination towards the Dalit of India, one must be knowledgeable of the caste system in India. A caste can be defined as a social class, made distinct from others by differences in rank, profession, or wealth. The caste system in India has been heavily influenced by the Hindu religion. In Hinduism, everyone is born into a caste (or jati). One cannot change his or her caste. Micheal D. Coogan writes, Underlying the hierarchical social system is the fundamental Hindu idea that people are born into an existence that is the fruit of their past karma. One’s social status in life is therefore traditionally considered predetermined and immutable, 
and the individual must adhere to the particular ritual practices and dietary rules of his or her jati. (159-160) 
Scholars studying the history of India point out that the caste system might have evolved due to race. It is believed, that along with sacrificial religions, the Aryans might have integrated a caste system into the country, dominating the darker skinned natives (Majumder). Four castes predominate in India. The Brahman, the priests and holy leaders, are the highest class, which is followed by the Kshatriya, the princes and warriors. The Vaishya are the farmers, merchants, and artisans of society, and the Shudra are servants and workers (Schmidt et al 132-145). The lowest class is the Dalits, known as the untouchables. The Dalits are said to have no caste as they are not even viewed as being part of human society. As Emerson explains, in the Hindu religion, the three highest classes, the Brahamin, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya, can be referred to as “twice born,” and in the past these three castes were the only people allowed to study the sacred texts and scriptures (298). Those designated as untouchables, or Dalits, often concerned themselves with work that was considered “impure.” Work that involved killing, the disposal of waste, or the handling of corpses was reserved for this caste. Even in modern India, Dalits are still seen as contaminated. An upper class person who is touched by a Dalit or who comes in contact with the shadow of a Dalit must go through elaborate cleansing rituals to undo the “damage” done. Dalits cannot wear shoes in the presence of those in higher castes and still encounter many barriers against practicing religion. Even to this day, untouchables are often chased out of many temples for fear of contamination. 
In Japan, the Buraku emerged as the lowest caste because of their work. In feudal Japan, the elite members of society belonged to the daimyo, the feudal lords, and the highest rank one could achieve was to become Tenno Heika, or the emperor. Below the elite classes were the samurai (the warrior class), the nofu (farmers), the jukenaru (skilled artisans), and the shonin (merchants). Below these four castes were the hinin, the kakibe, and the kujome. The Burakumin (commonly called the Buraku), were known as the untouchables, the lowest social caste of Japanese society. Like the Dalits in India, the Buraku experienced discrimination based in large part on religion. The members of the Buraku caste were employed as butchers, leather workers, executioners, and tanners. Since the predominant religion at the time, Buddhism, preached the sanctity of life, those whose work involved the killing of animals were looked upon with contempt and disgust. The Buraku, like the Dalits, were considered by upper class people to be impure and contaminated (Hendry 75). Such impurity was considered contagious by the more elite members of society. As a result, most of the Buraku lived in isolated areas, as seen in the literal translation of 
“Buraku,” meaning “village people.” The condition of a Buraku was considered hereditary; hence, the child of a Burakumin couple would have a predestined life as an outcast. Marrying a Buraku was out of the question for someone of higher status. Additionally, the Buraku were forbidden to enter most religious sites. Instead, the Buraku had their own temples and places of worship in order to keep them isolated from society. To further discriminate against the Buraku people, the lowest caste was required to remove all headwear as a sign of subservience. Throughout Japanese history, the Buraku lived harsh, impoverished lives due to their birth status and consequent caste. 
 Comparisons between the Buraku and the Dalits are numerous. Both castes were discriminated against due to their professions as their work went against the principles of the predominant religion of society. The Buraku and the Dalits were considered filthy and contaminated by higher castes. Both castes lived in isolation, forced to live apart from society. Because the Dalits and the Buraku were considered contagious, associating with them would reflect poorly on the religious virtue of any upper class person. Neither the Dalits nor the Buraku were completely free to pursue religion, but the Buraku did have temples designated for their use. The Dalits were forbidden access to any religious temple, as well as studying scriptures and texts. Nevertheless, the major and most crucial difference between the Dalits and the Buraku appears in modern times.  While both caste systems are still largely discriminated against today, modern reformations, such as civil rights protests, have helped improve and raise awareness of the conditions of the lowest castes. Today, the Buraku is an invisible caste in that there is no visible difference between a member of the Buraku and someone of another caste. While the Buraku do not visibly appear any different from those of a higher class, Buraku people are still heavily discriminated against. Many Buraku continue to live in impoverished communities in Japan. During the 1990s, the Buraku Liberation League aided in pressuring the government to pass the Special Measures Law for Assimilation Project, which called for government assistance in Buraku communities. One major setback for the Buraku lies in education. A survey done by local governments in 2000 states, 
Due to the fact that the drop-out rate for Buraku high school student is two to three times that of the national average, the enrollment percentage for Buraku students drops to 10 points behind the national average at the time of graduation. (Buraku Liberation League) 
 Despite organizations that campaign for the rights of the Buraku, discrimination still exists. Members of the Buraku have a harder time finding jobs and have lower incomes than those in higher castes. Permanent job positions are rare for the Buraku, and most members of the caste end up working in the leather trade. Marriage between families of different castes is still looked down upon, and a person marrying into a Buraku family may be disowned by his or her own family out of shame. While living conditions for the Buraku can easily be improved by the passing of new legislation, ending a deeply ingrained tradition of discrimination and hatred is a significantly harder task (Japan). Perhaps it is the Japanese people’s love of tradition and obedience that impels them to keep traditions like the caste system in practice. 
 The most notable civil rights movement pertaining to the Dalits came during the time of Muhatma Gandhi. Gandhi advocated social change and the end of discrimination of the Dalit class. As opposed to the many negative and offensive terms used for the Dalit, Gandhi referred to the lowest caste as the harajin, or the “children of God” (Schmidt et al 139). Today, untouchability has been officially abolished in India, though Dalits are still commonly treated as inferiors (Human Rights Watch). At present, there are approximately 260 million Dalits in India, making up 25% of the population (National Campaign). This caste still suffers from harsh discrimination. Certain Dalits, however, have managed to obtain important positions in India. For example, K. R. Narayanan became the tenth president of India, despite the fact that he was a Dalit. Another Dalit, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, was a notable lawyer and an influential leader. Crusading for the rights of his people in 1947, Ambedker is best known for being the prime architect of the Constitution of Independent India, which came into force in 1950 (National Campaign). Modern activists for the Dalit caste have become very involved with improving the education system. Most members of the Dalit caste cannot afford private education, and public school systems are often under-equipped and under-staffed. Discrimination against the Dalits is less apparent in suburban areas of India, where the population is more dense, and people from many different castes mingle together. In rural areas, however, extremely harsh conditions may arise for members of the Dalit (Human Rights Watch). Discrimination, it appears, varies depending on the area of India one inhabits.  The Buraku and the Dalits have been forced to live under bleak and harsh conditions simply because they were born to a family of low caste. While civil rights movements continue to persist in both Japan and India, discrimination remains deeply ingrained in both cultures. Even in India, where the idea of untouchability has been abolished since 1950, the gap between the Dalits and the rest of society is present. Hence, hatred of the Buraku and the Dalits may never cease unless citizens of Japan and India are taught to rework their way of thinking. The tradition of discriminating among castes is so heavily ingrained in both societies that laws and legislation can only improve living conditions for lowest castes to a small extent. Even if the government provides funding to improve their living conditions, the untouchable castes will continue to have trouble finding permanent jobs and achieving higher levels of education. One must wonder if the caste system in India and Japan exists today because of the human desire to segregate and establish superiority. The untouchable castes, those individuals who have been traditionally described as being lower than human, will continue to be outcasts until the citizens of Japan and India rework their ways of thinking and take additional positive steps to end discrimination. 


Dalit Historic

In the pathological hindu perpetrated India, the society and whole of the nation is plagued by hindu fundamentalists, various divisions, factions among factions and groups among groups structured so shrewdly and clandestinely by keeping one thing in Mind, Only one thing in Mind to Sabotage, the dalits are the most victimized and most exploited of all by this Sabotage.

Though it is a few thousand year old system, the very reason we are discussing today explains why?, because it has transformed into many different ways and means that this centuries old system is fully practiced today by most of the Indians. 

It is a system of grand scale robbery ever to occur on this planet, so clandestine a structure like this is to rob the individuals of their rights, dignity and the future of human beings. 
The foundation is though laid by the invading Aryan's or brahmin stooges of India of the Old India, it has continued for thousands of years unabated and unchallenged, neither there were any volunteers from the group that perpetrated and destroyed India with this caste pathology. The most victimized and vandalized group of the social evil of caste system is the Dalits, once they were called with so many derogatory and filthy names by the hindus,

While thousands of caste names and divisive groups names are still in use in India and world wide, to fight to annihilate this pathology, the victims of caste system, the so called untouchables who have been called with so many derogatory terms and names in the past came out temporarily to call themselves "Dalits" (there are so many meanings to this word, but it is used in the connotations of Exploited people by hindus, by hindu caste system and by the racist discriminative mind sets of Indians), any other meaning to this word should not be used in the context of Indian dalits, which will be derogatory and uncalled for and doing so will only damage their movements.

Though quite a lot of dalits themselves do not like this term, would love to use Scheduled Castes/Scheduled tribes or other similar names in use that was given by the savior and Father of India Dr.Ambedkar, it is not universally appealing to them, neither many other alternative terms and words, most of them died away or shrunk in usage except Dalits, one of the reason  perhaps the media kept bragging in their news media with this term. Those conscious and concerned Dalits are kept arguing and debating to move on with the movement with a more respectable and dignified terms, such as "Sakya" or Ambedkarites or Buddhists, at the moment these words are in use sporadically among the internet savvy dalits.  Since the dalits are divided into so many smaller groups and sub-groups and further sub-groups, this is a night mare. The muslim dalits, the christian dalits, Sikh dalits, dalits in the Jainims and other factions are not that friendly to be called Sakya or atleast there is not much dialog going on, though the reality and truth is pretty much all the Dalits of today were the Buddhist people and they have been sabotaged of their Buddhist pedigree and tradition by the day to day atrocity of hindu caste culture. The consciousness is at the heights at the moment, time will answer as to where all this groups will come together and once for all finish the hindu pathology.

A detailed chronological history of these caste words and terms will be updated soon, but in the meanwhile, look at some of the most dangerous results of the hindu caste system, it degrades humans beyond a cow, snake or animal or insect. How pathetic one's mind can get, the answer can be found in hindu scriptures and todays hindu culture................................. see videos below, these are some of the results of caste system of India....!



Adi Dravidar
Adi Dravidar is term used by the state of Tamil Nadu in India to denote Dalits. It means "Original natives orindigenous people of Dravida land". The term was coined by Tamil social activist Periyar Ramasami who worked against casteism and division among the people based on castes. Many Adi Dravidas have converted to Christianity, Buddhism.
Dravidian refers both to Dravidian languages, a group of languages, and to the Dravidian people, who speak them. Almost all of the South Indians speak Dravidian languages.
Arunthathiyar
Arunthathiyar, or Sakkiliar or Chakkiliyar, are one of the most marginalized social groups or castes from Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. Along with Pallar and Parayar, they form the largest Dalit group. "Arunthathiyar" is more preferred and considerate name over "Chakkiliyar".The name "Sakkili" is hypothesized to be derived from Sanskrit to mean beef eater or someone who eats more meat. It also said to mean someone who is afraid or blind.
In caste system, although they were traditionally associated with leather work for agriculture and war equipments, they are associated with scavenging (janitor), as a result of forced labor upon them by virtue of ascriptive system of caste domination. Hence their social status is artificially depressed below other scheduled castes suffering from lack of social, political and economic empowerment. Though they are classified as a scheduled caste group, they are considered untouchable among untouchables in scheduled castes.
Badhik
The Badhik, or sometimes pronounced Badhak are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. They have been granted scheduled caste status in Uttar PradeshThe community is found mainly in Shahjahanpur District, and speak the Khari boli dialect of Hindi. A small number are also found in Mathura and Pilibhit.
The Badhik are strictly endogamous community, and practice the principle of clan exogamy. They are Hindu and observe all the major Hindu festivals but do not have exclusive family or clan deities. The Badhik are a landless community, providing the bulk of the agricultural labourers in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Traditionally, the community were hunters and gatherers, but not they are mainly butchers. Their subsidiary income is animal husbandry, poultry and drying and tanning of skins. A small number are also employed as agricultural labourers. As a Dalit community, they often suffer from societal discrimination. Each of their settlement contains an informal caste council, known as a biradari panchayat. The panchayat acts as instrument of social control, dealing with issues such as divorce and adultery.
Badi
The Badi or Badhi are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They have scheduled caste status in Uttar Pradesh.The Badi are sub-group within the larger Nat caste. They are found mainly in Saharanpur District. The Badi are further divided into a number of clans, the main ones being the Swaroop and Aurender. They are strictly endogamousm and practice clan exogamy
The Badi are one of a number of nomadic communities that were involved in entertaining at fairs. A fair number are now employed as agricultural labourers, with a smaller number have acquired small plots of land.
Baheliya
The Baheliya are a Hindu  found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They have scheduled caste status. A small number of Baheliya have converted to Islam and now form a distinct community of Muslim Baheliya.In Haryana, the community is known as the Chirimar.The Baheliya are a tribal community of hunters and bird catchers, and the origin of their name is from the Sanskrit vyadka, meaning one who pierces, . They are mainly involved in bird catching, extracting honey from beehives and picking peacock feathers for the manufacture of fans. They are divided into a six groups, the Aheria, Gehlot, Sissodia, Karaul, Pasi and the Muslim Baheliya. Other minor clans include the Chandel and Srivastav. Each of these groups claim a Rajput origin, with the Sissodia claiming to be superior over the other groupings. All these groups intermarry, except the Muslim Baheliya. They are found throughout Uttar Pradesh, and speak the various dialects of Hind.

Baiswar
The Baiswar or Baiswar Chhatri are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are considered to be ferocious fighters.
According to the traditions of the community, they are a branch of Bais Rajputs of Dundiya Khera. Their ancestors were two brothers who fled Dundiya Khera to escape a Rajah, with whom they had fallen out with. They fled to Rewa in what is now Madhya Pradesh. Over time, his descendents moved into the districts of Sonbadhra and Mirzapur. A small number migrated to Varanasi District in the 19th Century. There homeland is in a hilly forested terrain, inhabited mainly by tribal communities such as the Bind and Chero.
The community have no connection with the Bais Rajput, and are now strictly endogamous. They are further divided into four divisions, the Khandait, or swordsmen, the Rautia, the Chaudhary and the Sohagpuria. Each of these groups intermarry, but marriage is forbidden within the clan. They are mainly a community of peasant proprietors. Animal husbandary is an important secondary occupation

Bajgi
The Bajgi are a Hindu found in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand in India. They have been granted Scheduled Caste status in both these states. The Bajgi are also known as Auji, Das, Jhumarya and Dholi.
The community get their name from the Garhwali word bajana which means to play an instrument. They are said to have acquired this name on account of their traditional occupation which was to act as drummers in the courts of the temples of different village deities. The Bajgi are also called to play on special occasions such as marriages. They are found throughout Garhwal, and speak Garhwali. The Bajgi are a sub-group with the Shilpkar ethnic group of Uttarakhand. A few are also found in the adjoining districts of Uttar Pradesh such as Bijnor.
The Bajgi are still mainly employed as village musicians, with tailoring and barbering as their main subsidiary occupation. A few are employed as landless agricultural labourers. The Bajgi are Hindu, but incorporate folk beliefs such as belief in local deities such as Nirankar, Bhairab, Goril, Durga, Jakh and Nag.

Balahar
The Balahar are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are also known as Vargi and have scheduled caste status.The word balahar means a crier or summoner in Hindi. They are said to have acquire this name from the fact that they were traditionally employed as part of an informal police force by Princely State of India, and their duties included carryout the summons of the prince . Like other Hindu occupational castes, they might be of diverse origin, but are now bound by rules of endogamy. In Uttar Pradesh, the Balahar claim to have originate from Jaipur in Rajasthan, and claim to be Rajputs. They are chiefly in the Bundelkhand and Doab regions.

Balai
The Balai, or Balahi are a Hindu  found in the state of Rajasthan in India. They have scheduled caste status.
The Balai are strictly endogamous community, and practice the principle of clan exogamy. These clans are referred to as gotras, and their main gotras include the Bhagirath and Soosa, which is also a Mina gotra. The Balahar are a landless community, the majority are agricultural labourers. They were once a community of weavers, but few are now involved in weaving. They are Hindu, and have customs similar to other Hindu communities in western Uttar Pradesh.
Balai also known as Chobdar. The word Chobdar means a stick holder from the Persian words "choob", meaning stick, and "dar" meaning holder. According to their own traditions, the Chobdar are by origin Rajput. After the defeat of Prithvi Raj Chauhan at the hands of Mohammad Ghouri, some members of Prithvi Raj’s army to save themselves took to the manufacturing of leaf cups and plates. As such they evolved into a community distinct from the Rajputs. The Chobdar are found mainly in north eastern Rajasthan, in the districts of jaipur, Tonk,Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Kota. They speak Braj Bhasha, although most Chobdar speak and understand Hindi.[1] The Balai are now mainly farmers, although a few still practice their traditional craft of manufacturing plates and cups from leaves. Their customs are similar to neighboring Hindu communities such as the Jats. They live in multi-caste villages, although they are residential segregated, occupying their own distinct quarters

Bangali
The Bangali is what people from Bangladesh are called and the term is used more from natives thanBengali, it means the same as Bengali and also it may refer to a caste found in India todayBangladesh that is also called Bangali, and the Hindu branch have scheduled caste status in Punjab,Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. They are distinct from the Bengali ethnic group of eastern India and Bangladesh. The Bangali are one of the many nomadic groupings found in North India, and have customs similar to other nomadic communities such as the Kanjar.
The Bangali are semi-nomadic tribal grouping, who are said to by origin Sansiya. They are said to have separated from the Sansi parent group when they took up snake charming. The majority of the Bangali are now settled, occupying their settlements of reed huts at the edge of established villages. They are found mainly in the Doab region, with two clusters, one in Muzaffarnagar District in the villages of Bhokaredhi, Kamhera, and Kithora and the other in Bijnor District, in the villages of Raoli and Seemla Fatehpur. The Bangali speak their own dialect, which contains substantial Punjabi loanwords.

Basith
The Basith are a Hindu caste found in the Indian administered area of Jammu and Kashmir. They are also known as Vashishth Rajputs and have been granted Scheduled Caste status. According to the 2001 Census of India, their population was 18,866.
According to the traditions of the Basith community, they are of Rajput origin, and immigrated from Chamba in Himachal Pradesh some two centuries ago to Poonch. Their villages are found in a hilly forested terrain near the Line of Control. They are a Hindu community in a predominantly Muslim region, occupying their own villages. The Basith speak Pahari, and their customs are similar to neighbouring communities such as the Domaal. However, the Basith maintain a distance from neighbouring Muslim communities with strict restrictions on commensality.
The Basith are strictly endogamous and practice clan exogamy. There clans called zaats include the PandhalChatriyalChimalRaine, and Salotre, each of which have their own origin myth. A number of zaats then form a gotra, for example the Chatriyal belong to the Changin gotra and the Chimal belong to the Pardwari gotra. Like many North Indian Hindus, the Basith have an informal caste council called a biradari panchayat. Each of their settlement contains this informal body, headed by a chaudhary. The panchayat deals with all intra community disputes, and as well as those who breach community norms. Marriage outwith the caste is strictly discouraged, and those who transgress this are excommunicated. The Basith are Hindu of the Satnami sect. They worship all deities of the Hindi pantheon besides have their clan gods and goddesses called kul-devitas.
The Basith are a community of small and medium sized farmers, with a landless minority. Those who are landless are largely sharecroppers. A important subsidiary occupation is working as drivers for the Jammu and Kashmir State Transport Corporation. As those that have been granted Scheduled Caste status, the Basith are beneficiaries of various affirmative action policies of the Government of India.
Basor
The Basor are a Hindu  found in the state of Uttar Pradesh . They are also known as Dumar, and have scheduled caste status.The Basor are a sub-division within the SC community, who were traditionally involved in the manufacture of bamboo furniture. Their name means a worker in bamboo. The Basor are found mainly in the districts of JalaunHamirpurMahobaJhansi and Banda and In Madhya Pradesh Bhopal, Jabalpur, Gwalior, Rewa are the district where they generally resides . They speak Bundelkhandi dialect, although most can also understand the high version of Hindi, known as Khadi Boli.

Batwal
The Batwal are a Hindu scheduled caste found in the state of Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab in India. They are also known as Barwale.
The Batwal of Punjab trace their ancestry to the town of Batmalu in the Kashmir Valley, and the word Batwal in Punjabi means literally the inhabitant of Batmalu. Other traditions place their origin to the town of Batbal in Jammu. The community provided the traditional watchmen of the Punjab. According to the community own tradition, the Batwal were forced to flee their settlements when India was attacked by Alexander the Great. Once the Greek armies retreated, the Batwal found that their neighbours had seized their lands, and they were forced to become village watchmen. Like other communities of similar status, the Batwal have been granted scheduled caste status, which allows them to avail a number of affirmative action schemes by the Government of India.
In the Jammu region, from where the Punjab Batwal claim to have originated, there are a number of traditions as their origin. One traditions refer to the fact that the Batwal were tied to the land by the Dogra landowners, and the word Bat in the Dogri language means someone who is bonded. They were for generations bonded to particular families of Dogras, and were practically serfs. The Batwal are found mainly in Kathua, Jammu and Udhampur districts.
Bawariya
The Bawariya are a Hindu caste found in the states of HaryanaPunjab and Uttar Pradesh in India. They have scheduled caste status in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. In Punjab, they are known as Bauria.The word Bawariya is set to mean people who roam in Hindi. They are a semi-nomadic group scattered over North India. The Bawariya claim to be Rajputs from Chittor in Rajasthan. This is reflected in their clans, all of whom are well known Rajput clans. At present, the Bawariya are found in the districts of Meerut, Banda, Agra, Mainpuri and Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh and neighbouring state of Haryana. They speak Bawari among themselves, which is similar to Marwari..
According to traditions in Punjab, the Bawaria or Bauria as they are also known get their name from the word baur, meaning a net. As a community that was involved in hunting, the community became known as the Bawariya, but they are, in fact, Rajputs. The Bauria are found mainly in the districts of Firupzur, as well as Bhatinda, Ludhiana and Sangrur.

Bedia
The Bedia a community of Bihar, they believe that they originally lived on Mohdipahar and have descended from the union of Vedbansi prince with a Munda girl. The other view is that a section of the Kurmis were outcasts and to be known as the Bedia or Wandering Kurmis.
The Bedia, sometimes pronounced "Beriya", are a Hindu found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They have been granted general status.The community has several names, like Bedia Kudmi,Choto Kudmi, Shershahbadia, Bhathia,Wandering Kurmis, Maldahiya and Badia and Bedia too, however its official name is Sharshahbadia. The word bedia is a corrupt form of the Hindi wordbehara, which means a forest dweller. They are a nomadic tribe, that had been notified under the Criminal Tribes Act. According to early British scholars, they were one of the many nomadic tribes found in North India, and were of the same stock as the rajputs. According to their own traditions, they were originally Rajputs, who lost status, after their defeat at the hands of the Mughals. The community was connected with some bad works, as well as petty theft. They speak Awadhi and are found mainly in the districts of Bahraich, Barabanki, Basti, Agra, Faizabad, Gonda and Kanpur. After independence, they were denotified in 1952, when the Criminal Tribes Act was repealed.

 Bhantu
The Bhantu are a Hindu  found in North India, and those in Uttar Pradesh have scheduled caste status .
The word bhantu in Hindi said to mean different. They were one of the many nomadic groups in found in North India. The Bhantu claim to be Rajput soldiers in the army of Maharana Pratap, who after his defeat at the hands of the Mughal Emperor Akbar dispersed into forests. Their the community took up dacoity and theft. During the period of British, they were notified under the Criminal Tribes Act. Many were exiled to the Andaman Islands. In 1952, they were allowed to return to Uttar Pradesh, and many were settled in Shekhupur village in Badaun District. They are now found mainly in the districts of Moradabad, Kanpur, and Kheri. The community consists of seven exogamous clans, the Gaado , Dholia, Cherele, Banswale, Dhapan, Sadheke, Mina and Marwari. Marriages are strictly prohibitted within the clans.
The Bhantu were traditionally a nomadic community involved with in dacoity and robbery. Most Bhantus are now settled, and are involved with daily wage labour. A small number are a now petty traders as well. The community is Hindu, and their tribal deity is Sheranwali Mataji.

Bhambi
The Bhambi are a Hindu caste found in the state of Maharashtra in India. They are also known as Chhambar and have scheduled caste status.The traditional occupation of the Bhambi was tanning of hides. There are a number of traditions as to the origin of the word Bhambi. Either the name refers to an ancestral village or the bhambi were originally a sub-division of the Chhambars. The name Bhambi has now replaced the word Chhambar. They are further sub-divided into a number of sub-groups, the main ones being the Ahri or Dhor, Chevli or Chouli, Malvan ir Kokani, Daboli, Harali and Ghati. Each of these Bhambi groups are endogamous, and consist of exogamous clans. The Bhambi speak the various locak dialects of Marathi.
The Bhambi are a landless community, and their traditional occupation was shoemaking, A greater number were employed as agricultural labourers. Like other castes in Maharashtra, a significant number of Bhambi have begun to immigrate to the towns and cities, especially Mumbai. The urbanized Bhambi are now mainly daily wage labourers. They are Hindus, and their customs are similar to other Hindus of Maharashtra.
Banmanus is derived from the Sanskrit term Ban-Manus, meaning Man of the Forest (ban)
Bansphor, branches of the Dom Caste.- basket makers.
Banwari - Men of the forrest.

Bhangi
Bhangi is an Indian caste or jāti traditionally treated as untouchable, and was historically restricted to three occupations: cleaning latrines, sweeping, and scavenging (which sometimes involves handling dead bodies). They prefer to be known as Balmiki. Pejoratively called "toilet cleaners", as it was their traditional profession, Bhangis had to carry human waste away in buckets on their heads. In the traditional Indian caste system, professions were passed on from parents to children, thus a child born in Bhangi family was forced into this profession mostly for economic reasons.
Efforts have been made to improve sanitation systems in India, including laws that ban the construction of dry toilets, and the manual removal of human waste. However Bhangis, who are numerous throughout India, continue to work in their traditional roles and they continue to face severe social barriers, discrimination, and hate crimes. The Bhangi community includes a number of sub-division such as the Hela.

Boria
The Boria, also known as Baurasi are a Hindu  found in North India, and those in Uttar Pradesh have scheduled caste status .The Boriya are sub-group of the Pasi community. Although of Pasi origin, the two communities are quite distinct, and do not intermarry. They are found mainly in the Awadh region, mainly in the districts of Gonda, Faizabad and Barabanki districts. The Boria speak the Awadhi dialect.The Boria are strictly endogamous community, and prefer marrying close kin. Most Baria belong to the Kabirpanthi sect.

Bhuiyar
The Bhuiyar or Bhuyiar ( in Hindi:-भुइयार) are a Hindu found in North India, and those in Uttar Pradesh, Delhi have scheduled caste status. They are also known as Bhanyar Julaha; Kabirpanthi and Kori. The traditional occupation of Bhuiyar Caste is weaving. But gradually the occupation ended with the arrival of weaving machines.
They are group of Munda tribesmen who settled in southern and Western Uttar Pradesh in the 16th Century. They were a community that historically were involved with weaving and some were involved slash and burn agriculture, and occupied the hilly terrain of south Mirzapur District. The Bhuiyar are further divided into sub-divisions, which are referred to as kori. Their main kuris are the Baria, Birkunia, Chandnihys, Chetrihya, Chiriha, Dioriya, Khutta, Parha, Patparaha and Sudha. They are strictly endogamous, and practice clan exogamy. The Bhuiyar are found in the districts of Bijnor, Moradabad, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Ghaziabad, Haridwar, Dehradun, Sonbhadra, Mirzapur, and now speak Hindi, having long forgotten their Munda language.
" A different view in the perspective of bhuiyar are presented by some notable writer of Rajputana and rajasthan. According to the book published as the "caste of khsatiraya" or khsatriya jatiyon ki suchi from bahadur singh bidasar, it is clearly mentioned that bhuiyar is caste /breed of rajput in old days which is also approved by Govt of India. It was mentioned in a book name BHUMI KHSATRIYA SAMAJ by Mr. Agrawat, he presented a descriptive study that every clan of bhuiyar samaj is matched with rajput and even most of the gotra used by bhuiyar samaj is just a vansh in rajputs.
The Bhuiyar are now a community of settled agriculturists. Their earlier slash and burn practices have disappeared. Most Bhuiyar are small and medium sized farmers, with a minority being employed as agricultural labourers and some even own their business, who decided to settle in cities. With the economic upliftment and new job opportunities, more are preferring to settle in a city for better education for their kids. Joining the Indian Army is still one of the hot pursuits in young kids from this community. Many are now also employed in the mines that have appeared in Mirzapur District. They live in multi-caste villages, occupying their own distinct quarters. They have much in common with neighbouring tribal communities such as the Kol, Agariya and Chero. Each of their settlement contains an informal caste council, known as a biradari panchayat(बिरादरी पंचायत). The panchayat acts as instrument of social control, dealing with issues such as divorce and adultery.

clans  The Bhuiyar caste clans(गौत्र) is *Bhamra (भामड़ा), Parwar,Narwal, Katariyan, Kankarwal, Agrawal, Bagwal, Gondwal, Uparwal, Jag, Doodhwal, Mahetiyan, Khagaran, Khapriyan, Vashiyan, Mukaryan, Kakran, Bharwan, Baliyan, Taryan, Taharyan, Ashiyan, Tedewal, Kait, Dharwal, Deshwal, Bhagwal, Peetwal, Jayashwal, Jurwal, Granthiwal, Kachhwal, Teetwal, Galyan, Taharan, Adayan, Jaityan, Fariyan, Loeewal, Vojyan, Kritiyan, Amyan, Chaudhrana, Gurjarvan, Kadyan, Dhhidival, Bhal, Maithyan, Puniyan, Charvahan, Badgujar, Metram, Bhagla, Kashyap, Vaijran, Jagpal, Katariya, Dahiya, Kankhana, Saroha, Kankarwal, Muwal, Dhangad, Sidhauliya, Doniyal, Narwal, Mahalwan, Monchhwal, Panwar,Kachhwaha, Rathee, Bhadbhujar, Bagala, Gaud, Bhadbhuja, Fariyan, Dulaniya, Tomar, Karne, Dhhakran, Sadhhiyan, Gogyan, Roliyan, Chhajara, Bangujar, Gogwal, Chaupra, Bhahal, Barne.

Follower: Bhuiyar society mainly is follower of Kabir Saheb. Kabir is also described in his couplets.

ज्यों उलझै सूत को, सुलझावै भुइयार |
उसने भी यह गुर, पाया सदगुरू द्वार || (कबीर ज्यो. से)
Jyon ulajhai sut ko, sulajhavai bhuiyar |
Usane bhee yaha gur, paya sadaguru dwar|| (From Kabir Jyoti)
जिस तरह् टूटे सूत से, कपड़ा बुने भुइयार |
उसी तरह से सदगुरू, बनावै उच्च विचार || (कबीर ज्यो. से)
Jis tarah tute suta se, kapada bune bhuiyar |
Usi tarah se sadguru, banavai uchcha vichar|| (From Kabir Jyoti)

Chamail
The Chamail are a Muslim community, found in the state of Bihar in India. The Chamail are a small semi-nomadic community. They specilize in treating cattle. The community are Muslim converts from the Hindu Chamar caste. They are found mainly in the districts of Begusarai,Munger and Patna. The Chamail are landless, and depend on neighbouring land owning communities for work. As a landless community, they are ectremely marganalized. Illetracy rates are extremely high, as many live in encampments at edges of villages, and have no access to schools. The Chamail are Sunni Muslims, and strictly endogamou.

Chamar
Chamar, also known as Chamari/Camari/Charmkar/Charmkari, are one of the untouchable communities, or dalits, who are now classified as a Scheduled Caste under modern India's system of positive discrimination. As untouchables, they were traditionally considered outside the Hindu ritual ranking system of castes known as varna.
They are found mainly in the northern states of India, Pakistan  and Nepal.
Ram Narayan Rawat posits that the association of the Chamar community with a traditional occupation of tanning was constructed, and that the Chamars were instead historically agriculturists.

Chandala
Chandala is a Sanskrit word for someone who deals with disposal of corpses, and is a Hindu lower caste, formerly considered untouchables. Currently it is a term used specifically in Indo-Aryan speaking regions of India.Sandala has become a swear word in the colloquial usage of the Tamil language. Chandal is a general derogatory slur used to refer to a filthy, mean or low person in North India.

Chirimar
The Chirimar are a Hindu caste found in the state of Haryana in India. They are also known as Baheliya
In Hindi, the word chiri means a bird and the suffix mar means to kill, so Chirimar means someone who kills or catches birds. The Chirimar are an occupational caste that were traditionally employed as hunters and trappers, and are one of the many gypsy like semi-nomadic communities found in North India. They are said to have immigrated from Uttar Pradesh in the 18th Century, and are now found mainly in Ambala District. The Chirimar speak Hindi, with most understanding Haryanvi.
The Chirimar are strictly endogamous, and practice clan exogamy. Their main clans include the Banoudhiya, Pateria and Kattaha. Like other occupational castes, they have a fairly strong caste council, which deal with intra community disputes and enforces community norms. The Chirimar live in multi caste villages, occupying their distinct quarters.
Trapping and trading birds like various kinds of sparrows, pigeons and parrots and animals like rabbits remain the Chirimar main occupation. These are sold at local markets to wholesalers who belong mainly to the Baniya caste. Some are also employed as vegetable vendors and tailors. Their customs are similar to other Haryana Hindus.
Jawahar Chirimar is a New York-based entrepreneur who has previously held positions on the main board of Lehman Brothers and Citibank Alternative Investments. He got his undergraduate degree from Cornell University and then his doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania. He is married to Nandini Chirimar, an artist, who he met during his time at Cornell University. The 2nd generation of the Chirimar family now attends Cornell University, as Jawahar's nephew Aditya is pursuing his undergraduate degree there.
CHURA 
Chura (Punjabi: ਚੂੜ੍ਹਾ) is a caste in Punjab and other northern Indian states whose traditional occupation is sweeping. Churas are largely followers of Sikhism and secondly Christianity. A small minority practice Valmikism, an off shoot or cult. form of mainstream Hinduism which still incorporates elements of Sikhism in its practices. They are treated as untouchables or Dalits as they occupy the lowest category in Hinduism's religious hierarchy. As of 2001, according to the Indian Census, the Sikh Mazabhi are 9.98% of Punjab population, with Hindu Valmikis forming 3.53% of Punjab population. Together, the parent Chura caste forms 13.52% of the Punjab's population.

Dabgar
The Dabgar are a Hindu caste found in the states of Uttar PradeshRajasthan, and Gujarat in India. They are also known as Dhalgar and have scheduled caste status in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, while they have Other Backward Class status in Gujarat.In Rajasthan, the community prefer the self-designation is Dhalgar.
The word Dabgar is said to be derived from the Sanskrit word daravakarra, which means the makers of any spoon shaped vessels. According to their own traditions, they were originally found in Rajasthan, and were soldiers. They took an oath to resist the Mughals, but were defeated. After this defeat, a section converted to Islam, from whom descend the Muslim Dabgar community. The rest of the community fled in the jungles of Bundelkhand, and slowly spread to the Doab region of Uttar Pradesh. They then took up the occupation of manufacturing of rawhide jars.
The Rajasthan Dabgar are involved in the manufacture of a number of musical instruments such as the Tabla, dholak, dhagli and thap. Most of these instruments have leather as a component, as such the community is considered untouchable. The Dabgar themselves claim to of Rajput origin, and are found mainly in the Marwar region. They speak the Marwari, but most understand Hindi. Most are Dabgar groups claim to have originated in Rajasthan, which might the historical homeland of this community.

Dalera
The Dalera, sometimes pronounced as Dalere are a Hindu caste found in North India, and those inUttar Pradesh have scheduled tribe status .
The Dalera derive their name from the Hindi word daliya, meaning a basket. Traditionally, they were a community engaged in the manufacture of baskets. According to their traditions, they were Rajputs, who on defeat in a battle took to the occupation of basket making. The Dalera are found mainly in the districts of Rampur and Bareilly in Rohilkhand. In Bareilly District, they are found mainly in the villages of Gungawa, Sekha, Hajipur, Bhuda and Rotapur, and in Rampur District, are found in the villages of Pur, Dalphurya and Nagra.
The Dalera are a landowning community, with many still involved mainly in the manufacturing of baskets and mats. They are mainly a community of small and marginal farmers, with a small minority employed as agricultural labourers. The Dalera live in multi-caste and multi-religious villages, occupying their own distinct quarters. Each of their settlement contains an informal caste council, known as a biradari panchayat. The panchayat acts as instrument of social control, dealing with issues such as divorce and adulter.

Deha
The Deha, sometimes pronounced as Dhaya, Dhea, Daiya and Dheya are a caste found in India, and have scheduled caste status in Haryana.According to some traditions, the community are a branch of the Balmiki community. Community myths refer to their descent from two brothers, Chhaju and Raju. Chhaju's daughter took to scavenging, and as such was ostracised. Over time her descendents came to form a distinct community. Other traditions make references to the fact the community emigrated from Sargodha in what is now Pakistan. The Deha speak their own dialect, although most also speak Haryanvi

Dhedhs
Dhedhs or Dheds or Dhedhas are one of the scheduled castes of India. They were one of the out-caste and deprived class of Hindu society of India.
They were involved in jobs like carrying away animal carcass and works related to leather, animal hides. The word dhedha has been derived from a Gujarati word dhayadavan, to drag. Further, the caste people are also largely involved in weaving.
In Rajasthan, the Meghwal community were called Dhedha and according to census of 1901 were identified as untouchables.[3] In British India, in the Bahwalpur, the Dhedhs, who preferred to call themselves Menghwals, were the people, who were called Chamars to east of Punjab. They ate flesh of dead animals and were considered as out-caste by Hindus, though they have Hindu names.
They have nine exogamous section : (1) Gandel (2) Baru-Pal (3) Sahdal (4) Sapune (5) Lilar (6) Bahmanian (7) Japal (8) Lakhale (9) Turke.
By occupation they are weavers and greatly worship the deity of Ramdev Pir at Ranuja. In their marriages, Brahmins serve as purohit, accepting dry fruits from them but not the cooked food.
In MaharashtraMahars were considered a part of Dhedha community. However, after mass conversion of Mahar community from Hinduism to Buddhism, to avoid curse of untouchability, on foot-steps of Bhim Rao Ambedkar, they are now not to be called Dhedhas or even Mahars but Buddhists.
In GujaratDhedhs are considered as sub-caste of the scheduled caste of weavers called Vankars Some of the other castes in which there are few exceptions of Dhedhs are Bawa (Dhedh) or Dhedh-Sadhu (Sadhu), Dhedh -Barot (Barot).
Dhedhs speak many languages, as per their area of living like GujaratiMarathi,Rajasthani SindhiThar
In Kathiawar, the Nagasia Dhehds, once helped the Sarvaiyas to regain their villages of Hathnasi,Jesar and other territories. In recognition of their assistance the Sarvaiya Rajputs forgave Dhedhs frombham tax ( tax on skins of dead animals ) and tax was not levied on all Sarvaiya village till British ruled India.

Dher
Dher or Dhera are one the backward classes and scheduled caste of India. They were one the lowest and despised section of Hindu out-caste society, degraded by the slavery imposed on them by the Hindus for many ages.They are primarily found in Andhra PradeshKarnataka,Maharashtra and Gujarat. In Southern India, among Dhers there were three principal class of slaves called Holiyas, Yemaru and Paleru.
In British India, the Dhers live in scattered groups, occupying wretched hovels of foliage, and depending on the chase, fishing, and the carcases of dead animals. Some worked as leather tanner and mostly used to work as slave labor.

Dhobis
The Dhobis go by many different names, such as VannarMadivalaAgsarParitRajakaChakali,RajakulaVeluthadar,Ekali,Sethy,Kanojia,Panicker). etc. This castegroup from India and Pakistan specializes in washing clothes. The word Dhobi is derived from the Hindiword dhona, which means to wash. They are found throughout North IndiaGujaratMaharashtra as well as the Punjab province of Pakistan, where they are known as Gazar A dhobi is likely to be of many different origins, with those who ancestors took the occupation of washing clothes evolving over time into a distinct caste bound by rules of endogamy. Most Dhobis follow the customs and traditions of the region they live, so for example those in North Indiaspeak Hindi, while those in Maharashtra speakMarathi. The Indian census of 2009 reported the Dhobis population to be 22,00,000.
Dhobis are an occupational caste grouping, and usually operate from door to door collecting dirty linen from households. After a day or two, they return the linen washed, sometimes starched and ironed. Dhobis were the forerunners[citation needed] on the Indian subcontinent to modern professional dry cleaners. Since the dhobi charges are much less than those a dry cleaners, they are popular with most households.
Each dhobi marks a unique symbol or character on garments belonging to a particular household. This is marked in black indelible ink to prevent it from being washed off. Dhobis may wash the clothes themselves or outsource it to dhobis who only wash clothes. In Andhra Pradesh this caste is known as Rajaka (Chakali) and they make up 12% of the Andhra Pradesh population. There are Muslim Dhobis in Karnataka, they known as Agasar, Parit also, they speak Urdu and Kannada, and the Hindu dhobis are known as Madivala in karnataka. They are known as Madvala or Rajaka in the state of Goa, and have Other Backward Class status, while most Dhobis in North India have scheduled caste status.                                                               


Indian Dhobies, c. 1905


Dhobies at work at Saidape, c. 1905

In Karnataka, there are Dhobis, they are also called as Agasa & Parit. Their population is concentrated mainly in Bagalkot, Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwar, Haveri, Davangere & Gadag districts. And their secondary language is Kannada. There are also Hindu dhobis, called Madivala, and their population is concentrated mainly in Davanagere,Chitradurga, Raichur and Shimoga districts..Perhaps the second largest concentration of Dhobis after Andhra Pradesh(12% of total population of A.P.), is found in Uttar Pradesh. They have been granted scheduled caste status. The community is strictly endogamous, and practice clan exogamy. Their main clans, known as gotras, are the Ayodhyabasi, Mathur, Shrivastav, Belwar, Jaiswar, Belwar, Yadava & Chauhans from Ajmer Rajasthan, practice hypergamy, with clans of lower status giving girls in marriage to those of higher status, but not receiving girls. They speak various dialects of Hindi, such as Khari boli, Awadhi Bhojpuri and Braj Bhasha.

The Dhobi are still involved in their traditional occupation, which is washing clothes. Traditionally, the community would wash clothes for particular families, and would receive grain and services from them. But with the growth of the cash economy, most Dhobi are now paid money for their services. A significant number of Dhobis are cultivators, and this particularly so in western Uttar Pradesh. They live in multi-caste villages, but occupy their own distinct quarters. Each of their settlements contains an informal caste council, known as a Biradari Panchayat. The Panchayat acts as instrument of social control, dealing with issues such as divorce and adultery.

The Dhobi of Rajasthan claim descent from Rajput community, and are known as Dhoba. Although the Dhobi are found throughout Rajasthan, their main concentration is in Ajmer District. The Dhobi speak Mewari, although most also understand Hindi. They have been granted Scheduled Caste status. Like other Hindu castes in Rajasthan, the Dhobi community is further divided into clans known asataks. Their main ataks are the Chauhan, Marwara and Hilogia. Marriages are forbidden within the clan. Most Dhobi are still involved in their traditional occupation of washing clothes. They are exclusively Hindu and their tribal deity known as Ghatmata.

The Dhobi of Haryana are said to have originated from Punjab and Rajasthan. They are scattered throughout the state. Like other Hindu communities, they are divided into clans called gotras. Some of the major gotras are the Chauhan, Shukravar, Rajoria, Tonwar, Panwar, Badera, Satmase, Akhasriya, Mahavar, Basvadiya and Sunaria. These clan names are also used as surnames. Their main occupation remains washing of and drying of clothes. A small number of Dhobi are marginal farmers.They are classified as OBCs.
In Maharashtra, the Dhobi are found throughout the state, and are also known as Parit. They claim to have originally belonged to the [untouchables] community, and in particular the Chauhan clan. The Dhobi have been listed as Other Backward Class (OBC). They speak Marathi among themselves, and Hindi with outsiders.
The community are endogamous, and practice clan exogamy. Their main clans in Maharashtra are the Abidkar, Bannolkar, Belwarkar, Chawhan, Chilate, Chawlkar, Chewakar, Dudhmogre, Dhongde, Gaikwad, Ghousalkar, Harmekar, Hedulkar, Jangade, Kalyankar, Kanekar, Kalatkar, Lad, Malekar, Nandgaonkar, Nane, Pawar, Pabrekar, Palkar, Purwarkar, Salekar, and Waskar. Marriage within the clan is prohibited.
The Dhobi of Mumbai wash their linen in the Mahalaxmi area known as Dhobi Ghat. This area is strangely popular with foreign tourists looking for a piece of quintessential "Indian-ness". Another region in South Mumbai, Dhobitalao, used to be a (now filled up) lake where British soldiers used to have their uniforms washed about 120 years ago.
The Dhobi of Punjab are said to have immigrated from the ancient city of Kannauj in Uttar Pradesh, and are now found throughout Punjab. They are further sub-divided into clans called gots from the Sanskrit gotra, and marriages are forbidden within the clan. Their main clans are the Chauhan, Panwar, Tonwar and Rajoria. The Dhobi speak Punjabi, and their customs are similar to other Punjabi dalit castes. They are community still very much involved in their traditional occupation which is washing clothes. Some have also taken to other occupations such as dry cleaning, shop keeping, hosiery and plying rickshaws. A significant migration to the urban areas of Punjab and other parts of India has begun. Traditionally, the Dhobi lived in villages dominated by landowning castes such as the Jat, who acted as their patrons. This relationship has broken down, and any transaction now is made in cash. Each Dhobi settlement contains a biradari panchayat, which acts as instrument of social control, and resolves intra community disputes.
The Dhobis of the United Kingdom are predominantly based in Rugby, Warwickshire. They are known for their gatherings and great community spirit. The local Volleyball Club is the hub of their activities and they are responsible for the organisation of many community events. They also actively hold many charity events outside of their own scope on a regular basis. Midlands Rajput Volleyball Club (MRVC), aka Shree Rajput Dhobi Samaj Rugby.The community also hold an annual sporting tournament. This includes other centres, from Leicester, London and even Preston.
The Dhobis in the UK are a far notion of what they were known for in India. Many are highly diverse professionals, ranging from Solicitors (Lawyers) to Politicians.

The Tamil Dhobis are called "Vannar", other names include Vannan, Panicker, Salavai thozhilale, Laundry man,Waserman etc. Majority of modern Tamil Vannar's are part of the middle class. There are some Vannars considered as untouchable people. They are Thirumalai Vannar , Erankuli Vannar, Muthirai Vannar, Puthirai Vannar, Pandiya Vannar, Theendu Vannar, Theenda Vannar,Solizya Vannar,etc. Puthirai Vannars have been classified as scheduled caste.

The state is having fair percentile of Dhobis in coastal belt i.e.. eastern Odisha (cuttack,puri,balasore,ganjam) and marginal percentile of population in central Odisha and western Odisha. They practise Hindu religion and as a community they follow all typical Odiya festivals like Rathayatra,raja,Sankranti along with national festivals like Holi and deewali. They worship mainly Lord Jagannath and their village deities. They have been classified as schedule caste.Their main surname is Sethy/Behera/Das/Seth throughout eastern Odisha and western Odisha. As per occupation is concerned,ninety percent of them were in to traditional laundering job till 1970.However awareness/ambition and mainly reservation gave them a comparative good position afterwards.Nowadays maximum of highly educated Odiya Dhobis are in to private sector software line/process plant/call centre/BPO. Fair percentile of Medicos/bureaucrats are easily traceable in Medical or in any government infrastructure in comparison to other Schedule-caste Odiyas.

In the Andhra Pradesh state of India, the Rajakas form 12%[citation needed] of the total population and they are considered backward caste. Their nature of business is laundry and agriculture. Their social status need help and the community is requesting AP Government to move them into Schedule caste and Government promised them to move them into Schedule caste over and over again but ignoring them from long time. Primary reason for this is from this community there is no representation in any higher positions in politics,nor any sort of government representation. In other parts of country it is well known as Dhobi caste and there in schedule caste. Another statical information regarding Rajaka caste in Andhra Pradesh this community evenly spread across Andhra Pradesh (Coastal Andhra area, Telengana and Rayalaseema Areas)

Domar
The Domar are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are also known as Mehtar and have scheduled caste status.
According to the traditions of the community, they trace their origin to Rajah Harishchandra, who on an occasion is said to have disguised himself as a Dom at a funeral pyre in Varanasi. The Domar are very likely to be of Bhangi origin, and many are still employed as sweepers and scavengers. They are found mainly in eastern Uttar Pradesh, principally in the districts of Kanpur,Raebareli, and Allahabad, and speak the Awadhi dialect.
The Domar community are said to have originally consisted of seven divisions, the Domar proper, the Turahiya, the Lal Begi, the Hadi, the Bansphor, the Dusadh and the Dhanuk. All these are now distinct communities, and strictly endogamous. The Domar, like other Hindu communities practice clan exogamy. They are Hindu, but are rarely visited by Brahmin priests, and have their own religious specialist.


Domba or Dom
The Domba or Dom (Sanskrit ḍoma, dialectally also Domaki, Dombo, Domra, Domaka, Dombar, Dombariand variants) are an ethnic or social group, or groups, scattered across India. In North India, the preferred self-designation is Dom
The Domba are sometimes also called "Chandala". Both terms also came to be used in the sense of "outcaste" in general. The form ḍomba Prakrit, while ḍoma andḍumba are encountered in Kashmiri Sanskrit texts. Derived from ḍoma is ḍomākī, the name of a language spoken in a small enclave in the Northern Areas in Pakistan. It is also believed that the Dom or Domi peopleof the Middle East are descendants of Domba who were taken, or traveled, to Sassanid Persia as servants and musicians.
The term ḍoma or ḍomba is extensively used in Indian Hindu and Buddhist literature for a segregated and enslaved population.
Currently there remain several thousand people across India known depending on various regional dialects, as Domaki, Dombo, Domra, Domaka, Dombar, Dommara and Domba. In Western India, in the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat they are referred to as Domba or Domari which is very similar to the name used in the Middle East (see Dom people). Place name studies indicate that they attested all over India and even in Sri Lanka. In North India, they are generally known as Dom or sometimes Doom.

Dom Communiry

Ḍom is a widely distributed ethnic term in South Asia. The Dom are not a caste, rather, their historical presence suggests they once constituted a large scale tribe or what one might conversationally call a “race.”
Specific reference to the Dom people occurs by the 2nd century BCE (Ghurye 1969:313). Persian scholar al-Biruni (early 11th century) noted that the Dom were among those peoples located outside of and ranked beneath the four main classes of Indian society. Their occupation was to sing and play a lute (1919:101-2). Al-Biruni’s contemporary writer, Gardizi, mentioned a class of people called “Dunbi,” most likely the Dom. They were described in his writing as “black-skinned” “players on stringed instruments and dancers” who occupied an untouchable class of society (Minorsky 1964:202-3). 
Throughout South Asia the Dom practice such professions as scavenger, executioner, basket-maker, musician, blacksmith, leatherworker, weaver—in short, occupations considered menial. One might speculate that the bulk of the castes that have been considered untouchable had their origin in some larger Dom base. In any case, the Dom are of nearly universal low social status. One of the Punjabi branches of the Dom, locally called Ḍūm, constitute a fairly distinct group from the larger “race” as known in the rest of South Asia. The people best known as Dum in Punjab are hereditary musicians, bards, or genealogists. In fact, though the phenomenon of Dom people as musicians is widespread, it may have its origins in the greater Punjab region (see Schreffler 2010:105).
Importantly, the idea of Dom as a large-scale people or tribe engaged in many occupations underscores the fact that the occupation of musician overlaps with other occupations and duties, such as tailor, barber, circumciser, and basket-maker. The Dum of the greater Punjab area were Jacks of several trades. Compare for example the role of the Dum in Pathan society, which extended to many rituals. During wedding rites of the Kha††ak Pathans of the 19th century, Dums acted as go-betweens or assistants. Rose recorded that when the bride was taken to her husband’s home, a Dum rode along on the pony with her (1911:531), saying that “The ḍúm is throughout an important person and is fed on all occasions” (ibid.:532).The descendants of the Dum, spread among several subcastes, make up an important community in Punjab(India). However, people are fairly unaware of them, in part due to the fact that the over-broad (and often regarded as pejorative) term “Dum” is rarely used. Musicians that appear to be from the larger Dum stock are currently divided among at least three separate communities: Jogī, Mahāshā, and Mirāsī.

DOM IN MIDDLE EAST NAME,ORIGIN & MIGRATION: GYPSY is the general english term used to describe this large ethno linguistic group,in their homeland they were called DOM later develop into ROM in Europe but in middle east and Africa they still refer themself as Dom or Domi Originaly comming from India Dom scattered through out the world numbring more than fourty million people.more than three million Dom live in middle east.The only written records of their history must be garnered from the annals of kings and ancient historians, which in most cases include only brief references to the Gypsies as opposed to detailed narratives.According to Dr.Donald Kenrick thye bfirst moved from India to Persia when Ardashir the Shah of Persia conquered part of India (modern day Pakistan) in 227 AD.During the reign of Bahram Gur (420-438 AD), Shah of Persia,many Dom's were taken to Persia to work as muscian and dancers. Persian poet Firdusi wrote a version of the legend in his eleventh century Shahname, or Book of Kings.

The King of Iran, Bahram Gur,heard about the Gypsies who were in northern India. He heard about their customs and so on, and he wanted to see for himself. And so he sent a letter to the ruler of northern India, and asked him to send a few families of Gypsies - those Gypsies he had heard about, who dance and sing.

The ruler in northern India sent him about 400 families. He put them in boats and sent them to Iran. When they reached the Iranian border, people informed the King that the families had arrived in boats. The King greeted them and gave them land to live on, and tents, and gave each house a sack of wheat, and some calves. He asked them to change their customs - instead of singing and dancing and so on, to farm, raise livestock and learn how to cultivate.
He left them for a week, and then came back, incognito; he wasn't wearing his royal robes. He found that in every house there was dancing and singing and so on. He went around all the tents, and then he gathered them together. He said, "Look, I gave you sacks of wheat, and told you to leave your customs, all this dancing and singing and so on, and become peasant farmers. Why haven't you done what I told you?" They said, "Master, nothing comes from our hands, not farming or anything else. This is our custom; this is what we're used to."
The King grew angry with them, and threw them out of Iran. They went to Mosul and Kirkuk and Suleimaniyya and spread around and settled there.
With time, their population grew. And when [Kurdish conqueror] Salah Al Din Al Ayyoubi appeared, and occupied the Arabian Peninsula, and encroached upon Iraq and Mosul and Kirkuk, and began to move towards Syria and Lebanon, he took some of the Gypsy families who were in Mosul as prisoners to fight with him.
Then Salah Al Din came to Jordan and Syria and Lebanon, and he came to Palestine, here. And then the Gypsies he had taken as prisoners dispersed. Some of them settled in Jordan, others in Palestine, some in Syria and Lebanon. Some went to the border of Turkey.
In 1947, Jacob Schimoni published a booklet on the Gypsies of Palestine, including photographs of Gypsies, sometimes with performing animals such as bears or monkeys. He provided a rough - albeit condescending - description of the local Gypsy language and culture.

Of the Gypsy people who roam all over the world, some are also found in Erets Yisrael [sic], a few of whom wander in this land only, while others travel in various Arab countries as well as Israel. Their centre seems to be in the Jaulan [Golan Heights]. They have accepted the Moslem faith, but it is asserted that they do not understand it, as they are on a very low cultural level and do not care much about religion. Among themselves they speak a special language called in Arabic "aspur," that is the sound or twitter of the sipor, i.e. "bird." But the majority know Arabic, which they use in their relations with the natives. They dress like the Arabs of the villages, and the Bedouin, but their wives wear even more jewels and ornaments than the Arabian women. In their trades, which are of various kinds, they are akin to their brethren in other countries: e.g. tinkers, coppersmiths, engravers. But amongst the Arabs they are regarded as thieves. Some are dancers and singers; they give entertainments such as animal shows in the streets of towns and in the vicinity of villages, particularly during such festivities as wedding celebrations and other occasions of "fantasia." For the rest, many of them are beggars who go around from door to door. Their tents are poor and miserableToday Dom"s can be seen iun the middle east countries such as Iran,Iraq,syria,lebanon,Gaza etc.Dom adopted the language of the countries to which they migrated.In addition to the local language they speak dialect of Domari,language in middle east.Nawari is ofent used as synonym for Domari.Nawari is also a dialect language of Arbic language.The Dom people express themselves and their culture through dance and other outwardly visible means. The life style of Dom varies widely many of them mantained their nomadic  life style.They offer their services as dancers, muscians,metal workers.In Jordan they can be found harvesting the crops. Dom in the Middle East are pastoralists.The Dom in Kurman, Iran are illustrative of semi-nomadic people.They work as craftsman,fortune tellers, peddlers and dancers.Some Dom setteled in Israel, Lebanon and northern Cyprus and lives in home in cities and villages nad they have better opportunity for work and education.Attitudes toward the Dom are generally negativeThe Dom themselves make distinctions between the various groups of Dom people.The Dom people tend to adopt the dominant religion of their host country. For the Middle Eastern countries this means Islam.
Dusadh
The Dusadh or Paswan is a Hindu community found in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh,Jharkhand and few parts of West Bengal in India and Nepal which is the neighbor county to India. It is assumption by some foreign authors like William Crooke who considered Dusadh as backward community and merged other Hindu community with Dusadh without any proper evidences. Etymology of the term "Dusadh" is contradictory, however, a synonym used instead of Dusadh is Paswan, which is derived from Persian word "Pasban" meaning Sentinels or Defenders,because of bravery and courage these peoples were mostly engaged in "Chaukidaari" (Village Watchmen).
The History of Dusadh is still unknown and undiscovered. But , the Dusadh claims descent from Duhsâsana, or in other stories from Bhîmsen, or from Salhes of the Loric cycle. Those Dusadh living in the hills at the end of the 19th century referred to asKhasiya Rajput. It is believed that they are the migrants from the other parts of the world. As, they were having well skill of architecture design they moved to the different parts of the world in such of job. For them India was most suitable place here they were employed in various filed some of were temples designing, war equipments etc. They contributed a lot in the architectural designing. But in return they were forced to live in very extrema condition as they were migrant they had nothing to survive hence, they moved to the hilly area where the people could not reach easily.They perform a puja called <<Rahu Baba Ke Puja>> which is a three days rituals meant to develop unity among the caste.

Origin

H.H. Risley in The Tribes and Castes of Bengal (1891) describes the Dosadh as a degraded cultivating caste of Bihar and Chotanagpur, the members of which are largely employed as village watchmen and messengers. It is said that the army of Robert Clive, which won the decisive battle of Plessey in1757 and laid the foundation of the British Empire in India, consisted of the Dosadh. The Dosadh were known for their criminal behavior, looting and robbing travelers.
The Dosadh are registered as a Scheduled Caste under the provision of the Indian Constitution. These former ‘untouchables’ receive allowances such as reserved quotas in government jobs and higher educational institutions, lower qualifying criteria in open examinations and reserved seats in Parliament.
These people claim descent from the Kaurava prince, Dushasan, the younger brother of the main villain in the ancient and very famous Hindu mythological epic, the Mahabharata. Another account refers to their descent from Bhima, the giant brother among the heroic and noble of the five Pandava brothers ranged against the evil Kauravas in the same grand epic. Bihari Dosadh claim to be descendants of another Pandava brother, Arjuna.
They speak the Indo-Aryan language, Bhojpuri, as their mother tongue and are also conversant with Hindi, using both these languages for inter-group communication. In West Bengal they have two main subgroups, namely Patwar Dosadh, whose mother tongue is Hindi, and Gope Dosadh, who are largely concentrated in the Purulia district and whose mother tongue is the Indo-Aryan language Sadri. Also, in the southern parts of Bengal they have a comparatively better social status as they are the traditional priests of Sitala Mata (literally, “cool mother”, the goddess of smallpox).
The Dosadh accept raw and cooked food from higher castes like Brahmin, Rajput (warrior), Baniya (trader), Yadava (pastoralist) but this is not reciprocated. In fact, they cannot even participate with the Brahmin and the Rajput in Holi festivities (the spring festival of colours and general revelry). In their turn, they do not accept food and water from certain castes considered lower than them like the Dom (scavenger), Chamar (tanner) and Dharkar (rope-maker). However, a considerable degree of relaxation in inter-caste relations is gradually being discerned under the impact of constitutional safeguards as well as the processes of urbanization, democratization and secularization.

What Are Their Lives Like?

The Dosadh are economically backward and are mostly landless, with only a few having small landholdings. In Uttar Pradesh and Bihar most of them work as wage labourers in forests, and industries and as agricultural labourers, with the latter being their dominant vocation in Bihar. Some eke out a living by woodcutting, collecting forest produce and selling cow-dung cakes used as fuel.
In West Bengal their primary vocation is to seek alms while singing Kapila Mangal and Sitala Mangal songs. They can be identified when they are out seeking alms for they carry a special type of a small metal idol of Sitala and Lakshmi (goddess of prosperity) in a small bamboo pot, smeared with vermilion. In some families both men and women work as wage labourers but the local peasants hesitate to employ them in agricultural work because they do not have the skill to do such work; sometimes they earn their livelihood by searching for insects in the cattle of the peasants.
The literacy rate of the Dosadh is greatly below the national average. Most of the elderly members of the community are illiterate. However, they have made moderate progress in education since the independence of India. Increasingly, they now send their children to school – primarily the sons. Usually the boys drop out after the secondary level and those girls who do manage to go to school, tend to drop out after the primary level.
The Dosadh people have strong faith in the efficacy of traditional medicine for both humans and animals. They even extend their help to other communities in treating bovine diseases. However, they also use modern medicine when necessary. In general they accept family planning. Facilities like self-employment schemes under government-sponsored development programmes, electricity, banks and fair-price shops are available to them, but in areas like West Bengal they do not take advantage of this assistance.
The Dosadh eat meat but abstain from beef, while those living in West Bengal do not take pork also. Rice is their staple cereal which is supplemented with wheat, maize, barley, bajra (millet) and pulses. Seasonal vegetables and fruits as well as milk and milk products are taken. Sweets and curds are served on ceremonial occasions such as marriage ceremonies. Men consume alcoholic drinks that are either available in the local market (mostly cheap country liquor) or made at home. They are fond of rice beer, smoke bidis, and chew tobacco mixed with lime and betel leaf.

Customs

The Dosadh are an endogamous community (they do not marry outside their community) and are divided into a number of subgroups: two in West Bengal, four in Bihar and seven in Uttar Pradesh. These subgroups are further divided into exogamous clans or lineages serving to regulate marriage alliances. However, nowadays marriage within the same clan is allowed among many Dosadh, as those of West Bengal, but relatives up to four generations are avoided. Spouses are acquired through negotiation or exchange of sisters and monogamy is the norm, though a second wife is taken if the first is barren.
Married women wear a vermilion mark (sindur) and iron bangles as marriage symbols. Junior sororate and junior levirate are permitted, as is the keeping of a concubine. Both bride price and dowry are popular and are paid in cash and kind. Divorce and remarriage are allowed except in Bihar where divorce is not permissible.
The Dosadh follow the rule of male equigeniture, i.e. all the sons inherit the patrimony equally; hence succession devolves upon the eldest son. The status of women, who attend to all household chores in addition to collecting drinking water and fuel, is invariably secondary to that of men in all spheres of life. Often, the women also support the family through different domestic jobs.
The Dosadh have a traditional village caste council, in which all male members of the community participate and exercise social control. This council has a headman who is known variously as Sardar, Mahajan or Chaudhari in Uttar Pradesh. In West Bengal the village headman is known as Majhi or Mahato, where the head of the regional caste council is called Deshmandal. These positions are usually hereditary.

What are Their Beliefs?

The Dosadh are Hindus but mixed with other beliefs. There s a sacred place of their own called ‘place of Goriya’. Though they worship prominent deities like Shiva (Destroyer in the Hindu trinity), Durga (ten-armed, goddess and wife of Shiva) and Manasa Devi (snake goddess) they also worship very little known, lesser deities. Rahu (seizer) is a sinister four-armed demon that swallows the sun and the moon during eclipses. According to Hindu belief, his body was severed in two by an angry Vishnu and the lower part of Rahu’s body became a corresponding demon called Ketu, who gave birth to comets and fiery meteors. Rahu and Ketu have to be appeased to ward off evil consequences.
Goriya or Bandi Goriya is a local divinity who is worshipped in the form of little mounds or platforms of clay. Pigs and alcohol are sacrificed to the deity. Tigers are also prayed to.
The Dosadh observe festivals like Holi, Diwali (festival of lamps) and Dussehra (festival commemorating Rama’s killing of the demon king Ravana). There is a belief in evil spirits and witchcraft. A priest known as Bhagat (devotee) cures diseases using spells and charms, and protects them from harmful spirits. Family deities like Rahu and Jagdamba are also appeased by the Bhagat in the month of Aswin (sixth month of the Hindu calendar, September-October). During this time flowers and kheer (sweet and milky rice pudding) are offered to these deities.

A Brahmin priest performs rituals for births, marriages and deaths. The dead are either cremated or buried, but the Dosadh of Uttar Pradesh cremates and scatters the ashes in a river, preferably the holy Ganges River.


Etymology
Dusadh (also Dusadhya) means one who cannot be conquered. The word was not known until Maurya period. It came into existence after 340-298 BC. The Senapatis or Sarsenapatis (i.e. Commander-in-chief) were called Dusadhya. The word Dusadh is derived from Dusadhya. Another alternative Paswan is also used, which is derived from Persian word "Pasban" meaning the guardian. When mughals came, after seeing their bravery, they started appointing dusadhs as their bodyguards and commander-in-chiefs(also Senapatis). The mughals started calling them Pasban which means defender/guaardian in Persian. Later pasban became paswan.

Origin
It is believed that the Dusadhs are the direct descendants of Janak Raja Salhesh (5th–6th century). The Kings of Mithila were called Janaka. The name Mithila is derived after Mythical King 'Miti'. He was supposed to have been created from the body of his father King Nimi. He established the capital of his kingdom at Mithilapuri and hence the region came to be called Mithila. Since he was born out of body of his father, he took the title Janaka. After this, the Kings of Mithila were called Janaka. The most famous Janaka was Kushadhwaja, father of Sita. He was 21st Janaka of Mithila. This Dynasty was also called Videha Janaka. There were 57 kings in the dynasty of Videha Janaka. The legend of Mithila extends over many centuries. Both Gautama Buddha and Vardamana Mahavira are said to have lived in Mithila. It also formed the center of Indian history during the first millennium, and has contributed to various literary and scriptural works. The most important reference to Mithila is in the Hindu epic, Ramayana where Lord Rama's wife Sita is said to have been the princess of the land, born to King Janaka, who ruled Mithila from Janakpur, Nepal. Other famous kings of Mithila during ancient period are King Bhanumath, Satghumanya, Suchi, Urjnama, Satdhwya, Kriti, Anjan, Arisnami, Srutayu, Supasyu, Suryasu, Srinjay, Sourmabi, Anena, Bhimrath, Satyarath, Upangu, Upgupt, Swagat, Snanand, Subrachya, Supraswa, Subhasn, Suchurut, Susurath, Jay, Vijay, Critu, Suny, Vith Habya, Dwati, Bahulaswa, Kriti Tirtiya.

It is said that the last king of Janak Dynasty was of bad character. He was dethroned by public under leadership of Acharyas (Learned Men). Thereafter, Mithila remained without king for hundreds of years. Instead of king, a democratic system was followed were the ruler was elected by the people and the decisions were taken in a collective manner. In fact, Mithila in Nepal may be referred as the first democracy of the world. This continued for several centuries till the region was attacked and conquered by Magadh empire.
Thereafter several dynasties such as Vajjisangh, Lichhavi, Shaishunaga, Nanda, Maurya, Sunga, Kant, Gupta, Vardhan etc. ruled there from time to time. There was no significant ruler in Mithila after Janaks till 5th–6th century when Jaywardhan Raja Salhesh became the king. He made his capital at Mahisautha-Sirha (presently in Nepal). He defended the region against attacks by Tibetans several times. Hence, he was called Shailesh (king of Mountains) from Jaywardhan which in local dialect was called Salhesh. According to some legends, It is said that Goddess Durga ( a Hindu deity) used to visit him.
History
The Dusadh community belongs to the Gahlot Rajputs. The original Gahlots branched off into 24 branches and 21st branch was named as Dusadh. They initially belonged to the Gahlot Rajput clans and lost their status under different unfavourable circumstances. Migration from one place to another was one of the main reasons. It is evident from many authentic resources that they migrated from Rajasthan and Delhi. Alha and Udal came to Varanasi and Gaya in Bihar to protect the temples. Dusadhs settled there and other nearby places without any land or property. Many returned too. Alha Udal bade ladaiya jinse haar gayi talwar (meaning "Alha and Udal were such great fighters that even swords were defeated by them"), the folklore of Alha and Udal, is still sung in the heartland of Bundelkhand. According to folklore, Alha was invincible, made immortal by the goddess Sharda. The shrine of the goddess is at Maihar in Madhya Pradesh (India). Alha gifted his head to Sharda after cutting it off with a sword. The goddess, extremely pleased by the act, made him immortal. Alha also had two maternal brothers, Malkhan and Sulkhan. Malkhan had enormous strength, represented in the sentence, "das das haathi bhuj par taule" (meaning "ten elephants were weighed by him on one hand").

Alha had a sword given to him by his uncle Parmal, the ruler of Mahoba. The sword was said to be from heaven and no weapon could match its fury. Authors still write versions of Alha-Khand, including Lumbardar Thakur Amol Singh Bhadauriya of Kanpur district. The people who listen to a recital of the Alha-Khand are filled with a warrior spirit and fearlessness. They honor the code of the Kshatriya warriors and the courage shown in the gruesome, difficult battles fought by them. "Aadi bhawani durga tose bada na koy aath khand nau dweep mei toy kare so hoy" (meaning "oh great goddess of war, the oldest of old, the sole reason for evolution of the world, nobody is above you; what is happening in this world is done by your power only.").[clarification needed] The warriors of Mahoba were unbeatable. They worshiped goddess and sword and hence were undefeated.[clarification needed]
Battle of Plassey
The army of Nawab Siraj-ud-daulah mainly consisted of Dusadh soldiers. Robert Clive also deployed 2100 dusadh sepoys for the upcoming battle and later won it. The dusadhs never accepted the British allegiance and refused to surrender. The Britishers, after winning the battle of Plassey, stripped the Dusadhs off their lands, properties and assets and conspired in every way they could to wipe out the community completely. They declared them as criminal caste. The Britisher became aware of the devotion of the Dusadhs towards their land(nation) and to protect it even at the cost of their lives. The Britishers started calling them thieves, criminals, the Robbers and did everything to make them socially and economically backward.

Distribution
The Dusadh community lives in Bihar, UP, Delhi, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh etc. The population of this community in Bihar is 8–9% and in UP it is 3–4%. In Bihar, they live in the regions of Vaishali (Hajipur), Araria, Aurangabad, Begusarai, Bhagalpur, Bhojpur, Buxar, Darbhanga, Gaya Gopalganj, Jamui, Jehanabad, Kishanganj, Nalanda, Patna, Purnia, Samastipur. This community have presence in the Purvanchal region, especially in the districts of Varanasi, Chandauli, Sonbhadra, Mirzapur, Ghazipur, Ballia, Gorakhpur Devaria, Basti, Bahraich, Sant Kabir Nagar, Mau, Jaunpur, Lucknow, Balrampur, Gonda, Azamgarhand and other districts. In Jharkhand they can be found in Ranchi, Lohardaga, Gumla, Palamuu, Latehar, Garhwa, West Singhbhum, East Singhbhum, Dumka, Sahebganj, Pakur, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad, Bokaro Deoghar. They have a very good presence in Delhi, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Orissa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and other states also.

Genetics
In recent studies, it has been proved that these peoples have higher frequency of Haplogroup R1a (more than 40%) which is very high as compared to rest of north Indian population


Madhubani art
Madhubani painting/Mithila painting has been done traditionally by the women of the Brahman, Dusadh and Kayastha communities in the Mithila region of north Bihar, India. Mithila is a well-demarcated cultural region lying between the Ganges and the Nepal terai, and between the Kosi and Gandak tributaries. This painting as a form of wall art was practiced widely throughout the region; the more recent development of painting on paper and canvas originated among the villages around Madhubani, and it is these latter developments that may correctly be referred to as Madhubani art.
The German anthropologist film-maker and social activist Erika Moser persuaded the impoverished Dusadh community to paint as well. The result was the Dusadh captured their oral history (such as the adventures of Raja Salhesh, and depictions of their primary deity, Rahu) — typified by bold compositions and figures based on traditional tattoo patterns called Goidna locally. This added another distinctive new style to the region’s flourishing art scene.
Present circumstances[edit]
The community has a traditional caste council, and each village sends representatives to the caste council. The council deals with issues of divorce, adultery, theft and disputes with in the community. The Akhil Bhartiya Dusadh Kalyan Parishad is working for development of this caste. In this time, The people of D

Gandhila
The Gandhila sometimes pronounced as Gandhil and Gandola, are a Hindu caste found in North India. They have scheduled caste status in Punjab and Haryana.
According to the traditions of the community, they descend from a Rajput by the name of Sabal Singh. He was killed fighting in the forces of the Sultanate of Delhi, and his family were driven out by his enemies. They were then forced to take menial jobs, such as rearing donkeys. The word Gandhila is said to mean a donkey rearer. The Gandhila are found mainly in Ambala District, and speakHaryanvi. In Uttar Pradesh, the Gandhila are found mainly in Meerut and Muzaffarnagar districts. They speak Hindi with outsiders, but have their own dialect.  In Punjab, the Gandhila are found mainly Jalandhar and Patiala districts. The Punjab Gandhila trace their descent from two brothers, Sambal Singh and Ajit Mal, both of whom were Chauhan Rajputs. On their defeat at the hand of theMughal Emperor Babar, the two brothers took an oath not to sleep on a bed or eat with silver utensils until the Mughals were defeated. They then fled to the jungle, where the Gandhila were helped by theBangali, another jungle nomad tribe. The Bangalis suggested that the Chauhans take up raising donkeys. The community thus became known as gadhewalas or donkey keepers, which was eventually corrupted to Gadhila.

Habura
The Habura are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They have scheduled castestatus in that state.
According to some traditions, the word habura has its roots in the Sanskrit hawwa, which means an evil sprit. Their own traditions make reference to the fact that community are descended from Rajputsoldiers. They were attempts to forcibly convert them to Islam, and as a result took refuge into the forests. The Habura then took up a nomadic existence, often also engaging in vagrancy. As a result, the British colonial authorities placed them in the category of a criminal tribe. After independence ofIndia in 1947, they were denotified in 1952, when the Criminal Tribes Act was replaced with theHabitual Offenders Act, but the community continues to carry considerable social stigma.

Halalkhor
The Halalkhor are a Dalit Muslim community, found in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in India . They are mostly Shias. The Halalkhor are also known as Shaikhra or Shahani in Bihar and Muslim Bhangi and Mehtar in Uttar Pradesh.
The word halal khor is from Persian حلال‌خور and literally means those who eat halal food. The community is traditionally associated with sweeping and scavenging, and are descended from the Hindu Bhangi community who converted to Islam. Initially they were Sunnis, but are believed to have converted to the Shia sect in the 18th century. In some states in North India, they have backward caste status. They are divided into two sub-groups, the Kampu and Shaikada. The community are found throughout Uttar Pradesh, and speak various dialects of Hindi such as Awadhi.
The Halalkhor of Bihar are Muslim sweepers, and are also known as Mehtar, Bhangi, and Halalbegi. They are found throughoutBihar, and speak a number of dialects. According to traditions, they are Muslim converts from the Hindu Bhangi caste. The Halalkhors of Bihar are split on sectarian lines between Shia and Sunni. There is no intermarriage between these two sects. Many Halalkhor in Bihar are employed as sweepers by the various municipalities in Bihar. Many have also emigrated toMumbai and Kolkata, where they are employed as day labourers.
The Halalkhor often face discrimination from the other Muslim castes, and are one of the most marganalized Muslim group inUttar Pradesh. Like other communities, they have a traditional caste council, known as the biradari panchayat. This caste council is involved in resolving disputes within the community. There are now growing demands for the community to be grantedScheduled Caste status, which is currently restricted to Hindu Dalits only.

Heri
The Heri are a Hindu caste found in the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. They are also known as NayakThori and Aheri.
The Heri claim to have originated in Rajasthan, and said to have immigrated some four centuries ago. According to traditions, the word Heri is derived from the Rajasthani word her, meaning a herd of cattle. They were still quite recently a nomadic community. The Heri are one of the many Gypsy like groupings found in North India, with their specialist occupation being that they were expert trackers and hunters. They still speak Rajasthani, and are found throughout Haryana.
In Punjab, the term Thori, Aheri and Heri appears to be synonymous. They used to carry merchandise on pack animals. According to their traditions, the Aheri are Rajputs by origin, who were soldiers in the army of Maharana Pratap. After the defeat of the Maharan by the Mughal Empire, the Aheri were hunted down by the Mughal armies. To escape the Mughals, they fled and settled in Punjab. The Aheri are found mainly in the districts of PatialaBhatindaFiruzpur, and Faridkot.
In the Colonial period, Aheri were listed under the Criminal Tribes Act, 1871, as being a tribe "addicted to the systematic commission of non-bailable offences." After independence, they were denotified in 1952, when the Criminal Tribes Act was replaced with the Habitual Offenders Act, but the community continues to carry considerable social stigma
Holar
The Holar (or Holaya) are a small Dalit community or caste found in Maharashtra and Gujarat states in India. The caste bears some similarities to and is sometimes mistaken with, but not identical to, the Chamar. The Holar engage in leatherworking and sales of horns and hides, and some also keep sheep and goats. The caste also traditionally provides musicians to the Dhangar caste and even today play at weddings and other festivities.

Hurkiya
The Hurkiya are a caste found in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand in India. They have been granted Scheduled Caste status in both these states. In fact, there are two distinct communities that go by the name Hurkiya, those of Uttarakhand, who are Hindu by religion, and those found in western Uttar Pradesh, who are Muslim. Both Hurkiya are of common origin, being a sub-group within the Dom ethnic group, and are one of the many gypsy like grouping found in North India.
The Hindu Hurkiya are a small endogamous community found in the Kumaon region, where they are also known as Mirasi. They derive their name from an instrument the hurka, a tiny hand drum which they played, while their women danced. According to their origin myths, the Hurkiya were originally settled in the Gangolihat area of Pithoragarh District, from where they spread to other parts of Uttarakhand. The community were employed by the Johari Bhotia as singers and entertainers, and most Hurkiya are still found in the Johar Valley. There are also a tradition, that the Hurkiya were invited from the plains of Uttar Pradesh by the Khas Rajput clans of Chougarkha in Allmora District. In terms of distribution, the Hurkiya are mainly found in the towns of Munsiyari, Didihat and Baram, all in Pithoragarh District. A small number are also found in Almora and Nainital districts. The Hurkiya speak Kumaoni, although most can also understa

Jatav
A brief history of jatav community
In India Jatav community live in the northern India mainly in western U.P , Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Eastern Rajasthan (Dholpur & Bharatpur), Chhatisgarh and Delhi. Today Jatav community work in the administration in the government and others work as merchant, farmer. Mostly 70% jatav works as a government worker in U.P and Delhi. The Kuldevi of
Jatav is the vajreshwari devi in Kangra ( Himachal Pradesh) which is a vajrayan Buddhist devi. Vajreshwari devi also worship in Nepal in the vajrayan branch of Buddhism. Besides it Jatav people worship Mansa devi ( Naag Devi) which worship in Buddhism as Padmavati. Many Jatav go for the teerth yatra of Jahar veer ( Naag Devta) in Rajasthan every year.Many Jatav belongs to Nanakpanth, kabirpanth, ramdasia sikh, ravidasia sikh, Satnami sect. etc branch of Sikhism. First time
Jatav name is used in the Prathviraj Raso written by Chandbardai and Alha-khand by Malkhan Singh Chandel. In it a form of Jatav name (Jadav) used for Alha and His father. They related to Chandel dynasty. The guru of the Alha Singh Chandel was Guru Gorakhnath who belonged to Vajrayan Buddhist. His Guru Matsyendra Nath started the Nath sampradaya . Guru Gorakhnath worship the Mahakaal ( a Buddhist God). Vajrayan Buddhist worship the Bhairav ( Bhairo baba) as a custodian God in every devi temple. Jatav people also worship bhairav baba. Chandel kings built Guru Gorakhnath mandir in Khajurao.
Chandel dynasty established by Nannuk who was governor of Jejakbhukti ( bundelkhand) in Gurjar-Pratihar dynasty. He belonged to Naagvanshi clan who governed in northern india between 200 AD-350 AD.There was Nine great king who are the swami of uttarapath.Their capitals are Mathura, Padmavati (Gwalior), vidisha and Kantipuri. Their kingdom spread over the east Punjab to Narmada valley and eastern Rajasthan to western Odisha. Jatav people find in this place . In prayag-prashasti two naga king Ganapat Naag and Bhaav naag were depicted who fought with Samudragupta. The silver coins of Seven Naag kings Find from the mainly Mathura, Bulandshahr, Gwalior,Vidisha and other places in Northern India. The Gupta kings made a powerful organisation by the marriage with Naagvanshi kingdom, vakataks and kadams. Due to this powerful organisation Guptas made a powerful kingdom.The wife of Chandragupta vikramaditya was kubernaga who was a Naag princess. Skandgupta appointed governor of Vidisha to a Naag. Naagvanshi had a great power from the Mathura-Agra region which was their capital. Today a great number of Jatav people live in the Agra and Mathura region. Jatav of Agra region have a powerful status. Jatav people
mainly work as administration, industrialist and Farmer from naagvanshi period because Mathura and Vidisha was a great center of industry. When Mughal came to India they made Agra their capital. Mughal had a great army. That time a great demand of leather shoes from the Mughal Army took the some Jatav merchant in the leather Industry. Due to great profit some Jatav merchant do the business of leather articles.
During Aurangjeb region Satnami Jatav rebel against the Mughal Army. Due to it 12000 Satnami soldier patriot in Agra. A famous Jatav Jeevan singh chandel (Bhai Jaita Shingh ) was famous in Indian history for his bravery work. When Sikhism ninth guru Tegbahadur was killed by Aurangjeb army then his head was bring by Jeevan singh chandel from the delhi kila. By this bravery work Guru govind singh appointed the Bhai jaita singh the commander of khalsa panth. From that time every Jatav family sent their one member in khalsa panth which today is continuosly consider in Jatav community. Many Jatav went in the Khalsa panth. Guru-Shisya parampara
established by Guru Gorakhnath. His student were Alha and Jahar-Veer. Guru Nanak follow Guru-shisya parampara and took it forwardly. Jatav people follow the way of guru-shisya parampara and devotee .


Jathera


Jathera (जठेरा) is the place of grave mound of the common ancestor and still worshipped even today by Jats.[1]
H.A. Rose writes that among the Hindu and Sikh Jats, especially in the north- central and central Districts, a form of ancestor-worship, called jathera, is common. It is the custom of many clans, or of a group of villages of one clan, for the bridegroom at his wedding (biāh or shādi) to proceed to a spot set aside to commemorate some ancestor who was either a shahid (martyr) or a man of some note. This spot is marked by a mound of earth, or it may be a pakka shrine. The bridegroom bows his head to the spot and walks round it, after which offerings are made both to the Brahman and the Lāgi.† If the mound is of earth, he throws a handful of earth upon it. The name given to the jathera may be, and generally is, that of an ancestor who was influential, the founder of the tribe, or who was a shahid. 

Professor B.S Dhillon explains about Jathera. He writes that the Jats tend to continue to follow their ancient custom of worshipping their common ancestors. In the Punjabi language, it is called the "Jathera" worship. Usually, it is mandatory in rural areas for newly wed Jats to visit and worship the village "Jathera" shrine, erected in the fields, usually a day after their wedding day, with fanfare.The Jathera tradition

According to Herodotus, when a Scythian king died, his wives (after their death) were buried along with him. The mounds were erected at the gravesite.
In today's Panjab, a small memorial is raised at the gravesite of an important elder, and it is called Jathera which is venerated by the descendants of the deceased.

Jathera and Bhaumia

H.A. Rose writes that Jatheras are also commonly worshipped in the central Districts, but the rites vary. Thus in Ludhiana nearly every Jat tribe has a jathera though his name is rarely preserved, and a very common fond of worship to him is to dig earth from a tank at weddings in his honour. Thus Tulla, the Basis' jathera, who has a niat or shrine, is commemorated in this way and earth is also dug on the Diwali night. The Sarapiya and Sodi Jats also dig earth to their unnamed jatheras— and the Daula, Dhad, Sangra and many others do the same. The Dhanesar have a special custom, for after the jandi has been cut, water is poured over a goat's head, and if he shivers the ancestors are believed to have blessed the pair. The goat is then set free. The Ghanghas in this District appear to have no jathera but make offerings, which are taken by Sikhs, to the samadh of Akal Das, their ancestor, at Jandiala in Amritsar, where an annual fair is held.
Thus the jathera rite is essentially a tribal, not a village, institution and this is strikingly brought out by the fact that in villages composed of several tribes each tribe will have its own jathera. Thus in Kang, in Jullundhar, the Kang Jats have no jathera, but they have one at Dhauli Mambli in Garhshankar tahsil, and say he was a refugee from Muhammadan oppression. The Mors of Kang have their jathera at Khankhana, the Birks theirs at Birk, the Rakkars theirs at Rakkar, the Jhalli theirs at Dhamot in Ludhiana. But the jathera is often a sati, and the Her in Jullundhar have a sati's shrine at Kala Majra in Rupar tahsil. And it is not necessarily the progenitor of the clan, or even the founder of a village who is worshipped, but any prominent member of it who may be chosen as its jathera. Thus among the Dhillon of Mahrampur it is not Gola, its founder, who is worshipped, but Phalla, his descendant and a man of some note. And at Garcha the Garcha Jats worship Adhiana, a spot in the village named after Adi, one of their ancestors who was an ascetic. The place now forms a grove from which fuel may be gathered by Brahmans, but no wood may be cut by Jats under penalty of sickness or disaster. When the jathera is at any distance it is sufficient to turn towards it at a wedding and it is only visited at long intervals.
In marked contrast to the tribal jathera is the village bhumia of the south-eastern Punjab. There, when a new colony or village is founded in the south-east Punjab the first thing to be done before houses are actually built is to raise a mound of earth on a spot near the proposed village and plant a jand tree on it. Houses are then built. The first man who dies in the village, whether he be a Brahman, a Jat or a Chamar, is burnt or buried on this mound, and on it is built a masonry shrine which is named after him. The fortunate man is deified as the Bhumia or earth-god, and worshipped by Hindus of all classes in the village, being looked upon as its sole guardian deity. At weddings the bride-groom before starting to the bride's village resorts to this shrine and makes offerings to him. If an ox is stolen, a house is broken into, or pestilence breaks out, if crops fail or the rainfall is scanty, if locusts

[Page-375]: visit the village or any other calamity befall, Bhumia's shrine is the first place to which the Jats resort for divine help.
Such faith is placed in this deity that in the event of plague the villagers will not vacate their houses without consulting the Bhumia.
  • Thus in Jind we find the Phogat with a tribal Sidh and also a Bhumia in every village. Nearly every Jat tribe in that State has its Bhumia, but some have a Khera instead, and others again style their jathera Khera Bhumia. Such are the Chahil.
  • The Labanah affect the Khera alone.
  • The Dalal reverence Jogis and the
  • Bhanwala Gosains, while the
  • Gathwal and Lambe are said to have Bairagis as their jatheras ; and the
  • Ridhu have Nagas for jatheras, but also worship Khera Bhumia.
  • Probably the Jogi, Bairagi, Gosain or Naga is the tribal, and the Khera the village deity or his representative.
  • But several tribes, the Bhondar, BhanguKharodRadhana and Tamana worship the Khera as their jathera, and
  • a few, the BaringBaniwalBoparaiJatana, Khagura, Lat, Sohi, Thand and Tur have no jathera at all.

Ram Sarup Joon writes

The ancestor worship: Jats are very religious minded people. From the earliest times, they have believed in One God and have worshipped Him. Their mode of worship is to remember God and express their gratitude to Him at any and all times. They do not, and have never believed in rituals and worship of idols or evil spirits. That is why no religious shrine of any importance exists in the Jat area. They do, however, believe in a form of ancestor worship. Certain days and customs are observed to propitiate the dead. Every village has a little shrine called Bhaiyan. It is a modest samadhi of the first man who died after that village came into being.
On certain days women visit this shrine, light a Ghee lamp, fold their hands and say, "0 grand father look after our menfolk and cattle". Men seek his blessings before proceeding to perform on important task like house building, marriage or battle. Married couples pay their homage to him the very next day after the bride comes to her husband's home. This Bhaiyan worship is, however, carried out by individuals when and in whatever manner they choose. There is no fixed prayer, no rituals, no offering of money or foodstuff and no middlemanship of a priest.
Any religion, which preached oneness of God and condemned superstitions and idol worship easily

हरयाणा में धोक या भईयाँ

पंजाब में आज भी यह प्रथा कायम हैं और जाट अपने अपने गोत्र के जठेरों पर माथा टेकने जाते हैं, जठेरों के नाम से मेले लगते हैं । जून साहब ने भी अपनी किताब में लिखा हैं कि जाट अपने पुरखों की पूजा में विश्वास रखते हैं और इस प्रथा को भैयाँ बोलते हैं । पहले जाटों के गाँव में मंदिर के नाम पर भैयाँ के एलवा शिवालय होते थे क्योंकि शिव भी जाटों के पूर्वज हैं ।
हरयाणा में भी ये परम्परा है । यहाँ इसे धोक या भईयाँ कहते हैं । यहाँ पर जब दूल्हा घुड-चढ़ी पर जाता है या बरात चढ़ने से पहले दिया (धोक = दाहक = अग्नि ) जलाता है और अन्न का चढ़ावा चढ़ाता है और विवाह के अगले दिन कूँआ, जोहड़ और भईयाँ पर पति पत्नी को गाँव की औरतें गीत गाते हुए साथ ले जा कर धोक मरवाती हैं । ये असल में हमारी जल को और हमारे पूरवजों को पूजने की परम्परा का ही एक अंग है । ज्यादातर जब पहली बार कोई पूर्वज, जिसने ये गाँव बसाया हो और उन्होंने जहां पर आग जलाई हो उसी स्थान को भईयाँ बना दिया जाता था । इस भईयाँ पर धोक जाट ही लगाते हैं शेष जातियों को हमने ये परम्परा निभाते नहीं देखा है । अभी तक गाँव में ये परम्परा रही है कि घर में आग को बुझने नहीं दिया जाता था । आग को चूल्हे या हारे में राख के नीचे दबा कर रखा जाता था और जिस के घर में आग बुझी रहती थी या प्राय: बुझ जाती थी ऐसी घर वाली औरत को फूहड़ या गैर जिम्मेदार माना जाता था । हमारी ये आग, पाणी और चीत्ण (चित्र ) बनाने पूजने की परम्परा भारत में इरान से आकर बसे पारसियों से बहुत मिलती-जुलती है । जठेरे का शाब्दिक मतलब जेष्ठ या बड़ा होता हे । हरयाणा में बड़ेरे भी बोल देते हैं, सिंध में वडेरे शबद का इस्तेमाल धनी या जमींदार के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है । शिवलिंग वास्तव में जट्टों द्वरा आग को दबाये रखने का स्थान होता था और उस के चारों और एक नाली खोद दी जाती थी और एक ओर पाणी निकासी का प्रबंध कर दिया जाता था ताकि अगर आगे-पीछे कहीं से पाणी आ जाए तो वो उस आग को ना बुझा पाए । क्योंकि जाट अग्नि को पवित्र मानते थे और इस रूप मे उस को जलाए रखते थे । कालान्तर में उसी स्थान को भईयाँ, धोक या जठेरे बोला जाने लगा । बाद में उस को शिवलिंग का रूप दे दिया और मंदिर बना कर पूजने लग गए ।

राजस्थान में कुल-देवता प्रथा

राजस्थान में भी अपने पूर्वजों के स्थान को पूजने की प्रथा है परन्तु यहाँ जठेरा नाम से नहीं जाना जाता है । यहाँ माता, कुल देवी और कुल देवता के नाम से स्थान जाने जाते है । इन स्थानों में बच्चे के जन्म पर जड़ूला उतारा जाता है अर्थात पहली बार बच्चे के काटे गए बाल यहाँ चढ़ाये जाते हैं । शादी के तुरंत बाद आशीर्वाद लेने के लिए जोड़ा यहाँ आता है । विभिन्न अवसरों पर यहाँ सवामनी और भंडारे भी किये जाते हैं ।

Jatheras of various clans

  • Ark (अर्क) - It is a tribe of Muhammadan Jats, found in Jind, whose members are said to still revere their jathera Sain Das' shrine, and to give the dhianis Re. 1 at weddings in his name.
  • Bajwa - The jathera of the Bajwa is Baba Manga, and he is revered at weddings.They take their newly wed brides to the Samadhi of their ancestor, Baba Manga to pay obeisance.
  • Basi - Tulla, the Basis' jathera, who has a niat or shrine, is commemorated, dig earth from a tank at weddings in his honour, and earth is also dug on the Diwali night.
  • Bhular - Bhulars' cult of Kalanjar has already been described at p. 108 supra, but they are also said to have a jathera called Pir Yar Bhurawla a revered ancestor who performed a miracle by turning a blanket into a sheep, and to this day the Bhular will not wear, sit or sleep on a striped blanket. Their Sidh Kalenjar or Kalangar is also called Kalandra, and he has a tomb at Mari in Patiala where the first milk of a cow is offered to him on the 8th badi of the month. A Bhular too can only build a house after offering him two bricks. The Bhular also avoid the use of ak fuel. Apparently the Bhura sidh of the Sialkot Bhulars. Bhura means a striped blanket of light brown with black stripes, or black with white stripes, and the Bhura are also said to be a division of the Jats. Bhura also means brown, Panjabi; Dicty., p. 146. Clearly there is either a pun in the name or Bhura was the original name of the tribe.
  • Birk - Birks have their Jathera at Birk
  • Bura - The samādh of its jathera is at Kallu Kotli in Patiala, and it is worshipped at weddings.
  • Hari - They have a jathera at Shadi Hari and out of a pond there cast seven handfuls of earth at the Dewali in his name.
  • Chahil - The Chahil affect Jogi Pir, originally Joga, son of Rajpal, who is said to have been killed, after fighting with the Mughals even when he had been decapitated. Jogi Pir is their chhara {?jathera), and a fair is held in his honour on the 4th nauratra in Asauj. In Jind the Chahil claim descent from Bala, a Chauhan. He acquired influence by accepting offerings made to Guga, and Chahils, whatsoever their caste, still take these offerings.! In Jind the Chahil worship Khera Bhumia.
  • Chima- H.A. Rose writes that The Chima again are said to be served by Jogis, and not by Brahmans. They perform Jathera and chhatra as follows : — Eight or ten days before a marriage rice is cooked and taken to the spot dedicated to their ancestor ; from one to five goats are also taken thither and washed and a lamp is lighted. One of the goats' ears is then cut, and the brotherhood mark their foreheads with blood (chhatra). The goat is killed for food, but the immediate relatives of the bride do not eat of its flesh, which is divided among the others ; the rice, however, is distributed to all.
  • Dandiwal (दंदिवाल) - It is Jat clan, claiming Chauhan descent, which emigrated from Delhi via Jaisalmer to Sirsa, found in Hissar, and also in Jind State. In the latter it affects the jathera and jandiān worship, and has as its sidh a Pir whose shrine is at Beluwala, in British territory. At the birth of a son, they offer to his samadh a piece of gur, a rupee and some cloth which are taken by a Brahman.
  • Deo - The Deo have their jathera at a place close to some pool or tank where on certain occasions, such as a wedding, they congregate. The Brahman marks each man's forehead as he comes out of the pool with blood from the goat's ear : this is done to the bridegroom also. The bread at the feast is divided, 9 loaves to every bachelor and 18 to every married man. 
  • Dhanda (धान्दा) - Their Jathera is Swami Sundar Das, at whose samadh milk is offered on the 12th sudi every month: beestings also are offered, and, at weddings, a lamp is lighted there.
  • Dhillon - The Dhillon appear to have several jatheras, Gaggowahna being mentioned in addition to those described on p. 238 supra. No particulars of these are forthcoming. But the fact that Dhillon was Raja Karn's grandson is commemorated in the following tale : — Karn used to give away 30 sers of gold every day after his bath but before his food. After his death the deity rewarded him with gold, but allowed him no food, so he begged to be allowed to return to the world where he set aside 15 days in each year for the feeding of Brahmans. He was then allowed to return to the celestial regions and given food.
  • Gandu - It has bakhuās at Mādpur, and at these it worships its jatheras at weddings and on the Diwali
  • Garcha - Their Jathera is in village Koharha in Ludhiana distt. At Garcha the Garcha Jats worship Adhiana, a spot in the village named after Adi, one of their ancestors who was an ascetic. The place now forms a grove from which fuel may be gathered by Brahmans, but no wood may be cut by Jats under penalty of sickness or disaster.
  • Garewal - Baba Alho is jathera of the Garewals.
  • Ghatwal (घटवाल) - In Jind the Ghatwal reverence Bairagis as their jatheras. In Hissar the Brahmans of Depāl are their parohits to this day, because their ancestor rescued the only surviving woman of the tribe, after the Rajputs of Kalanaur had blown up all the rest of the Ghatwals, who had defeated them.
  • Gill - Raja Ram is Jathera of the Gils. The Gils worship their eponym on the Chet Chaudas at Rajiana, in Moga tahsil, where he has a temple. He also appears to be called Raja Pir and to be specially affected by the Wairsi Gils. In Jind their Jathera is Surat Ram, whose shrine is at Bajewala in Patiala and offerings to which are taken by Mirasis. In Ferozepur the tribe is said to affect Sakhi Sarwar and its men prefer to be called Dipa, Sarupa, etc., instead of Dip Singh, Sarup Singh, and so on, with the title of ‘Mian’ prefixed. At weddings they dig earth from the pond of Sakhi Sarwar near their home. Gil sidh is named Surat Ram and only gets a goat and a handful of gur at weddings, an offering which is taken by Mirasis.
  • Her - Her have Jathera in Jullundhar and have a sati's shrine at Kala Majra in Rupar tahsil.
  • Jali (जाली) tribe of Jats, found in Jind, has Kalu, their Jathera, and a math at Lahawara in Patiala. They offer him 1-1/4 man of sweet cakes (puṛas) at weddings, and these are taken by a Brahman.
  • Jhalli - Jhalli have their Jathera at Dhamot in Ludhiana.
  • Kang - Kang, in Jullundhar, the Kang Jats have no jathera, but they have one at Dhauli Mambli in Garhshankar tahsil, and say he was a refugee from Muhammadan oppression.
  • Mor - The Mors of Kang have their jathera at Khankhana.
  • Rakkar - Rakkars have theirs at Rakkar
  • Randhawa - Sidhsan is Jathera of the Randhawas.
  • Sidhu - Tilkara is Jathera of the Sidhus. Kala Mihr of the Sidhus.
  • Thadwal (थडवाल) - The Jatt Dhadwal Jathera is in Lakhpur.



Kharwar



Kharwar is a community found in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Delhi and Chhattisgarh.
The anthropologists consider the Kharwars of Dravidian origin.
The traditional economic activities of the Kharwar have been agriculture and other wage earning labour. However, some members of the community claim that their ancestors were zamindars (landlords), and that the Rajas of Ramgarh belonged to the community. Some Kharwars claim a Suryavanshi kshatriya origin, and call themselves "Kharagvanshi". The Government of India classifies them under the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes category.The surnames used by this community include Singh, Mandal (especially in Katihar and Bhagalpur districts of Bihar) and Kharwar.


Kabirpanthi Julaha
The Kabirpanthi Julaha are Hindu caste found in the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. They are distinct from the Muslim Julaha of North India.The word julaha in Hindi and Urdu means a weaver. Over time a number of castes such as theDhanukBhuiyar and Kori took to weaving, and now form an endogamous community. They are thus known as Kabirpanthi, which means a follower of Kabir, a figure associated with weaving. The Julaha are found throughout Haryana and speak the Haryanvi.
The Julaha practice clan exogamy, like neighbouring North Indian Hindu communities. Their clans, known as gotras include the khatak, Bagri, Atkan, Khare, Chauhan, Bhatti, Sahrawat, Kataria, Dahiya, Punia, Morwal, Khangwal, Malik, Saroha and Swain.
The Julaha have seen a decline in their occupation. Many are now petty cultivators and rearing cattle. A larger number are agricultural labourers. The community have now been granted Scheduled Castestatus.

Kharot
The Kharot are a Scheduled Caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are anendogamous sub-group within the Beldar caste, and are found mainly in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The name kharot is said to be derived from the Sanskrit word khata, which means grass. They were historically associated with the manufacture of mats from grass, and the word kharot literally means a grass mat manufacturer. According to 2001 Census of India, there population was 700, found mainly in Basti District. Like other Scheduled Caste communities, they have seen a disappearance of their traditional occupation, and most Kharot are now landless agricultural labourers.

Khatik
जानते हैं चमार एवं खटिक जाति का गौरवशाली इतिहास..
सिकन्दर लोदी (१४८९-१५१७) के शासनकाल से पहले पूरे भारतीय इतिहास में ‘चमार’ नाम की किसी जाति का उल्लेख नहीं मिलता। आज जिन्हें हम ‘चमार’ जाति से संबोधित करते हैं और जिनके साथ छूआछूत का व्यवहार करते हैं, दरअसल वह वीर चंवरवंश के क्षत्रिय हैं। जिन्हें सिकन्दर लोदी ने चमार घोषित करके अपमानित करने की चेष्टा की।
भारत के सबसे विश्वसनीय इतिहास लेखकों में से एक विद्वान कर्नल टाड को माना जाता है जिन्होनें अपनी पुस्तक ‘द हिस्ट्री आफ राजस्थान’ में चंवरवंश के बारे में विस्तार से लिखा है।
प्रख्यात लेखक डॅा विजय सोनकर शास्त्री ने भी गहन शोध के बाद इनके स्वर्णिम अतीत को विस्तार से बताने वाली पुस्तक “हिन्दू चर्ममारी जाति: एक स्वर्णिम गौरवशाली राजवंशीय इतिहास” लिखी। महाभारत के अनुशासन पर्व में भी इस राजवंश का उल्लेख है।
डॉ शास्त्री के अनुसार प्राचीनकाल में न तो चमार कोई शब्द था और न ही इस नाम की कोई जाति ही थी।
‘अर्वनाइजेशन’ की लेखिका डॉ हमीदा खातून लिखती हैं,
मध्यकालीन इस्लामी शासन से पूर्व भारत में चर्म एवं सफाई कर्म के लिए किसी विशेष जाति का एक भी उल्लेख नहीं मिलता है। हिंदू चमड़े को निषिद्ध व हेय समझते थे। लेकिन भारत में मुस्लिम शासकों के आने के बाद इसके उत्पादन के भारी प्रयास किए गये थे।
डा विजय सोनकर शास्त्री के अनुसार तुर्क आक्रमणकारियों के काल में चंवर राजवंश का शासन भारत के पश्चिमी भाग में था और इसके प्रतापी राजा चंवरसेन थे। इस क्षत्रिय वंश के राज परिवार का वैवाहिक संबंध बाप्पा रावल वंश के साथ था। राणा सांगा व उनकी पत्नी झाली रानी ने चंवरवंश से संबंध रखने वाले संत रैदासजी को अपना गुरु बनाकर उनको मेवाड़ के राजगुरु की उपाधि दी थी और उनसे चित्तौड़ के किले में रहने की प्रार्थना की थी।
संत रविदास चित्तौड़ किले में कई महीने रहे थे। उनके महान व्यक्तित्व एवं उपदेशों से प्रभावित होकर बड़ी संख्या में लोगों ने उन्हें गुरू माना और उनके अनुयायी बने। उसी का परिणाम है आज भी विशेषकर पश्चिम भारत में बड़ी संख्या में रविदासी हैं। राजस्थान में चमार जाति का बर्ताव आज भी लगभग राजपूतों जैसा ही है। औरतें लम्बा घूंघट रखती हैं आदमी ज़्यादातर मूंछे और पगड़ी रखते हैं।
संत रविदास की प्रसिद्धी इतनी बढ़ने लगी कि इस्लामिक शासन घबड़ा गया सिकन्दर लोदी ने मुल्ला सदना फकीर को संत रविदास को मुसलमान बनाने के लिए भेजा वह जानता था की यदि रविदास इस्लाम स्वीकार लेते हैं तो भारत में बहुत बड़ी संख्या में इस्लाम मतावलंबी हो जायेगे लेकिन उसकी सोच धरी की धरी रह गयी स्वयं मुल्ला सदना फकीर शास्त्रार्थ में पराजित हो कोई उत्तर न दे सका और उनकी भक्ति से प्रभावित होकर अपना नाम रामदास रखकर उनका भक्त वैष्णव (हिन्दू) हो गया। दोनों संत मिलकर हिन्दू धर्म के प्रचार में लग गए जिसके फलस्वरूप सिकंदर लोदी आगबबूला हो उठा एवं उसने संत रैदास को कैद कर लिया और इनके अनुयायियों को चमार यानी अछूत चंडाल घोषित कर दिया। उनसे कारावास में खाल खिचवाने, खाल-चमड़ा पीटने, जुती बनाने इत्यादि काम जबरदस्ती कराया गया उन्हें मुसलमान बनाने के लिए बहुत शारीरिक कष्ट दिए। लेकिन उन्होंने कहा —–
”वेद धर्म सबसे बड़ा, अनुपम सच्चा ज्ञान,
फिर मै क्यों छोडू इसे, पढ़ लू झूठ कुरान.
वेद धर्म छोडू नहीं, कोसिस करो हज़ार,
तिल-तिल काटो चाहि, गोदो अंग कटार” (रैदास रामायण)
संत रैदास पर हो रहे अत्याचारों के प्रतिउत्तर में चंवर वंश के क्षत्रियों ने दिल्ली को घेर लिया। इससे भयभीत हो सिकन्दर लोदी को संत रैदास को छोड़ना पड़ा था।
संत रैदास का यह दोहा देखिए:
बादशाह ने वचन उचारा । मत प्यारा इसलाम हमारा ।।
खंडन करै उसे रविदासा । उसे करौ प्राण कौ नाशा ।।
जब तक राम नाम रट लावे । दाना पानी यह नहींपावे ।।
जब इसलाम धर्म स्वीकारे । मुख से कलमा आपा उचारै ।।
पढे नमाज जभी चितलाई । दाना पानी तब यह पाई ।
समस्या तो यह है कि आपने और हमने संत रविदास के दोहों को ही नहीं पढ़ा, जिसमें उस समय के समाज का चित्रण है जो बादशाह सिकंदर लोदी के अत्याचार, इस्लाम में जबरदस्ती धर्मांतरण और इसका विरोध करने वाले हिंदू ब्राहमणों व क्षत्रियों को निम्न कर्म में धकेलने की ओर संकेत करता है।
चंवरवंश के वीर क्षत्रिय जिन्हें सिकंदर लोदी ने ‘चमार’ बनाया और हमारे-आपके हिंदू पुरखों ने उन्हें अछूत बना कर इस्लामी बर्बरता का हाथ मजबूत किया।
इस समाज ने पददलित और अपमानित होना स्वीकार किया, लेकिन विधर्मी होना स्वीकार नहीं किया आज भी यह समाज हिन्दू धर्म का आधार बनकर खड़ा है।
Kinnaraya
Kinnaraya or Kinnarayo also Kinnara are a social group or caste amongst the Sinhalese of Sri Lanka. Like the Burakumin of Japan and Paraiyar of the Tamil Nadu state in South India, they were segregated from the mainstream society yet played a vital role as mat weavers for the mainstream community.As the mainstream Sinhalese speakers claim North Indian ethnic origins the presence of many South Indian type functional Jatis like the Kinnaraya indicate a complex migration history from India to Sri Lanka. But Kinnarayas do indicate vestiges of tribal origins like the other formerly untouchable caste of Rodiyas. Although they have become part and parcel of the caste structure albeit with a primary function associated with mat weaving. They are also used as agricultural workers, weavers and domestic help throughout the country.

Koli

Koli, Kori, Kol, Mandhata (कोली, कोरी, कोल)- Aboriginal tribes of India

Ashoka The Great from Koli Tribe

हम कौन हैं मेरे पुरखे कौन थे वे कहाँ से आए थे वे कैसे रहते थे

(‘Who am I? Who were my forefathers? Where did they come from? How did they live?)

Download this page in PDF format: Download History of Koli/Kori/Mandhata

“A time comes when each one of us asks, ‘Who am I? Who were my forefathers? Where did they come from? How did they live? What were their triumphs and tribulations?’ These and a number of others are some of the fundamental questions that we must find answers to, to get to learn about our roots.

In studying the aboriginal tribes of India, scholars have consulted our most ancient records and documents – the Vedas, the Puranas, the epics in different languages, many archaeological records and notes, and various other publications.


Students of history and anthropology have found numerous instances recorded in all prehistoric and established history of India, of a glowing past of this ancient tribe of India and more is being uncovered as research continues.
This article is based mainly on three publications written in Gujarati. An Ancient Tribe of Bharat – The History of Koli Tribe’ a book edited by Shree Bachoobhai Pitamber Kambed and published by Shree Talpoda Koli Community of Bhavnagar (First Edition 1961 and Second Edition 1981), an article by Shree Ramjibhai Santola published in Bombay Samachar in 1979 and a lengthy paper prepared by Dr. Arjun Patel in 1989 for presentation at the International Koli Samaj Conference in 1989.

The most ancient King Mandhata, a supreme and universal ruler whose reputation spread far and wide throughout India and whose stories of valor and yajna were described in the stone carvings of Mohanjo Daro, belonged to this tribe.

The most ancient and revered sage Valmiki, the author of Ramayana belonged to this tribe.

Koli Valmiki Ramayana
Even today Ramayana is referred to as Koli Valmiki Ramayan in Maharashtra State. Teachings from Ramayan form the basis of Indian culture.

The great king Chandra Gupta Mourya, and his line of descendant kings belonged to the Koli tribe.

Lord Budhha’s mother and his wife belonged to the Koli tribe. Sant Kabir, a weaver by trade, ended several of his ‘bhajans’ as ‘kahet kabir kori’ was a self-confessed Koli. Bhaktaraj Bhadurdas and Bhaktaraj Valram from Saurastra, Girnari Sant Velnathji from Junagadh, Bhaktaraj Jobanpagi, Sant Sri Koya Bhagat, Sant Dhudhalinath, Madan Bhagat, Sany Kanji Swami of 17th and 18th Century all belonged to the Koli tribe.

Their life and reputation were described in books of their life and in articles published in Mumbai Samachar, Nutan Gujarat, Parmarth etc.


In the State of Maharashtra, Sivaji’s Commander-in-Chief and several of his Generals belonged to this tribe. ‘A History of the Marathas’ note with pride the bravery of Sivaji’s army consisting mainly of Mavalis and Kolis. His General, Tanaji Rao Malusare, who was always referred to by Sivaji as ‘My Lion’ was a koli. When Tanaji fell fighting for and winning the ‘Kodana Fort’, Sivaji renamed the fort as ‘Sinhghadhh’ in his memory.

In the 1857 uprising a number of Koli women fighters played an important role in trying to save the life of the ‘Rani of Jhansi’. Among them was a very close colleague of the queen named 
Jhalkari. The Koli Samaj, thus, has given India and the world, great sons and daughters whose teachings are of universal import and of relevance to modern day living.
Mandhata Temple of Onkareshwar

Legend of our Ancient King Mandhata
Shree Ram is said to born as 25th generation after Mandhata. Ishvaku was anaother great King of the ‘Sun Dynasty Koli Kings’ and so Mandhata and Shree Ram were said to be of Ishvaku Sun Dynasty. This Dynasty later got divided into nine major sub groups, all claiming their roots to
the Kshtria Caste. They are: Malla, Janak, Videhi, Koliye, Morya, Lichchhvi, Janatri, Vajji, and Shakya.’

Archaeological findings, when pieced together, show Mandhata as belonging to Ishvaku – Sun Dynasty and his descendants were known as ‘Sun Dynasty Koli Kings’. They were known to be brave, illustrious and just rulers. Buddhist texts have numerous references proving this beyond doubt. The descendants of Mandhata played a vital role and our ancient Vedas, epics and other relics mention their important contributions in the art of war and state administration. They are referred to in our ancient Sanskrit books as Kulya, Kuliye, Koli Serp, Kolik, Kaul etc.

Early history – After Buddha
It was during the year 566 BC, when the Hindu religion became cruel and thoroughly degraded that Prince Gautam, later known to the world as Buddha (the enlightened one) was born in a little Kingdom by the river Rohini in a Himalayan valley in northwest India. Lord Buddha’s mother, Maha Maya was a Koli princess.

The teachings of Lord Buddha were seen as a threat to vested interests of the upper-caste Hindus. Soon, the teachings of Buddha was completely banished from India.

It appears that Koli Kingdoms with their relationship and affinity to Buddha suffered most from this persecution. Although the vast majority
never embraced Buddhist teachings, they been cold shouldered by others and suffered neglect from the rulers.

2000 Years After Lord Buddha
The upheaval must have proved too much for the Koli kingdoms. It appears that because of prolonged deprivations in the highly complex Hindu
society, a once powerful tribe, hardworking, skilled, loyal, self-sufficient but easily provoked into war, lost its central position.


A tribe that founded and built Bombay – named after the name of their Goddess, Mumba Devi, finds it hard even to this day to get into positions of political or academic influence. For centuries now, other tribes have looked down upon them and the resulting psychological effects were devastating for this entire community of Kshtrias.
The Present
In present day India, Kolis are found from Kashmir to Kanya Kumari and are known by slightly different names according to the languages of the regions. The following are some of the major groups: Koli Kshtria, Koli Raja, Koli Rajput, Koli Suryavanshi, Nagarkoli, Gondakoli, Koli Mahadev, Koli Patel, Koli Thakor, Bavraya, Tharkarda, Pathanvadia, Mein Koli, Koyeri, Mandhata Patel etc.


Koli Fishermen of Maharashtra
As an original tribe of India preferring to live in open agricultural landscape and coastal regions as clansman, the present day Kolis are a product of much intermarriage. It has been estimated that there are over 1040 subgroups all lumped together as Koli in the population census.

Kolis of Gujarat
Writers Anthovan and Dr. Wilson believe that the original settlers in Gujarat were Kolis and Adivasi Bhils. Ravbahadur Hathibhai Desai confirms
this to be so at the time of ruler Vanraj some 600 years ago. The very diverse ethnic groups represented now in the Gujarati population is said to be Vedic or Dravidian. These include the Nagar Brahman, Bhatia, Bhadela, Koli, Rabari, Mina, Bhangi,  Dubla, Naikda, and Macchi-Kharwa tribes. Parsis, originally from Persia, represent a much
later influx. The rest of the population is the Adivasi Bhil tribe.

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Bhils of Gujarat
While Kolis and Bhils may have been the original inhabitants of Gujarat they lost ground to the later arrivals and most likely settled near the coast and hills.

Kolis in particular with their affinity to Buddha suffered severe discrimination in earning a living. As an original Kshritya fighting caste, their one characteristic of being easily provoked to fight did not help. They may also be described as ruggedly individualistic more so at that time then now. For majority of them life even two hundred
years ago was one of severe hardship, bonded labor and indignity. That was the price they paid to submission.
A serious scholar of the peoples of Gujarat, Alice Clarke, believes that it was easy and rather opportunist to blame the Kolis for criminal activities. Kolis were too simple and were really the victims of the then prevailing social circumstances. Historian David Hardiman too held the same opinion. Whatever the truth, the negative reputation stayed with them for a very long time. The literature of the day described the villain characters in their stories as Kolis, thus scandalizing the whole tribe. Even today the stigma has not fully worn off.


Dandi March
When on 9th January 1920, Bapu returned to India from South Africa a number of people who were with him there returned also. Bapu had personal knowledge of the character of our people. So when the time came to decide the destination of the 1930 Salt March it was no accident that he chose Dandi, from among a number of choices and pressures from other interested parties. He was convinced of the ourage and the depth of understanding of our people in completing a project successfully. And so it proved.


In Conclusion
We cannot wholly blame other castes for our present conditions. History records with unceasing regularity the downfall of once powerful people who may have completely disappeared or reduced to pittance. In a world where survival of the fittest is the norm a people has to make great effort and sacrifice to unite under a wise leadership and start writing history again.

We have thousands of graduates and professionals, highly qualified doctors, dentists, lawyers, and skilled technocrats, living in their adopted countries and in India. They all seem to be using their skills to make money and in a race to acquire material goods and other minor pleasures. Material comforts are necessary but our priority must also be to safeguard and protect our religion, culture and tradition.

Vulnerability assessment of Goa's Lamani tribe

The Lamanis were known to live in the arid regions of Karnataka
The quest for livelihood
alternatives have forced the
Lamanis to move to Goa
Goa's booming tourism industry provides employment for migrants from across the country. Among them are the Goaarmattis, a tribal group popularly referred to as Lamanis. They hail from the underdeveloped arid regions of Karnataka where lack of viable livelihood alternatives forces them to move to neighbouring cities. Over the years, they have helped other family members migrate and today the Lamani community in Goa is a sizeable number. Initially employed in the construction sector, they have switched to tourism because of higher returns. Their presence on the beaches of Goa has raised concerns about sexual exploitation, which is commonly alluded to by locals, police, and social workers.
In this context, TERI undertook a study to assess the factors that make Lamani women and children in the state vulnerable to exploitation with a view to suggesting possible interventions. This study was conducted across Goa and Karnataka. In Goa, eight villages in the taluka of Bardez and Pednem, known to be flesh trade hotspots, were selected. In Karnataka, data was collected from the Lamani villages in Gadag and Bijapur.
The Lamani community is involved in tourism
A beachfront shop set up by a Lamani trader
Historically, the Lamanis were a nomadic tribe. In the 15-16th century, they were hired as agricultural labour but as diseases and natural calamity struck, their cattle were affected. They then turned to the forest for livelihood. But with the notification of forests as reserved and protected areas, they began to resort to crimes like dacoity, poaching etc. Some were also engaged in the preparation and illegal sale of alcohol. To have more control over the community, the British brought them under the Criminal Tribes Act 1871. Post-Independence, this Act was denotified and efforts were made to bring the Lamani community into the mainstream by providing them land for cultivation. However, with population growth and limited land holdings, they began migrating to cities and towns in search of livelihood.
Their interaction with tourists makes them vulnerable to trafficking
A Lamani woman selling her wares at a night market
The Lamanis have strong community loyalties and remain marginalised from mainstream society. Issues involving the tribe are brought before their Jaat Panchayat (i.e. a group of tribal elders) which recommends action. A strong patriarchal system ensures that women are not represented in this body and dependent on their male counterparts. In fact, most of the women have low literacy levels. They are poor and debt-ridden. This makes them vulnerable to traffickers, many of whom pose as labour contractors. The involvement of the community in tourist trade further exacerbates their vulnerability. There is constant interaction with international tourists and the incidence of community members travelling abroad is noticeable. Case studies point to the role of the community members as perpetrators.
More women are trying to integrate in mainstream society
Low literacy levels and strong patriarchal system makes Lamani 
women dependent on the male counterpart
The study also focused on interventions to prevent, mitigate, and combat trafficking among Lamani women and children (see box). Among other recommendations was the proposal to set up a monitoring committee to ensure proper coordination among various agencies. The women and child department, Government of Goa and Karnataka can take the lead in establishing such a committee, which will coordinate the interventions that are to be executed by various agencies, monitor and report the progress made by various players in the context of trafficking. International agencies like UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) can also help in this endeavour.
Policymakers also need to respond to the growing problem of sex tourism involving vulnerable groups. The local law enforcement authorities need to understand the plight of migrant communities and be better equipped to enforce laws and protect the vulnerable. The recommendations of the study can be replicated for other migrant groups with similar vulnerability patterns across the country.

Madiga
Madiga or Maadiga or Maadigar or Maadar is a Scheduled Caste that is found primarily in the southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, KarnatakaMaharastra. They are also referred to by other names such as Maatangi, Makkalu, Madigowd and Madigaru.
Madigas traditional occupation was leather-working, and it was the work of Madigas to produce leather goods. They were also skilled drummers.

Like all castes in India, today they generally believe in prestigious origins (see Sanskritisation). One such theory speculates that Madiga is derived from Sanskrit word Maha-Adiga which can be loosely translated as great and oldest. Madiga is one of the oldest caste.




























































Mahar
The Mahar are an Indian community historically identified as Untouchables, found largely within Maharashtra (where they comprise 10% of the population) and neighboring states. As Untouchables they were assigned a very low status in Hinduism, and as a result a majority of the Mahar community followed social reformer B. R. Ambedkar in converting to Buddhism in the early 20th century
The 19th century activist and social reformer Jyotirao Phule posited that the Mahars are indigenous people of India belong to Kshatriya (warrior) varna, and they were conquered by Aryans,  race, which came from beyond Indus region to invade India and the established caste system for their social control. The Mahar fought with them as a result their ancestors were singled out as untouchables. Phule proposed etymologies "great/terrible enemy" (maha meaning great and arior art meaning enemy). or "those who take away dead animals" (mrit har). In turn, the name of Maharashtra state is possibly derived from "land of the Mahars"

Mala
Mala or Malla (different from the family/last name Malla from Andhra) is a social group or caste mostly from the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Mala is derived from the Sanskrit malla, which means wrestler. They are one of the dominant Dalit castes in Andhra Pradesh, the other being Madigas.
According to Government of India census data from 2001, Malas constitute a total of 41.6 percent (5,139,305) of the scheduled caste population of the state. They are largely concentrated in the Coastal Andhra region. During the Adi-Andhra movement of the 1930s, several Mala caste people, including few Madigas, especially from coastal Andhra called themselves as 'Adi-Andhra' and were recorded in the census with the 'Adi-Andhra' caste name akin toAdi Dravida of Tamil Nadu. (Adi-Andhra is synonym word instead of using MALA or Madiga, in Adi-Andhra Malas are 90% and 10% belonged to Madiga caste). In the ancient times, Malas were mostly village watchmen or hardworking laborers. They were skilled workers too and were also recruited by the British Army because of their martial skills. Presently they don't have a specific caste profession and can be seen in many professions.

Mang 

The Mang or Matang (Minimadigin Gujarat and Rajasthan) community is an Indian caste, historically associated with low-status or ritually impure professions such as village musicians, cattle castraters, leather curers, midwives, hangmen, undertakers, and criminals. In the modern day they are listed as a Scheduled Caste, a designation which has replaced the former term Untouchable.Their origins lie in the Narmada Valley of India, and they were formerly classified as a criminal tribe under the Criminal Tribes Acts of the British Raj


Matang
Matang is a Dalit caste in the Indian states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. Matangs are known as Madigas in Andhra Pradesh.
References to Matang are found in ancient Jain literature. According to Jain literature,Vinami, the great grandson of Rishabh the first Teerthankar of Jainism, was the founder of Matang race. Suparshvanath, the 7th Teerthankar of Jainism himself was a Matang. His Yaksha (attendant god) was also a Matang. The Yaksha of Mahavir the 24th Teerthankar was also a Matang. Matang Yaksha is Jain God of Prosperity.In rural areas, they manufacture items like ropes, brooms, etc., and supply these items to farmers. To obtain a sight of a Matang is considered as a holy sign in villages.

 Mochi
The Mochi are Hindu. They are spread across entire India and are found in the states of Punjab, West Bengal,Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Gujarat
The Mochi of Uttar Pradesh claim to have originated in Rajasthan. Historically, the community was involved in the manufacture of protective leather dresses for soldiers, and the community are closely associated with the Rajput community. They share gotra names with the Rajput community. They have the following sub-groups, the Sinolia, Sasendia, Sonwal, and Nidaria. The Mochi are involved in the manufacture of leather shoes for example Nike, Fila, Adidas, etc.

Musahar

The Musahar are a Hindu scheduled caste found in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in India, and Terai. They are also known as Arya or Banbasi, or in Bihar as Rajwar, and on the plateau as Manjhi.The Musahar were traditionally rat catchers, and there is still uncertainty as to their exact origin. This Hindu Mythology story shows how they are perceived in the traditional indian society, Parmashwar (the Hindu creation god) created man and gave him a horse to ride. The first Musahar decided to dig holes in the belly of the horse to fix his feet as he rode. This offended Parmeshwar, who punished them by making them rat catchers. They are found in eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and north Madhya Pradesh. The Musahar speak the Bhojpuri dialect of Hindi.
In Bihar, the word Musahar is said to be derived from moos, a local Bhojpuri word for a rat, on account of their traditional occupation as rat catchers. The Bihari Rajwar self-identify as Rajvanshi Kshatryia.

The Musahar consists of three sub-groups, the Bhagat, Sakatiya and Turkahia. Each of these clans are endogamous. The Musahar were once rat catchers, but this activity has been abandoned. They are now mainly landless agricultural labourers. They are one of the most marginalized groups in India, and have suffered discrimination. Although the Musahar are Hindu, they believe in a number of tribal deities.

In Bihar, the Musahar are employed in the stone quaries of the state. Many have also emigrated to the states of Punjab and Haryana, and are employed as agricultural labourers. They speak Bhojpuri, but many now have working knowledge of Hindi. The Musahar are found throughout Bihar.
In the rural areas, Musahar are primarily bonded agricultural labourers, but often go without work for as much as eight months in a year. Children work alongside their parents in the fields or as rag pickers, earning as little as 25 to 30 rupees daily. The Musahar literacy rate is 3 percent, but falls below 1 percent among women. By some estimates, as many as 85 percent of some villages of Musahars suffer from malnutrition and with access to health centres scant, diseases such as malaria and kala-azar, the most severe form of leishmaniasis, are prevalent.
The Government of Bihar operates the Mahadalit Mission, which partially funds some programs to expand education and other social welfare programs for the Musahar. An example is the Prerna schools operated by Sudha Varghese, residential schools for Musahar girls that include vocational training in the curriculum. Varghese also operates Nari Gunjan, which has 50 centres teaching 1500 Musahar girls throughout Bihar.








Thursday, May 26, 2011


मेघवंश इतिहास (meghwansh history)

मेघवंश इतिहास
भारतवर्ष के सभ्यता इतिहास में पुरातन सभ्यताऐं सिन्धु घाटी, मोहनजोदडो जैसी सम्पन्न सभ्यताओं के पुरातन प्राप्त अवशेषों एवं भारत के कई प्राचीन ऋषि ग्रंथों में मेघवाल समाज की उत्पत्ति एवं उन्नति की जानकारीयां मिली हैं. साथ ही समाज के प्रात: स्मरणीय स्वामी गोकुलदास जी द्वारा सदग्रंथों से प्राप्त जानकारी के आधार पर भी समाज के सृजनहार ऋषि मेघ का विवरण ज्ञात हुआ है. मेघवाल इतिहास गौरवशाली ऋषि परम्पराओं वाला तथा शासकीय स्वरूप वाला रहा है. मेघऋषि का इतिहास भारत के उत्तर-पश्चिमी भूभाग की सरसब्ज सिन्धुघाटी सभ्यता के शासक एवं धर्म संस्थापक के रूप में रहा है जो प्राचीनकाल में वस्त्र उद्दोग, कांस्यकला तथा स्थापत्यकला का विकसित केन्द्र रहा था. संसार में सभ्यता के सूत्रधार स्वरूप वस्त्र निर्माण की शुरू आत भगवान मेघ की प्रेरणा से स्वयं भगवान शिव द्वारा ऋषि मेघ के जरिये कपास का बिजारोपण करवाकर कपास की खेती विकसित करवाई गयी थी. जो समस्त विश्व की सभ्यताओं के विकास का आधार बना. समस्त उत्तर-पश्चिमी भूभाग पर मेघऋषि के अनुयायियों एवं वंशजों का साम्राज्य था. जिसमें लोगों का प्रजातांत्रिक तरीके से विकास हुआ था जहां पर मानवमात्र एकसमान था. लेकिन भारत में कई विदेशी कबीले आये जिनमें आर्य भी एक थे, उन्होंने अपनी चतुराई एवं बाहुबल से इन बसे हुये लोगों को खंडित कर दिया तथा उन लोगों क|


सम्पूर्ण भारत में बिखर जाने लिये विवस कर दिया. चूंकि आर्य समुदाय शासक के रूप में एवं सभी संसाधनों के स्वामी के रूप में यहां स्थापित हो चुके थे उन्होंने अपने वर्णाश्रम एवं ब्राह्मणी संस्कृति को यहां थोप दिया था. ऐसी हालत में उनसे हारे हुये मेघऋषि के वंशजों को आर्यों‌ द्वारा नीचा दर्जा दिया गया. जिसमें आज के वर्तमान के सभी आदिवासी, दलित एवं पिछडे लोग शामिल थेभारत में स्थापित आर्य सभ्यता वालों ने यहां पर अपने अनुकुल धर्म, परमपरायें एवं नियम, रिवाज आदि कायम कर दिये थे जिनमें श्रम सम्बन्धि कठिन काम पूर्व में बसे हुये लोगों पर थोपकर उनसे निम्नता का व्यवहार किया जाना शुरू कर दिया था तथा उन्हें पुराने काल के राक्षस, नाग, असुर, अनार्य, दैत्य आदि कहकर उनकी छवि को खराब किया गया. इन समूहों के राजाओं के धर्म को अधर्म कहा गया था. इस प्रकार इतिहास के अंशों को देखकर मेघऋषि के वंशजों को अपना गौरवशाली अतीत पर गौरवान्वित होना चाहिये तथा वर्तमान व्यवस्था में ब्राह्मणवादी संस्कृति के थोपी हुई मान्यताओं को नकारते हुये कलियुग में भगवान रामदेव एवं बाबा साहेब भीमराव आम्बेडकर के बताये आदर्शों पर अमल करते हुये अपने अधिकार प्राप्त करने चाहिये. समाज में मेघवंश को सबल बनाने के लिये स्वामी गोकुलदासजी महाराज, गरीबदास जी महाराज जैसे संत हुये हैं जिन्होंने मेघवाल समाज के गौरव को भारत के प्राचीन ग्रंथों से समाज की उत्पत्ति एवं विकास का स्वरूप उजागर कर हमें हमारा गौरवशाली अतीत बताया है. तथा हमें निम्नता एवं कुरीतियों का त्याग कर सत कर्मों की ओर बड़ने का मार्ग दिखाया है. मेघवंश इतिहास :- मेघजाति की उत्पत्ति एवं निकास की खोज स्वामी गोकुलदासजी महाराज डूमाडा (अजमेर) ने अपनी खोज एवं लेखन के जरिये मेघवाल समाज की सेवा में प्रस्तुत की है जो इस प्रकार है; सृष्टि के आदि में श्रीनारायण के नाभिकमल से ब्रह्मा, ब्रह्मा ने सृष्टि रचाने की इच्छा से सनक, सनन्दन, सनातन, सन्तकुमार इन चार ऋषियों को उत्पन्न किया लेकिन ये चारों नैष्टिक ब्रह्मचारी रहे फिर ब्रह्मा ने दस मानसी पुत्रों को उत्पन्न किया. मरीचि, अत्रि अंगिरा, पुलस्त्व, पुलह, क्रतु, भृगु, वशिष्ट, दक्ष, और नारद. ब्रह्मा ने अपने शरीर के दो खण्ड करके दाहिने भाग से स्वायम्भुव मनु (पुरूष) और बाम भाग से स्तरूपा (स्त्री) को उत्पन्न करके मैथुनी सृष्टि आरम्भ की. स्वायम्भु मनु स्तरुपा से 2 पुत्र - उत्तानपाद और प्रियव्रत तथा 3 कन्याऐं आकुति, प्रसूति, देवहूति उत्पन्न हुई. स्वायम्भु मनु की पुत्री आकुति का विवाह रूचिनाम ऋषि से, प्रसूति का दक्ष प्रजापति से और देवहुति का कर्दम ऋषि से कर दिया. कर्दम ऋषि के कपिल मुनि पैदा हुये जिन्होंने सांख्य शास्त्र बनाया. कर्दम ऋषि के 9 कन्याऐं हुई जिनका विवाह: कला का मरीचि से, अनुसूया का अत्रि से, श्रद्धा का अंगिरा ऋषि से, हवि का पुलस्त्य ऋषि से, गति का पुलह से, योग का क्रतु से, ख्याति का भृगु से, अरुन्धति का वशिष्ट से और शांति का अर्थवन से कर दिया. ब्रह्माजी के पुत्र वशिष्ट ऋषि की अरुन्धति नामक स्त्री से मेघ, शक्ति आदि 100 पुत्र उत्पन्न हुये. इस प्रकार ब्रह्माजी के पौत्र मेघ ऋषि से मेघवंश चला. वशिष्ट ऋषि का वंश सूर्यवंश माना जाता है. ब्रह्माजी के जिन दस मानसी पुत्रों का वर्णन पीछे किया गया है उन ऋषियों से उन्हीं के नामानुसार गौत्र चालू हुये जो अब तक चले आ रहे हैं. ब्रह्माजी के ये पुत्र, पौत्र और प्रपौत्र ही गुण कर्मानुसार चारों वर्णों में विभाजित हुये| श्रीमदभागवत में एक कथा आती है कि मान्धाता के वंश में त्रिशंकु नामक एक राजा हुये, वह सदेह स्वर्ग जाने के लिये यज्ञ की इच्छा करके महर्षि वशिष्ट के पास गये और इस प्रकार यज्ञ करने के लिये कहा. वशिष्ट‌जी ने यह कहकर इन्कार कर दिया कि मुझे ऐसा यज्ञ कराना नहीं आता. यह सुनकर वह वशिष्ट‌जी के 100 पुत्रों के पास जाकर उनसे यज्ञ करने को कहा. तब उन्होंने उस राजा त्रिशंकु को श्राप दिया कि तू हमारे गुरू का वचन झूंठा समझकर हमारे पास आया है इसलिये तू चांडाल हो जायेगा, वह चांडाल हो गया. फिर वह ऋषि विश्वामित्र के पास गया, विश्वामित्र ने उसकी चांडाल हालत देखकर कहा कि हे राजा तेरी यह दशा कैसे हुई. त्रिशंक ने अपना सारा वृतान्त कह सुनाया. विश्वामित्र उसका यह वृतान्त सुनकर अत्यन्त क्रोधित हुये और उसका वह यज्ञ कराने की स्वीकृति दे दी विश्वामित्र ने राजा त्रिशंकु के यज्ञ में समस्त ब्राह्मणों को आमंत्रण किया मगर वशिष्ट ऋषि और उनके 100 पुत्र यज्ञ में सम्मिलित नहीं हुये. इस पर विश्वामित्र ने उनको श्राप दिया कि तुम शूद्रत्व को प्राप्त हो जावो. उनके श्राप से वशिष्ट ऋषि की सन्तान मेघ आदि 100 पुत्र शूद्रत्व को प्राप्त हो गये|



 Mehvansh History

Indus Valley civilization in the history of India ancient Sshhytऐan, Mohanjoddo ancient civilizations like the rich get the remains and ancient sage of India, many texts have been found Jankahariyon Meghwal social origin and advancement. Society as well as morning memorable live by owner Goculdas Sadgrnthoan based on information from the one who created the society has known the details of cloud sage. The glorious history and traditions Meghwal sage is the official format. Mehऋhay north of India's history - the ruler of the western territory of the Sarsbg Sinrdhuhatie civilization and religion which in antiquity as the founder's Clothing Bottling, Kansiklah and architecture of the center was developed. Anchor format beginning of civilization in the world textile manufacturing Ah the inspiration of God, cloud sage cloud by Lord Shiva himself by getting through the cotton Biazaropn develop cotton cultivation was arranged. Which form the basis for the development of all world civilizations. All north - western territory of the empire was on the Mehऋhay followers and descendants. The democratic way in which people had grown where Amanwamatr was identical. But which Aryans came to India, many foreign clan was also, he settled in with his cleverness and muscle power was fragmented and people find them a | 



Aivss for the whole of India to be scattered. As ruler of the Aryan community and all the resources had been established here as the owner and his Warahnashram Brahmani culture was imposed here. Mehऋhay find her lost in such a situation by the descendants of the Aryans were inferior status. In which all of today's current tribal, Dalit and backward people Theaarat including those established in the Aryan civilization favorable religion on here, Parmparayaean and rules, customs, etc. were given to maintain better than working hard labor in which people find previously settled Thopakar lows them began to be treated and the old time monster, snake, demon, Anary, monster, etc., saying his reputation was bad. Kings of the groups were asked the religion of wrongdoing. Looking at the types of degrees of history Mehऋhay should be proud descendants of their glorious past and the present system was imposed beliefs deny the Brahminical culture and Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Ramdev find God in Kaliyuga ideals set forth the find to execute their rights want to. To make a strong society Mehvansh Gokuladassji owner chef, who find Ghariebadass Maharaj Sant Meghwal community pride as India's ancient texts reveal the nature of the society's origin and development have told us our glorious past. And lows and we sacrificed Kuretioan St. deeds have shown the way toward Brne. Mehvansh History: - Mehzati find the origin and drainage master chef Gokuladassji Duamada (Ajmer) Meghwal through its search and writing in the service of society is presented as follows; of creation etc. of Srinarayan Nbhikamal Brahma, Brahma the creation by the will of Archane craze, Snanadan, eternal, Ssntkumar these four sages are generated but then the four Nashtika Brahmachari Brahma generated ten Mansi sons. Marechi, Atri Aangira, Pulasta, Pualah, Krtu, Hrgu, Ashisht, efficient, and Narada. Brahma the right part of your body by two bays Aswayamhuv Manu (male) and part balm Astrup (female) by generating the creation Methuni launched. Manu Aswayambhu Astrupo 2 sons - and 3 Kaneyaऐan Akuti Utthanpead and Priywarat, maternity, Deohuti occurred. Aswayambhu Akuti married the daughter of Manu Ruacinam sage, the efficient delivery of the Creator and Deohuti sage has Kardam. Kardam sage Kapil Muni who find creating digital made scripture. Kardam sage whose marriage was Kaneyaऐan 9: Art of Marechi, Anusuaya from the Atri, sage Aangira of trust, the Pulasty Ahavi sage, the speed of Pualah yoga Krtu, the reputation of Hrgu, by Arundhati Ashisht of and peace be with Arthven. Brahmaji woman's son called Arundhati Ashisht cloud of sage, power, etc. 100 son occurred. Thus, cloud sage's grandson Brahmaji run Mehvansh. Ashisht Suryvansh considered descendants of the sage. Description of the ten sons of Brahmaji Mansi is back from the sages who find them on the Neamanusar Gutr are still standing. These Brahmaji son, grandson and great-grandson Karmaanusar the property divided into four characters find | Shrimedhagwat comes a story that hung dynasty, a king of Mandhaato find, by the desire to sacrifice for the material to Heaven went to Maharishi and Ashisht thus asked to sacrifice. Ashishtji refused by saying that I do not like to sacrifice it. The hearing of the Ashishtji 100 sons to sacrifice to go and told him. Then he cursed the king hung Zwantha mistaking the word that you come to us is our teacher so you will be Chandaal, he was Chandaal. Then he went to sage Vishwamitra, Vishwamitra saw her Chandaal condition that state how it was your king. Trishank narrated his whole episode saying. Vishwamitra her very angry to hear this episode and find it to make the sacrifice Vishwamitra approved at the sacrifice of King Hung has invited all the Brahmins and their 100 sons sacrifice but not included in the Wiseman Ashisht other. By the Vishwamitra cursed them get to you Zavo Ashudratav. Descendants of the sage cursed him Ashisht cloud, etc. to achieve the 100 sons Ashudratav |














































Nat

Those of Bihar claim a Rajput origin, and have traditions similar to the Bazigar caste. The word nat in Sanskrit means a dancer, and the Nat were traditionally entertainers and jugglers. They have fourteen sub-groups, being the Nituria, Rarhi, Chhabhayia, Tikulhara, Tirkuta, Pushtia, Rathore, Kazarhatia, Kathbangi, Banwaria, Kougarh, Lodhra, Korohia, and Gulgulia or Gauleri. The Nat maintain strict clan exogamy, and each clan of equal status. In Punjab, the Nat claim to be by origin Brahmin of Marwar, whose duty was supply funeral pyres. On a particular occasion, as the community was transporting the funeral pyre, a member of the party died. This was seen as a bad omen, and the community were outcastes. They therefore took the occupation of dancing. They are closely connected with the Bazigar community, who are the jugglers of Punjab. But the two communities remain distinct, and do not intermarry. The community have Scheduled Caste status, and are found mainly in the districts of Gurdaspur and Amritsar.
In Haryana, according, Nat traditions say that they are descended from two Chamar brothers, Asa and Basa. The community is divided along religious lines, with a separate and distinct community of Muslim Nat. There traditional occupation was that of an acrobat and entertainer, and provided entertainment to the courts of the various princes.
Present circumstances

Biha

The community is now associated with cattle trading, with poorer members being professional beggars. Like other nomadic communities they are extremely marginalised. The Nat are Hindu, and with a small number who have converted to Islam and form a distinct community of Muslim Nats. They speak the Magahi language and are found in Gaya, Bhojpur and Rohtas districts.
Punjab
The Nat are a poor landless community and they are mainly engaged as unskilled labourers. They have now abandoned their traditional occupation of rope dancing. The community is strictly endogamous, and consist of a number of clans, the main ones being the Virk, Muchal, Bhati, Chauhan and Puwar. Like other Hindu communities, they practice clan exogamy. The community was nomadic, but they are now settled. They remain one of the most marginal communities in Punjab.

Haryana

The Nat in Haryana remain a semi-nomadic community found mainly in the districts of karnal, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Rohtak. They speak the Haryanvi language and understand Hindi. The Nat consist of a number of exogamous clans, the main ones being the Dagariya, Sansebar, Baraike, Khoyareke, Paharike, Nangariye, Dhadhasiya, Palike, Jirmichya, Dangiya, Kotiya, Shirkarake, Dilwati, Occhluke, Rashidiya, and Badanke. The Nat are no longer involved in their traditional occupation, and are now largely landless agriculture workers, migrating to different places in search of employment.

Bajania Nat

Bajania Nat get their name from the Hindi word bajana, which means to play a musical instruments. They were traditionally the acrobats and tumblers of village India. The Bajania are largely a nomadic community, with the community establishing camps at the end of villages. The Nat are further divided into five groups, the Karnat, Kalabaz, who are also known as Thakur Nat, the Kabutar Bhanmata, the Chamar Nat, and finally the Muslim Nat, which are now practically a separate and distinct community. Each of these sub-grouping was associated with a particular occupation, the Karnat were singers, while the Kalabaz were acrobats. The five sub-divisions are further sub-divided into clans, known as gotras. Among the Karnat, the main gotras are the Mutana, Chapaneri, Rangni, Nakna, Sakodaria, Makriyana and Gagolia. Marriages are strictly prohibited within the clan. With the exception of the Muslim Nat, all the subgroups are Hindu and their tribal deities are Kali Maiya and Bundela.[5]
The traditional occupation of the Nat in Uttar Pradesh was village entertainer, and they were acrobats, jugglers, tightrope walkers and singers. With the growth in televisions, the community has seen a decline in their traditional occupations, which has led to a decline in their economic circumstances. This is seen in the prevalence of child labour among the community. Furthermore, as a Dalit community, they often suffer from societal discrimination. Each of their encampment consists of a caste council, known as path. The panth resolves intra community disputes, and also acts as a crude welfare association.

Brijbasi Nat

The Brijbasi Nat name figuratively means an inhabitant of Brij or modern day Mathura, and as such they are a territorial grouping, their name meaning the Nat of Braj country. The community is found mainly in Farrukhabad, Shahjahanpur, Hardoi, Bareilly, Budaun, Mainpuri, Etawah and Agra districts. They speak Braj Bhasha and are Hindus. The Brijbasi have Durga as their tribal deity.

They are strictly endogamous, and practice clan exogamy. The Brijbasi community consists of seven clans, namely the Bijrawat, Dharam Saut, Kakera,gwal, Kurra, Mucchar and Wadaut. Marriages are strictly prohibited within the clan. The Brijbasi are a landless community, and they are mainly musicians and dancers. At the time of social functions, they are required to perform for their patrons, who tend to belong to the locally dominant castes. But a greater number are now employed as wage labourers. They live in multi-caste villages, but occupy their own distinct quarters. As a Dalit community, they often suffer from societal discrimination. Each of their settlement contains an informal caste council, known as a biradari panchayat. The panchayat acts as instrument of social control, dealing with issues such as divorce and adultery.
Nalavar
Nalavar also Nalava is a Sri Lankan Tamil caste of traditional agriculturalists and toddy tapers. But today they are found in all aspects of the society. They are part of a new amalgamation of castes inJaffna peninsula called as Panchamar or Fives. They are Ambatar or barbers, Vannar or washers, Nallavar, Pallar and Parayar.
It is a unique caste as one of the Tamil castes that is not found in Tamil Nadu (see Koviar). Some have assumed this to be due to indigenous development where as others have speculated that it is a Tamil social group that assumed independent identity in Sri Lanka. Those who assume an indigenous origin say that Nalavar are derived from a Sinhalese social group speculated to be Nilavothat was left behind during the ascendancy of the Jaffna Kingdom where as competing theory suggests that Nalavar are similar in composition to Sanar or Nadar of Tamil nadu who have a different local name.

Nethakani
Nethakani, also known as Netkani,Mala Sale sub-caste of Sale, is a Telugu caste of cotton weavers and labourers.These people were migrated from Maharashtra and spread over middle India and southern parts of Indian. In Maharashtra Nethakanis are known as Netkani Caste people. Traditionally they have been associated with the occupation of weaving (netha neyuta means "weaving" in Telugu), but they have now largely moved to cultivation and agricultural labour; with a few of them being small land-owners. According to Bhadravathi Kalyana Natakamu, a folk-drama which hasbeen published, the Nethakani are one among the four sections of Padmasaliyulu who are the sons of one Bhavana Rushi. The Four sections mentioned in this drama are Padmiyulu, Padmasakhiyulu, Padmasalikulu and Padmapulindulu. Padma-pulindulu was the Original Name of the Nethakani. From Padmapulindulu, the name became Chenethakanivaru, which in course of time changed to the present form, Nethakani. Most of the people related to this caste are located in the northern region of theIndian state of Andhra Pradesh in the districts of AdilabadKarimnagarNizamabad, Khammam and Warangal. Nethakanis also migrated to Maharashtra and distributed throughout, they speak Marathi in Maharashtra & Adilabad bordering MH. Nethekanis are classified as a scheduled caste (SC) in India, Nethakani's are among the smaller SC castes in Andhra Pradesh; a study estimated their population to be around 80,000, constituting about 1% of the state's total SC population

Orh
The Orh are a Hindu caste found in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand in India. They have been granted Scheduled Caste status in both these states, and are also known as Mistri and Raj .The Orh are one of number of communities of Dom origin found in the Kumaon and Garhwal areas of Uttarakhand. There traditional occupation is that of a mason, and according to the their traditions, they originated in western Nepal, where many are still found. The Orh either speak Kumaoni or Garhwali, although most can also understand Hindi.

Pallar
The Pallar (previouslMallar) is a caste from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. They are mostlyagriculturalists in Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka and amongst the Tamil diaspora.They prefer to call themselves Mallar or Devendra Kula Velalar.
A number of historians support the argument that the Pallar are the same community as that formerly called Mallar in the region.According to ancient Sangam literature, the Pallar is an ancient group of people originating in the Marutam land. The land was said to be good for agriculture, and situated near a river.As they were the producers of food grains, they lived with self respect...and agriculturists (Mallars) were the most respected community. They claim themselves to be the descendants of Devendran (the god of Marutham) Land

Panchpiria
The word panchpiria literally in Urdu means a follower of five pirs or Sufi holy men, from the Urdu word for five which is panch, and pir or holyman. This community gets its name from the fact that they are devotees of five sufi saints, Ghjazi Mian, Rajab Salar, Subhan Parihar and Bade Purukh. They are Muslim converts from the Bind caste. The Panchipiria are found mainly in the Doab region of western Uttar Pradesh. There customs are similar to the Lal Begi, another Muslim community that have been traditionally been involved in sweeping and scavenging.The Panchipiria are endogamous, and marry close kin. They speak both Urdu and the Khari bolidialect of Hindi. Their economic status is precarious, with many Panchpiria employed as street cleaners by many municipalities in western Uttar Pradesh. They are entirely landless, with many employed as wage labourers. The Panchpiria are also employed by the Shia community to play the shanai instruments during the Muharram festival.

Paraiyar
Paraiyar or Parayar (in the past, anglicised as Pariah) is a caste group found in the Indian state of Tamil Naduand Kerala. In Tamil Nadu though they have been enumerated under three different caste names asParaiyanSamban and Adi Dravida, they have generally been referred to as Paraiyar. In northern Tamil Nadu they are known as Paraiyar, in southern Tamil Nadu they are known as Samban. Paraiyan and samban are synonymous with Adi Dravida.
The Indian census of 2001 reported that in Tamil Nadu the Adi Dravida population was about 5,402,755 and the Paraiyar population as 1,860,519.

Pasi
The Pasi are one of the untouchable communities (ordalits) who are now classified as a Scheduled Casteunder modern India's system of positive discrimination. As untouchables, they were traditionally considered outside the Hindu ritual ranking system of castes . They are found in the northern Indian states of BiharDelhiHaryana and Uttar Pradesh as well in theTerai region of Nepal
In Bihar, the Pasi are also known as the Chaudhary. The community were traditionally connected withtoddy tapping. They are found throughout Bihar, and speak the Magadhi dialect of Hindi. They have four sub-divisions, namely the Tirsulia, Gaiduha, Kamani and Byadha. In addition to toddy tapping, the community now are also involved in a number of activities such as petty business

 Patharkat
The Patharkat are a sub-group of the larger Kanjar caste. Their name Patharkat in Hindi literally means stone cutters. Having taken up the profession of stone cutting, this particular group of Kanjarsbroke all links with the parent community, and the two communities do not now intermarry. They are found mainly in Awadh, and their concentrations are in the districts of SitapurUnnao, Raebareli,Hardoi and Lucknow. In Lucknow, they are found mainly in the localities of Qaisar Bagh, Saafatgang, Daligang, Bangla Bazar, Nishatgang, Lal Kuan and Chinhat. They speak Ghiarai among themselves and Hindi with outsiders.
In Bihar, the Patharkat are found in the districts of Champaran, Arrah and Gaya. They are divided into seven exogamous clans, the Sankat, Sanda, Bhains, Marriya, Uthwar, Lahia and Baid. The Patharkat claim to have comme from Rajasthan some three hundred years ago.

Pardhi
Pardhi or Phasse Pardhi are a tribe in India. The tribe often faces harassment by Indian law enforcement agencies. The tribe is found mostly in Maharashtra and parts of Madhya Pradesh. The Phasse are a sub tribe of the Pardhi caste, which includes sub-castes like Gav-Paradhi, Berad-Paradhi, Gai-Paradhi, Chita-Paradhi. The Passe number 60,000, with 10,000 child beggars and only 3,000 literates in Mumbai alone. Pardhi is the term for "hunter". Widely found surnames among them include Chauhan, Pawar and Solanke.

History

The Pardhis claim descent from the Rajputs.
The criminal branding of the tribe goes back to 1871 after the British passed the "Criminal Tribes Act". About a hundred and fifty tribes were branded as criminal, and the police were given sweeping powers to arrest them and watch over their movements.
T. V. Stephens, a British officer at that time quoted:
"... people from time immemorial have been pursuing the caste system defined job-positions: weaving, carpentry and such were hereditary jobs. So there must have been hereditary criminals also who pursued their forefathers’ profession."
Volume XII of the 1880 Bombay Presidency Gazette has further comments about the group stating:
"They are still fond of hunting and poaching and have not got rid of their turn for thieving.... The Phase Pardhi [a sub-tribe] is nearly always ragged and dirty, walking with a sneaking gait."
In 1952, the tribe was denotified as "criminal" and named as a nomadic tribe. However this has not changed the public perception of the tribe, and they continue to be stigmatized and live as outcasts, further aggravating their backwardness and economic hardships.
Another Paradhi tribe called the Gav-Paradhi, settled primarily in the Amravati District Maharashtra, escaped the label of 'criminal tribe' as they were mostly agriculturalists.
Pulayar
The PulayarPulaya, or Pulayas or Holeya or Cheramar, are one of the main social groups found in Kerala, Karnataka and in historical Tamil Naduor Tamilakam.The spiritual life of the Pulaya includes certain ancient magic rituals and practices that have a certain reputation. Members of the mainstream community may consult Pulaya sorcerers (Manthrikavadi) in Kerala, for advice.
Pulayas are noted for their music, craftsmanship, and for certain dances which include Kōlam-thullal, a mask dance which is part of their exorcism rituals, as well as the Mudi-āttam or hair-dance which has its origins in a fertility ritual. According to the 2001 Census, the Pulayan population in Kerala stands at 1,041,540 forming 3.27% of the total population of Kerala

Rai Sikh
Rai Sikh are members of the Mahtam ethnic group who have converted to the Sikh faith. The term Mahtam is now used mainly for those members of this ethnic group who profess Hinduism and Islam. Historically, the majority of the Rai Sikh were found in territory that is now Pakistan, mainly in Sahiwal, and Multan districts, and the erstwhile Bahawalpur State. A small number were also found along the banks of the Sutlej in Jalandhar and Firozpur districts, as well the princely state of Kapurthala. In terms of distribution, the Rai Sikh are found mainly in over two hundred villages in Firozpur District, sixty villages in Kapurthala District, fifty villages in Jalandhar and Ludhiana districts. In neighbouring Haryana, the Rai Sikh are now found in the districts of Karnal, Hissar and Kurukshetra. Almost of all these are refugees from Shaikhupura District in Pakistan.


Sections of the Rai Sikh were declared a criminal tribe under the Criminal Tribes Act by the British colonial authorities in India. After independence, they were denotified in 1952, when the Criminal Tribes Act was replaced with the Habitual Offenders Actand on that basis members of the community have demanded that they be granted Scheduled Caste, which has been denied to them. They are found all across the Pakistan-India border . mainly they are living in north India and rajasthan.the government of India provide them shelter and land nearby border areas.

Rattal
The Rattal are a Hindu caste found in the Indian administered area of Jammu and Kashmir. They have been granted Scheduled Caste status. According to the 2001 Census of India, their population was 13,327.
The Rattal are a community that were traditionally involved in the removal of carcasses and skinning for leather. An important subsidiary occupation was the weaving of baskets. The Rattal are grouped along with other similarly placed Hindus of Jammu. They live in the warm and temperate zones of Jammu province in the districts of KathuaUdhampur, and Reasi

Rohit
Rohit or Rohitas, also called Bambhi, are a chamar caste of GujaratIndia.Rohit (or Rohitas) consider themselves to be followers or descendants of the famous saint Rohidas. Traditionally, they did leather or hide work and were also identified as Khalpa. But in 1947, a group of Khalpa organised and decided to call themselves Rohit. They also abandoned all leather works.The Rohit claim to have sprung from a union between a Rajput and a low caste woman. In the census of 1961, Rohits have been identified as one of the fifteen sub sections of the Chamar caste.
Saryara
The Saryara are a Hindu caste found in the Indian administered area of Jammu and Kashmir. They have been granted Scheduled Caste status. According to the 2001 Census of India, their population was 13,327.

The Saryara are found mainly in the districts of JammuKathua and Udhampur, with almost half the Saryara population living in Bahu Fort, a settlement situated on the banks of the Tawi River. According to their traditions, they are descended from the camp followers of Bahulochan, the brother Jambulochan, The Saryara are a Dogri speaking community, although most also understand Hindi

 Singikat 
The Singikat are a Hindu  found in the state of Haryana. They are known as Gyarah.The name Singikat is derived from a combination of two Hindi words, the singi which refers to a conical brass pipe with a wide mouth and kat which means holder. The Singi pipe is used to suck impure blood from wounds. They are a branch a of the Singiwala community of North India. The HaryanaSingikat are said to have originated from Kuchwan village in Marwar, and said to have immigrated in the 18th Century. They are now found throughout Haryana, and speak Haryanv

Singiwala
The Singiwala are both a scheduled caste, as well as a Muslim community, found in the state ofRajasthan in India. They also known as Jheewar Bangalee. Many members of Singiwala community have migrated to Pakistan after independence have settled in KarachiSindh.
The name Singiwala is derived from a combination of two Hindi words, the singi which refers to a conical brass pipe with a wide mouth and wala which means holder. The Singi pipe is used to suck impure blood from wounds. They are divided into twelve and half exogamous clans, the main ones being the Sauda, Nakpulla, Pardesi, Dilwali, Savara, Kalandar, Gyarah Donbde, Teli, Mewadi and Radi. All the clans have equal status, and there is no concept of hypergamy. A section of the Singiwala emigrated to Haryana in the 18th Century and now form a distinct community known asSingikat


Sirkiband
The Sirkiband are a Hindu caste found in the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. They havescheduled caste status in Haryana. A small number in Punjab are now Sikh.
The community get their name from the Hindi sikri, meaning straw and band meaning those who tie. They are a community that was traditionally involved in the manufacture of articles made of straw and grass. The Sikriband consist of a number of endogamous groupings, such as the Nat, Madari, Bazigar, Deha, Bhope and Singikat. These groups are further divided into clans called gotras, which are exogamous. Their main gotras include the Athwal, Kilala, Chanal, Kurania, and Sarsar. The Sikriband speak Haryanvi, but most also understand Hindi
Sonkar
The Sonkar are a Hindu  found in the Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradeshin India. They are sub-caste of the Khateek community. Historically, the Sonkar were a community of dyers. They are divided into a number of exogamous clans, the main ones being the Magariya, Gotiya and Jaraliya. The community speak the Bundelkhandi dialect of Hindi. In Uttar Pradesh, they are found mainly in the districts of Hamirpur and Jhansi.In Chattisgarh, Sonkar are a different community. They are sub-cast of kachhi(Kushwaha/Koshwaha/Maurya) & comes under other backward casts of India

Thori 

The Thori are a scheduled caste found in the states of GujaratRajasthan and Haryana in India. They are also known as the Nayak.
The Thori trace their descent from the Suryavanshi Rajputs. They claim that they held the role of commanders in the army of the various Rajput Rajahs of Rajputana. As their power grew, the Rajahs tried to defame them. This led a split a split with the wider Rajput community, and the Thori acquired a distinct identity

Tirgar
The Tirgar are a scheduled caste found in the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan in India.The Tirgar derive their name from two words – tir meaning arrow and gar meaning maker. This community was traditionally associated with the manufacture of bows and arrows. Their origin myth relates to them being originally Rajput. They are said to have supplied arrows to the god Rama. The Tirgar of Gujarat claim to have immigrated to the region in the Middle Ages, and were invited by the local Rajput community to manufacture bows and arrows



Turahiya

The Turahiya   caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are also known as Turah, Turaha & Turaiha and have scheduled caste status.The Turahiya are a sub-group within the Nishadha, fishermen community caste of India. According to the traditions of the community, The Turahiya were traditional employed to play musical instruments, known as a turahi as well as fishing and over time formed a distinct endogamous group within the fishermen community. They are found mainly in Uttar Pradesh, principally in the districts of western Part.

Vagri
The Vagri, sometimes pronounced as Bagri are a scheduled caste found in the states of Rajasthanand Gujarat in India, and the province of Sindh in Pakistan.


 Watal
The Watal are a Kashmiri tribe found in the Indian administered area of Jammu and Kashmir. They are also known as Batal, Battal, and Batul, and the community have been granted Scheduled Castestatus

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