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Dalit Academic, Poet, Writer & Journalist


As the experience of groups from around the World have shown, a major key to overcoming Oppression is access to Media, and uncontrolled mediums which allow free and open discussion of all issues.  This report provides an examination of whether or not this is true as for as the Dalit Community in India is concerned, and if not, what can be done to take steps in that direction. 

Dalits in media feel the sting of caste discrimination
 by Ajaz Ashraf 

Dalits in media feel the sting of caste discrimination by Ajaz Ashraf Aug 13, 2013 #Caste-based Discrimination #Dalit Journalists #Media Watch inShare 1 40 CommentsEmailPrint Dalit journalists believe caste-based discrimination and antagonism against them is pervasive in the mainstream media, both print and electronic. They say this phenomenon is more rampant in Hindi and other language media than in the English media. This was one of the important findings of the research project that The Hoot, a website on the media, commissioned me to do. Over three months, I interviewed students who were admitted to media institutes in the reserved category and are or were journalists. I also spoke to Dalits who entered the media directly. Of the 21 journalists who agreed to speak to me – there was also a substantial number who turned down my requests for an interaction – 19 spoke on the record, suggesting a growing sense of confidence among them about their Dalit identity. The Hoot study suggests the number of Dalits in the mainstream media has grown over the last two decades, though still nowhere in proportion to their countrywide population of 15 percent; and mostly they’re perched on the lower rungs of the hierarchy in newspaper and TV outlets. Most of the 21 I spoke to also referred to their caste brethren working as journalists elsewhere in the country. This growth, however infinitesimal, improves upon what veteran journalist BN Uniyal found in 1996. In response to a Delhi-based foreign correspondent who wished to speak to a Dalit journalist for a story, Uniyal contacted editors, columnists, and pored through the list of journalists accredited to the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. He failed to identify a single Dalit journalist. Seventeen years hence, I was able to reach out to a dozen Dalit journalists based in Delhi alone. But the optimism stemming from the rising number of Dalits in the media is offset by their experiences in it. Of the 21 Dalit journalists I met, 12 have or would quit journalism in case they were to get better career options. Caste-based discrimination was ranked as the principal factor why Dalit journalists want to leave the media. Representational Image. Reuters Discrimination in its most severe form was experienced in the Hindi media and other languages. Dalits having ambiguous surnames, often adopted to conceal their caste, invited relentless questioning from upper caste colleagues. At the disclosure or identification of their Dalit identity, most of the 21 journalists reported harassment, snide remarks, and deliberate targeting that was manifest in a denial of promotions and increments. Naveen Kumar, for instance, was employed as a trainee in a premier Hindi TV channel, where his boss pestered him to divulge his caste. On Naveen’s disclosure that he belonged to the Scheduled Caste of Bairwa from Rajasthan, his boss began calling him by his caste – “Bairwa do this, Bairwa do that”. When Naveen was assigned to the morning desk of the channel, his boss there would rebuke him even over minor mistakes and blame it on the incorrigible attributes of his jati. Sangh Priy Gautam, a Hindi journalist in Agra, was left aghast when, on getting laid off in Meerut, he approached an influential acquaintance to recommend him to an editor in Haryana. Within hours, Sangh Priy received a text message asking whether he was a Brahmin. Why do you want to know that? asked Sangh Priy. The acquaintance replied: the editor (in Haryana) is Brahmin, wants to hire a Brahmin. Again, Ashok Das was one of the 10 journalists – of whom eight were Brahmin, one Bhumihar - a Hindi daily hired for its bureau in Aligarh, from where it planned to take out a city edition. Ashok realised none of the journalists wanted to share a room with him until one socially conscionable Brahmin offered to take him in. It was this Brahmin journalist who told Ashok of the furious debate he had sparked among the others the day he disclosed his Dalit identity to the group. In Hyderabad, Chanti Kranti Kiran, who is the Input Editor of V6 News, was asked within a few days of joining his first job what his caste was. In response to his reply, his boss said, “You were hired because we thought you were Brahmin.” Their experiences appear inordinately tragic because many of them had overcome terrible odds to enter the media in the first place. For instance, Santosh Valmiki, principal correspondent, Hindustan, Lucknow, would as a child accompany his mother as she went from house to house cleaning toilets; he also hawked newspapers to finance his college education. Despite his over two decades of experience, he rued he was still a principal correspondent. “Those junior to me in the profession have become editors,” he said, arguing that connection and patronage are important to rise in career. But Dalits are poorly represented in the media, and consequently have “no mai-baap” to bank upon, he said. In fact, at times, the desire to transform an unequal, oppressive society prompts Dalits to take to the media. For instance, Ved Prakash, assistant producer in Total TV, decided to become a journalist following the beating he was subjected to by an upper caste bully in a Bihar village where he taught in a school. The upper caste villagers resented a Dalit teaching their children. Or take Mallepalli Laxmaiah, a Telugu columnist, whose inspiration to join the media was linked to the fact his uncle was killed by upper caste landlords. In his more youthful days of activism, Laxmaiah was himself picked up under the draconian TADA. I also came across Satyendra Murli, now with Hindustan, who witnessed his mother and sister thrown out of the village temple. In many ways, Dalits become sorely disappointed at the discovery that the Indian media, which professes to be progressive, tends to reflect the inequalities of the larger social system. Instances of caste-based antagonism against Dalits in the English media were missing from the narratives of most employed in it, barring the case of one woman journalist whose boss was harassingly curious about her caste because of her ambiguous surname. No doubt, some journalists did leave the English media, but it was mostly on account of better salaries offered elsewhere. Nevertheless, journalists in the English media, like their Hindi counterparts, felt deeply insulted by the disparaging remarks of their colleagues against Mayawati and other Dalit leaders in discussions. Their failings, they claimed, were often portrayed as arising from their caste, leading to stereotyping of Dalits. D Karthikeyan of The Hindu recounted such discussions in the newsroom of the newspaper’s Madurai bureau until these chatterings plumbed to such infuriating and pathetic depths that he felt compelled to complain to the bosses, who issued a warning to the errant bureau. There is, however, also a pull-factor that lures Dalit journalists away from the media. For one, salaries at entry into the media are too low for them to sustain themselves in cities, particularly as they have to support other members of the extended family who are economically poor and educationally backward. Their fear of layoffs is particularly acute as most lack a strong economic base, having no inherited ancestral assets. By contrast, government jobs – the most favoured option among Dalits – provide permanent tenure, ensure time-bound promotions till a certain stage, and insulate them from the adverse impact of discrimination and antagonism against Dalits. Government jobs also enable Dalits to marry into higher income groups in their community, thus becoming upwardly mobile. Not all respondents, however, subscribed to the view of being discriminated against. At least one former Dalit journalist, Animesh Biswas, who is now employed in a public relations company, thought Dalits have a tendency to speak about “their background as soon they encounter problems.” He and a few others blamed the abysmal standard of education which fails to equip Dalits with the language skills the media expects them to possess. The overwhelming feeling among Dalit journalists about the prevalence of antagonism against them tends to make them rethink the idea of continuing in journalism. Their still poor presence in the media has serious implications for news coverage. Telugu columnist Mallepalli Laxmaiah thought the media coverage is governed by five Cs – controversy, crime, cinema, cricket and corporate. “Violence against Dalits comes under Crime and is consequently covered. All other aspects of their life don’t make for a story,” he said. Perhaps this explains why the mainstream media eventually ends up speaking to, and about, the upper caste/middle class India. (The longer version of this story, divided into three parts, can be read on The Hoot website here, here  and here.) (Ajaz Ashraf is a Delhi-based journalist and can be reached at ALSO SEE ‘It is privileged Hindus who suffer from the sickness of caste’ RELATED VIDEOS Dream big, dream now: Watch the new CNBC TV18 TVC RELATED: ‘It is privileged Hindus who suffer from the sickness of caste’ 

Dalit Students and Journalists – from Classroom to Newsroom: Shivnarayan Rajpurohit

MARCH 27, 2014
This is a guest post by SHIVNARAYAN RAJPUROHIT
The conscious or unconscious exclusion of Dalits (SC/ST) from the Indian mediascape has given way to a lopsided public sphere which hardly manages to generate comprehensive debates. Corporate interests have aggravated this malaise, given the indifference of the corporate sector towards fomenting a diverse media, cutting across caste, religious and class lines. The following paper looks at the absence of Dalit journalists and students from English press and journalism schools. The primary conclusion of my research is that English-language media as an institution has been undemocratic because it draws its workforce from a homogenous set of people, overlooking the urgent need for diversity. In that sense it is hostile to opposing viewpoints and diversity of arguments. The paper is primarily divided into five parts: counting Dalit journalists, reason for exclusion, classroom to newsroom, need for Dalits in media and Blacks in USA.

Counting Dalit Journalists
In India, the Fourth Estate has been registering a robust growth, though it has stabilised in recent years. According to the 55th annual report by the Registrar of Newspapers for India (RNI), there are 1406 English dailies. We can extrapolate from Robin Jeffrey’s estimate that for the dailies the number of journalists stands at 25,000-30,000 (the basis is the hypothesis that each daily has at least 20 journalists on its roll). The sheer number of English press journalists is overwhelming, but a Delhi-based journalist, Ajaz Ashraf (2013), could spot only 21 Dalits journalists—working in broadcast and print (both language and English) — in the Indian media. It is shameful that the absence of Dalit journalists, even while noted by the media, has not spurred media houses to take any concrete action. No holistic workforce survey for newsrooms has been conducted, which makes it difficult to estimate the number of SC/ST journalists.
Despite the constraint, a hypothesis can be built on some studies and individual experiences.  In 2006, the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS) conducted a Delhi-based survey to count the top decision-makers in media. As expected, the survey noted that not even a single decision-maker was from the SC/ST community. So where are the Dalit journalists? Ananad Teltumbde (2008) answers this question and says that Dalits work as drivers, printing-machine operators, hawkers, cleaners, and distributors.
D. Karthikeyan, a Madurai reporter for The Hindu, says that the “The situation has improved a little bit for Dalit journalists. Today, I can name a few Dalits, but in decision-making process they are absent. Reporters and sub-editors from the community are present, though not in significant numbers” (Interview).
Reasons for Exlclusion
When asked about the absence of Dalit journalists, academicians, media scholars, and editors conveniently cite socio-economic constraints as hindrances. Some reasons given by them are: low enrolment percentage in higher studies, perception towards government jobs, and caste prejudices in newsroom. As most students are first-generation learners, they have no connection with media. Chandrabhan Prasad says that to get into media one needs contacts, recommendations, references and good networks (Interview). Sevanti Ninan has the same opinion, adding that hiring in media is informal (Interview). “Most of the colleges students are first-generation learners and their fascination towards government is more than working for media which is full of uncertainty. After getting their college degrees, they apply for government jobs. Immediate opportunities push them in to the government jobs, while most of them shun private sectors,” Karthikeyan says. Ninan seconds him. She tried to hire some SC/ST candidates for The Hoot, but one candidate who accepted the offer made it clear that he would quit if he got a teaching job. Diversity of news coverage cannot borne fruits when newspapers maintain a uniformity in hiring. Prasad further argues, “Most mediahouses are afraid of diverse viewpoints.”
On media prejudices towards aspiring and existing journalists, some of the examples have been recurring motifs: the experience of J Balasubramaniam (EPW 2011) and D.S. Ravindra Doss, former president of the Tamil Nadu Union of Journalists (Jeffery 2010: 161). Sharing his personal experience, S. Anand (2005: 195) says, “The advantages of being born in the ‘right caste’, I think, equally helped me with my other jobs, as also in other spheres of my life, sometimes without my being aware of these advantages.” Siddharth Varadarajan (2006), the former editor-in-chief ofThe Hindu, highlighted the pernicious role played by caste in media. Prasad agrees that caste discrimination is not performed consciously in the press (Interview). Karthikeyan differs, “I strongly agree that English media is prejudiced, but it is less than in an OBC dominated language press.”
When quizzed on the issue, editors reel off the stock reply, “We do not look at caste. Hiring is solely based on candidates’ merit and capabilities.” To counter the notion of meritocracy in hiring, Jodhka and Newman (2010: 55-83) undertook a “qualitative study” with a sample of 25 companies, including media, in formal sectors to look at the selection criteria. After studying their hiring process, the writers conclude that merit is not the only criterion for selection. Factors like kinship, regional stereotypes, caste, social and economic background, recommendation, educated parents and urban preference, play an important role, and at times supersede meritocracy. Some of the reasons may not apply to media recruitment, but it can be inferred that merit may not be the sole criterion for hiring. The story of a renowned African-American journalist, William Raspberry, from being a teletypist to the Pulitzer Prize winner in 1994 suggests that merit is nothing but a byword for opportunity. Dalit students seek the same opportunity.
Classroom to Newsroom
After looking the number of Dalit students in top two journalism schools in India, it becomes clear that though their number is not large, it is a number that may be decent enough to make their presence felt. But another question is: Does their enrolment ensure placement in media? Shivaji Sarkar (interview), a former IIMC placement officer, denies any discrimination against reserved category students by employers during recruitment.
First, let us look at the SC/ST students enrolled in two top-notch journalism schools in India. This writer filed an RTI application, on 29 October 2012, to know the number of the SC/ST students in IIMC and AJK MCRC.
The information furnished by the IIMC for four years from 2008-09 to 2012-13 pegs the number of SC/ST students at 92 out of 459 (for English course), or a tad above 20 per cent (see Table 1). On the other hand, Anwar Jamal Kidwai Mass Communication Research Centre (AJK MCRC) enrolled 69 SC/ST students out of 510 for three years from 2008-09 to 2010-11, or 13.5 per cent. For the first three years, an average of 15 students joined IIMC and MCRC. The average has surely come down since the latter was declared a minority institute in 2011.
Some expensive private institutions such as Indian Institute of Journalism and New Media, Xavier Institute of Communication, Times School of Journalism and Symbiosis Institute of Media & Communication have no scholarship or reserved seats for SC/ST students. Though, the Asian College of Journalism—a not-for-profit school–does not have reserved seats, it accorded scholarship to four SC/ST students in 2012-13, as previous years. Notwithstanding scholarship, the percentage of Dalit students in ACJ to the total intake is woefully low: 1.5 per cent of the total students for three-year combined (See table 3).
Table 1: SC/ST students in IIMC Delhi and Dhenkanal (Odisha)
Note: Figures are only for English journalism students enrolled in IIMC, Delhi and Dhenkanal in Odisha.

Table 2: SC/ST students in AJK MCRC for various English-language courses
YearCourseIntakeSC/ST Students
2008-09Mass Communication5011
2009-10Mass Communication5010
2010-11Mass Communication5011
2008-09Convergent Journalism204
2009-10Convergent Journalism204
2010-11Convergent Journalism204
2008-09Diploma in Development Communication406
2009-10Diploma in Development Communication404
2010-11 Diploma in Development Communication402
2008-09Graphic and Animation203
2009-10Graphic and Animation200
2010-11Graphic and Animation204
2008-09Still Photography200
2009-10Still Photography203
2010-11Still Photography202
2008-09Broadcast Technology200
2009-10Broadcast Technology201
2010-11Broadcast Technology200
Note: Some courses are for both Hindi and English journalism, like Broadcast Technology, Still Photography, Graphics and Animation.
 Table 3: SC/ST students in ACJ
Note: The figures are for four courses–TV, Radio, Print and New Media–offered by ACJ.
Taking ACJ’s figures, a hypothesis can be built that the presence of Dalit students in non-governmental schools can be less than one per cent because, except ACJ, none of them specifically offers scholarship to SC/ST candidates. It transpires that they are least concerned about righting historical wrongs and making their classrooms more diversified. The reasons attributed to a homogenous nature of classrooms are similar to that of a newsroom: the language proficiency, journalism not seen as a stable profession against government jobs, and unawareness about journalism schools. Nalini Rajan, dean of ACJ, contends, “We would like to have more Dalit students, but language plays an important role. That’s why we have special English language classes for students who lag in language proficiency.”
Need for Dalits in Media
For a democratic set-up in media, diversity of views is always desirable. In this process the involvement of all sections of society is a prerequisite. Media is the Fourth Pillar in every democratic nation-state, catalysing debates on social, political and economic issues which invariably affect all people. Indian “public sphere”, i.e. media, has been shaped by a select few emerging from more or less the same background, which provides veritably few opportunities to the marginalised groups and their articulated representatives. By consciously or unconsciously excluding one fourth of the population, media are ill-servicing themselves and the public at large.
For instance, the Khairlanji rape-cum-murder case in Maharashtra in 2006 was not reported by the national press for a fortnight. What followed in the form of reports or columns was distortion of facts. After the massacre, protests erupted and reporters filed stories on the inconvenience faced by elite people in Mumbai and Nagpur without looking at the causes of protests by Dalits. The birth anniversary and memorial day of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar hardly find space (barring few exceptions) in the national media. If at all, the reportage focuses on the “inconvenience” caused to the public due to the large gathering of Dalits. Jyoti Punwani countered the anti-Dalit narrative in one article by saying that the Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja and Dusshera Day are reported not for other’s troubles, but for their festivities—which is not the case with Dalit congregations to commemorate a true son of India (Teltumbde 2008: 90-102).
The above-mentioned faux pas would not have become reality if media had a respectable presence of Dalit journalists who could have applied their subjective experience in the prevalent social milieu. Khairlanji is not an isolated case. Everyday untouchables are subject to a battery of discriminatory acts, but these are passed off as dog-bites-man occurrences. Dalit editors at the helm would give due consideration to these seemingly banal incidents of discrimination. If a large chunk of population is not present in decision-making roles, the media is sure to lose out on complex issues which afflict a particular community (Varadarajan 2006).
Blacks in America
Like the untouchables in India, African-Americans in the U.S. have been historically discriminated against in all spheres. In 1827, the first Black newspaper of the U.S., Freedom’s Journal sounded the bugle to break the shackles of discrimination and stereotypical portrayal of people of colour by announcing, “Too long have others spoken for us. Too long people have been deceived by misrepresentation.” Even the 13th Amendment did not help in dispelling prejudices against the Blacks (Dev & Dev 2009: 38). Similarly in India, B.R. Ambedkar presciently said that political empowerment does not lead to social and economic equality, which includes media participation.
In the wake of the Watts riots in 1965, the U.S. Federal government set up a fact-finding committee, called the Kerner Commission, in July 1967. In its report it found out that the media portrayal of the Afro-Americans was prejudiced and recommended that the malaise can be remedied by making newsroom diversified (Emery & Emery 1984: 632-36). Furthermore, it called media “shockingly backward” in its coverage and employment of people of colour and chastised them for viewing the world through “white men’s eyes” (Alterman 2003: 110).  Despite the government pressure on the media to accommodate minorities, the percentage of the non-white hovered around 4 in the 1970s and 80s (Emery & Emery 1984: 740-41) (ASNE). Moreover, the Blacks were treated “as if they don’t read the newspaper, marry, die, and attend PTA meetings” (Newkirk 2011).
But the tables turned in the 1980s, particularly after the Civil Rights Movement. The American Society of News Editors (ASNE) embarked on diversification drive for newspapers in 1978, conducting yearly surveys on newsroom workforce since then. In its latest survey for 2012, it found that 12.37 per cent journalists are racial minorities in American newspapers. The figure is nowhere near to ASNE’s goal of achieving population parity by 2025. The number of Afro-American journalists in top U.S. newspapers is satisfactory, if not outstanding, since they account for 14 per cent of the U.S. population (see table 4). However, we should not miss the forest for the trees. The latest survey saw the voluntary participation of 70 per cent of the total dailies in the U.S.; a grudging acknowledgement from editors on dismal diversification ratio.
Table 4: Percentage of Afro-American journalists in U.S. newspapers
Top US NewspapersBlacks % in 2012
Wall Street Journal3.8
The New York Times7.8
Washington Post11.8
Chicago Tribune8
New York Daily News5.6
Source: ASNE
This acknowledgment that Dalits are not in the Indian newsroom is missing from our editors. Acceptance of the reality of the homogenous newsroom will create opportunities for remedial steps. Undoubtedly, the fire for spotting Dalit journalists on Indian mediascape was ignited by Kenneth Cooper, B. N. Uniyal, Chandrabhan Prasad, Sheoraj Singh Bechain and Robin Jeffrey. As the ASNE has set targets for “diversification”, similar initiatives (e.g., workforce census) can be taken by either Press Council of India (PCI) or an Indian think tank. The Press Council of India must be held responsible for not taking any action on a diversification drive. Its outspoken Chairman Markandey Katju has opined on every issue under the sun, but not on the plurality of newspapers. This indifference finds resonance in the annual and special reports of the PCI; the Council’s annual reports and special papers (e.g. State of Newspaper Scene, 2007) do not find the issue worth mentioning, except its 2010 paper Norms of Journalistic Conduct wherein once it says that media should “seek diversity of viewpoints.”
In the 1990s, a memorandum entitled “End Apartheid from Indian Media: Democratise Nation’s Opinion” submitted by Chandrabhan Prasad and Sheoraj Singh Bechain was discarded by the then PCI Chairman P. B. Sawant, saying that diversification was beyond its powers (Jeffrey 2000: 169). On the contrary, Chapter III–powers and functions of the Council–of the PCI ACT, 1978 grants it enough powers, particularly Section 14 and Section 15, to make media more “responsible and democratic.” How to make the Fourth Estate more democratic? A plural newsroom representing all sections of society is the answer. The PCI can undertake a caste and religion-based census for newsrooms. Consequently, the participation of conscientious editors in the census will acknowledge that journalists are hired from the same background. After realising the absence of Dalit journalists, newspapers can set targets for themselves for the inclusion (Jeffery 2012), starting at least with 5 per cent share.
Another thorny issue is related to private journalism schools which appear least concerned about this social responsibility of inclusive student intake. It is incumbent on private colleges to reserve at least 10 per cent of the seats for SC/ST candidates along with scholarship since out-of-pocket expenditure by them is almost half than that of general category students (NSSO 64thRound 2007-08). Scholarship and start-up affirmative action will enhance the participation of these students in media.
The aforesaid remedial steps will augment the participation of SC/ST candidates. Siddharth Varadarajan (2006) puts it best, “There are a million stories out there waiting to be told. If only we allow the storytellers to do the telling.” To incorporate Dalits in English-language press, initiatives from editors, journalists and press regulators are the prerequisite. In this regard stand-alone efforts have not sprung from the print heavyweights but Caravan and The Hootwhich have of late reserved some positions for SC/ST students, realising that some nuances of society can be aptly penned by the oppressed.
An important question is: Should inclusion be driven as a social imperative or as a business model? Since the readership of English newspapers is concentrated in relatively more elite sections of society, it should be seen as a social imperative for journalism schools and media. It is high time the media as well as journalism schools realised their social responsibility, so that better stories may be told.

36 Dalit Writers Who Disrupted India’s Literary History

The reason writers, such as Raj Gowthaman and Urmila Pawar, or projects, such as Dalit History Month, have sought to rewrite or question literary history is that it has historically been dominated by upper caste writers. What has been internationally said of writers from the commonwealth or women writers can be said to be true of Dalit authors in India- what will be considered ‘literary’ or ‘literature’ in a period is often determined by those who hold power in society.
This doesn’t mean however that there is no resistance to ‘literature’. With India becoming a democratic republic, the resistance of Dalit authors also becomes more visible. The Dalit Panthers scandalise the world of Marathi literature, Bama creates a stir in Tamil writing, and this continues to go on. It is only with hindsight that many of these writers were accorded the place they demanded in literature, but today they inspire a generation of writers with their work. Here’s presenting 36 such writers that you should definitely read:
Also read: 53 Indian Women Writers Millennials Must Read

1. Namdeo Dhasal:

Namdeo Dhasal. Source: Facebook
Perhaps the most iconic name in the world of Marathi poetry, Dhasal is also the most recognisable face of the Dalit Panthers, an organisation formed along the lines of the Black Panther movement in the United States.

Poet and critic Dilip Chitre described his first collection of poetry “Golpitha” (1972) thus: “It reveals whatever others would strive to shove under the carpet of poetry. This is my considered opinion more than three decades after its publication and I had no hesitation in writing that Namdeo’s poetry, from that outstanding start, is Nobel Laureate material.”

Dhasal was awarded the Padma Shri in 1999. In 2004, the Sahitya Akademi, while celebrating its Golden Jubilee, awarded him its Golden Jubilee Life Time Achievement Award.

2. Meena Kandasamy:

Meena Kandasamy. Source: Facebook
Translated into 18 languages, she is one of most famous feminist writers in India, who doubles as an activist. She is the author of two collections of poetry, “Touch” and “Ms. Militancy”, the critically acclaimed novel “The Gypsy Goddess” and most recently “A Portrait of the Writer as a Young Wife”.

3. Gaddar:

Born Gummadi Vittal Rao, the Telugu balladeer dropped out in the first year of engineering college and took to folk singing. He took the pseudonym Gadar (now Gaddar by accident) as a tribute to the Gadar Party which fought the British rule in Punjab. Lakhs of printed copies of his songs have been distributed and sold over the last three decades. He might now join electoral politics.

4. Dr C S Chandrika:

A principal scientist at M S Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chandrika is also a leading feminist activist and writer. She was awarded the Fellowship of Kerala Sahitya Academy in 1997, the Muthukulam Parvathy Amma Award in 2010, and the Toppil Ravi Foundation literary award in 2012. Her most notable works are “Pira”, “K. Saraswathiyamma”, “Kleptomania”, “Bhoomiyude Pathaka”, and “Ladies Compartment”.

5. Bama:

Bama Faustina Soosairaj. Source: Facebook
Born in a family of agricultural labourers, Bama Faustina Soosairaj donned many hats before she finally became a writer. She used to write poetry in college, but became a schoolteacher and a nun later to educate Dalit girls. It was after leaving the seminary in 1992 that she went back to serious writing. The semi-fictional autobiographical novel “Karukku” (1992) is her most famous work, although she has written more novels and short story collections since then. Originally written in the Tamil dialect she used to speak as a child, the novel created quite a stir, with Bama being prohibited from entering her village for seven months. When the novel was finally translated into English in 1998, Bama went on to win the Crossword Book Award in 2000.

6. Daya Pawar:

Born Dagdu Maruti Pawar, his searing autobiography “Baluta” became a sensation in the world of Marathi literature. Pawar published his first poem in “Asmitadarsh” in 1967. Both “Kondvada”, his first collection of poems, and “Baluta” were awarded by the Maharashtra government. Apart from poetry, Pawar published two collections of essays, a book of short stories, and the screenplay for Jabbar Patel’s movie “Dr Ambedkar”. He was awarded the Padma Shri in 1990.

7. Urmila Pawar:

Best known for her autobiography “Aaidan” (The Weave of Bamboo), Pawar works with feminist organisations in the Mumbai and Konkan regions. Among her acclaimed books are two collections of short stories, “Sahav Bot (Sixth Finger)” and “Mother Wit”. In 2004, the Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad awarded her the Laxmibai Tilak award for “Aaidan”, but refused to accept it, saying that the “metaphors, images, and symbols in Marathi literature have remained tradition-bound”.

8. Ravikumar:

The co-founder of Navayana, a publishing house that focuses on issues of caste, he has founded many little magazines. He edited The Oxford India Anthology of Tamil Dalit Writing, and edited and contributed to “Waking is Another Dream”, an anthology of poetry on the Eelam genocide.  “Venmous Touch: Notes on Caste, Culture and Politics” is a collection of his non-fiction work.

9.  Anant Rao Akela:

The 56-year-old native of Pahadipur village in Aligarh district studied only until class eight, but has written a dozen books. He sold his first work, an eight-page pamphlet titled “Ram Rajya Ki Nangi Tasveer”, at village fairs and in markets in 1980 on his own.

After he got inspired by Kanshi Ram to join the Bahajun Samaj Party in 1985, he also wrote poems that were recited at public meetings held by BSP leaders. Disillusioned with the party though, he joined the Bahujan Mukti Party in 2016.

10.  Baburao Bagul:

One of the pioneers of the Dalit Panthers, the Marathi writer shot to fame with his 1963 collection of short stories “Jenvha Me Jat Chorali Hoti”. His other major works of fiction were “Maran Sast Hot Ahe” (1969) and “Sood” (1970). He was awarded the Harinarayan Apte Award by the Government of Maharashtra in 1970. His fiction dwells heavily on the social and economic deprivation enforced by the caste system, as well as the revolt of those oppressed by the system.

11.  Jatin Bala:

Born in 1949 in East Pakistan, Bala had lost both his parents by 1953 and had to bear the tribulations of the Bengal partition without the support of a family. Despite having to live in refugee camps, he educated himself.
The Bengali writer is the author of several anthologies of poetry and short stories as well as well as a novel. He also edited multiple periodicals from the 1970s. He has been awarded the Nitish Smriti Sahitya Puroshkar, Dabdaho Sahityo Potrika Puroshkar, Kobi Nikhilesh Sahitya Puroshkar, etc.

12. Ajay Navaria:

Ajay Navaria. Source: Facebook
An assistant professor in the Department of Hindi at the Jamia Millia Islamia University in Delhi, Navaria is a prominent face in Hindi literature. He has written two short story collections, “Patkatha aur Anya Kahaniyan (The Sript and Other Stories)” and “Yes, Sir”, and the novel “Udhar ke Log (People From the Other Side)”. “Unclaimed Terrain”, an English translation of his short stories was featured in a Guardian list of best books in 2013.

13. Ratan Kumar Sambharia:

Born in a village in the Rewari district of Haryana, Sambharia has been living in Rajasthan for over three decades. He has written five collections of short stories and three collections of play in Hindi, but his work has also been translated into Kannada, Marathi, and other Indian languages. He was awarded the Sahara Samay Katha Award by the Vice President of India for his story ‘Chapadasan (The Attendant)’.

14. Baby Kamble:

Kamble wrote in her spare time at the shop she ran with her husband for a living. She was motivated by the anger she felt when she read the mythological representations of repression by upper castes. Her autobiography “Jina Amucha (Our Life)” is now regarded as a pioneering work. An activist, she ran a residential school for socially backwards students in a village near Phaltan in Maharashtra until her death in 2012.

15. Leeladhar Mandloi:

Leeladhar Mandloi. Source: Facebook
Formerly the director general of Doordarshan and All India Radio, the Hindi author has published 35 books on poetry, literature, and culture. He has won several national awards such as the Samsher Samman, the Nagarjun Samman, and the Sahityakar Samman. He has also produced around 300 telefilms on short stories.

16.  Imayam:

A school teacher in Viluppuram district of Tamil Nadu, Imayam is the author of three novels and four short story collections. He is known among Tamil readers for his novels “Koveru Kazhudaigal” (The Mules) and “Arumugam”. He is the recipient of multiple awards such as the Tamil Nadu Progressive Writers’ Association Award, the Agni  Akshara Award, and the Autham Adigal Award.

17. Anita Bharti:

A writer and an activist, Bharti is known for her poems and stories. Most recently she contributed to and edited an anthology featuring 65 poets titled “Yathastithi se Takraate Hue Dalit Stree Jeewan se Judi Kavitaayein”. She has also written the biography of the social revolutionary Gabdu Ram Valmiki.

Bharti is the recipient of multiple awards and honours, such as the Radhakrishnan Shikshak Puraskar, Indira Gandhi Shikshak Samman, Birsa Munda Samman, and Veerangana Jhalkari Bai Samman.

18.  Kanwal Bharti:

Born in a poor family that had to work hard to educate him, Bharti started writing poetry at the age of 15. In 2008, his work was included in course books prescribed by multiple universities. An author of 15 books, he was awarded the Dr Ambedkar National Award in 1996 and Bhim Ratna award in 2001.

19. Manoranjan Byapari:

Manoranjan Byapari. Source: Facebook
Having migrated from Bangladesh to West Bengal in the 1950s, Byapari was illiterate until his mid-twenties. Now he is a prolific author, having written 10 novels, more than a hundred stories, and an autobiographical novel “Itibritte Chandal Jiban”.

Having spent his youth in penury and without education, it was during a two-year imprisonment that Byapari taught himself the Bengali alphabet and started reading and writing. While working as a rickshaw puller after he came out of prison, he met the late Mahasweta Devi who asked him to write. His literary career started when he wrote an article ‘I pull Rickshaw’ for Devi’s journal Bartika in 1981.

20. Surajpal Chauhan:

A winner of the Hindi Academy Award, the Aligarh native is a prolific author of both poetry and prose.  His poetry collections include “Prayas, Kyun Vishwas Karun”, and “Kab Hogi Wah Bhor”.

21.  Raja Dhale:

Raja Dhale
Another founding member of the Dalit Panthers, Dhale is also known for his acerbic style. Although now having moved to activism, the Marathi writer edited multiple little magazines. He published “Atta”, a pamphlet-like ‘unperiodical’ in 1964,”Yeru” in 1967, “Tapasi” in 1968, and “Chakravarti” in 1969. His collection of poetry “Sthitichi Kavita (The Poetry of Circumstances)” was published by his own Atta Prakashan.

22. Raj Gowthaman:

He worked with Tamil literary magazines in the 1980s and became known as an intellectual in the 1990s when Dalit writers took on the orthodox writers in Tamil Nadu. His critical work dealt with Tamil literature from a Dalit perspective and questioned the literary history of the language.

23. Shantabai Krishnabai Kamble:

In the 1940s, she became the first Dalit woman teacher in Solapur district of Maharashtra. It was after she had retired from teaching in 1981, and when she saw the autobiographies of Dalit men being discussed in Mumbai, that she started writing her autobiography. “Mazhya Jalmachi Chittarkatha (The Kaleidoscopic Story of My Life)” was published as serial in Purva magazine in 1983 and later also adapted for television as “Najuka”.

24. Dev Kumar:

Kumar started the Apna Theatre group in 1992 to arouse Dalit consciousness in Uttar Pradesh. His popular plays are “Daastan”, “Bhadra Angulimaal”, “Chakradhari”, “Sudharshan Kapat” and “Jamadaar Ka Kurta”.

25. Devanur Mahadeva:

The Kannada writer won the Kendra Sahitya Akademi award in 1990 for his novel 1990. He was also awarded the Padma Shri in 2011. In 2015 he returned the awards to protest rising intolerance in the country.

26. Aravind Malagatti:

A professor at Kuvempu Institute of Kannada Studies in Mysore University, Malagatti is the author of a dozen books of poetry, a collection of short stories, a novel, and two plays. This is apart from his research papers and books on literature, society, and culture. He is also the recipient of multiple awards, including the Karnataka Sahitya Academy Award awarded to him for his autobiography “Government Brahmana”.

27. Siddalingaiah:

He was a founding member of the Karnataka Dalit Sangharsha Samiti and started writing poetry for performance in protests. He is the author of four poetry collections, two plays, and a book of essays. He has also written a book of essays, a doctoral study on folk deities, and his autobiography.

28. K Nath:

Born in 1945 in Duari village of Kanpur, the Hindi writer had to face tremendous hurdles due to casteism, including a falsely charged theft case. He is known for his autobiography “Tiraskar”.

29. Kotiganahalli Ramaiah:

Hailing from Kolar, he is a popular Kannada poet, who has also written plays, lyrics, and screenplays. He also founded a cultural group called “Adima Angala“. He was awarded for the dialogues he had written for the film “Gejjenada”. He is also the recipient of the Rajyotsava Award, the Karnataka Sahitya Academy award, and the Karnataka Nataka Academy award.

30. Gogu Shyamala:

She works on creating biographies of Dalit women political leaders and is a senior fellow at the Anveshi Research Centre for Women’s Studies in Hyderabad. She has also published a collection of short stories in Telugu called “Father May Be An Elephant And Mother Only A Small Basket, But…”.

31. P Sivakami:

P Sivakami. Source: YouTube
Formerly an IAS officer, Sivakami is a critically acclaimed Tamil writer. She is the author of four novels and a collection of poems titled “Kadhavadaippu”.  She also edits a monthly called “Pudhiya Kodangi”.

32. Omprakash Valmiki:

Born in Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh, Valmiki’s autobiography “Joothan” is one of his most popular books. He is also the author of poetry collections such as “Sadiyon ka Santap” and “Bas Bahut ho Chuka” and short story collections such as “Salam” and “Ghuspaithiye”.

33. Debi Roy:

Born Haradhon Dhara in a Howrah slum, Roy had to change his name to survive the dominance of the upper castes in literature. He, however, went on to co-found the Hungryalist movement in West Bengal in the 1960s, and edited the first manifesto of the movement. He was arrested for obscenity after he published his first collection of poems “Kolkata o Ami (Kolkata and I)” in 1965. He is the author of ten books of poetry, three books of non-fiction, and also translates from Hindi to Bengali.

34. Bhagwan Das:

A research assistant with Ambedkar in the 1950s, Das helped found the World Conference of Religions for Peace in 1970, the International Dalit Convention in 1998, and worked relentlessly against casteism all over the world. Along with Lahori Ram Balley, who ran the Buddhist Publishing House in Jalandhar, he published a series of books of Ambedkar’s speeches in the 1960s. The books were edited and introduced by Das.

Historian Vijay Prashad describes his autobiography “Mein Bhangi Hoon (I am a Bhangi)” as “a window into the life and lineage of one person who fought against the idea that he had no history.

35. Vijila Chirappad:

The Malayali poet has published three collections: “Adukala Illathaa Veedu (A Home Without A Kitchen)”, “Amma Oru Kalpanika Kavitha Alla (Mother Is Not A Poetic Figment Of Our Imagination)”, and “Pakarthi Ezhuthu (Copied Notes)”.  The 2012 anthology of Indian poems by Oxford University Press features some of her work. Her poetry is also prescribed reading at the Kerala, MG, and Calicut Universities.

36. Arun Krishnaji Kamble:

An activist and professor of Marathi at Mumbai University, Kamble was among the co-founders of the Dalit Panthers. Apart from his academic work, he also translated books of other authors and wrote poems. His most famous books are “Ramayan Sanskrutik Sangharsh”, “Dharmantarachi Bheemgarjana”, and “Chalvaliche Diwas”.

Sant Ram Udasi

Sant Ram Udasi (20 April 1939 – 11 August 1986) was born on April 20, 1939 in village Raisar (District Barnala-Punjab) in a Mazhabi Sikh landless labour family. He was one of the major Punjabi poets of the Naxalite Movement in the Indian Punjab towards the late 1960s. He wrote about revolutionary and Dalit consciousness. His collections of poetry are Lahu Bhije Bol, Chau-nukrian Seekhan, Saintan and Kammian Da Vehra.

Nayantara Sehgal

Sahgal is the niece of Jawaharlal Nehru, and a noted novelist and political columnist. Her close association with India’s power center reflects in her work, a lot of which deals with India’s elite and how they responded to political changes around them. Sahgal won the Sahitya Akademi award for “Rich Like Us”, set between 1932 to the mid 1970’s, a time of great political unrest in India.

Kamala Das

One of India’s finest confession poets, Kamala Das wrote beautiful prose in Malayalam and English. Her writing reflected her strong feminist ideology, portraying female sensibility with a rare honesty and sensitivity. Her poems, have for long served as an inspiration to women looking to break the shackles of sexual and domestic oppression, and therefore find relevance with women even today.

 Arundhati Roy

Arundhati Roy. Photo by Vipin Kumar/Hindustan Times via Getty Images.
Arundhati Roy. Photo by Vipin Kumar/Hindustan Times via Getty Images.
One of India’s most noted authors and human rights activist, Roy was awarded the Man Booker Prize for “The God Of Small Things”, her debut fiction novel. Since she won the Booker, Roy has published a wide range of non-fiction, covering topics from the US invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan to a condemnation of India’s nuclear tests. “The Ministry Of Utmost Happiness” released in June 2017 marked her return to fiction after a 20-year-long hiatus.

Githa Hariharan

Githa Hariharan’s work belongs to the era of renaissance of Indo-English literature that started with the appearance of Salman Rushdie’s novel “Midnight Children” in the early 80s. Her first novel, “The Thousand Faces Of Night”, that won the Commonwealth Writers’ Prize in 1993, was written by Hariharan while she was on maternity leave. Encapsulating lives of three generation of women, in Chennai, the novel focusses on the how they are torn between tradition and modernity in trying to shape their lives in their own ways, and in turn connects their stories to the ancient myths of the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

 Mridula Koshy

Before turning into a writer, Koshy pursued many things, working as a cashier, a sales clerk, a waitress and an advocate. She is the author of “If It Is Sweet”, a collection of short stories, and a novel titled “Not Only The Things That Have Happened”. The book won the Shakti Bhatt First Book Prize (2009) and was shortlisted for the Vodafone Crossword Book Prize (2009).

 Savitribai Phule

Often described as “one of the first-generation modern Indian feminists,” Savitribai Phule was a poet and a social reformer who along with her husband spiritedly fought against the dominant caste system. Phule wrote many poems against discrimination during her time. Two books of her poems published posthumously, Kavya Phule (1934) and Bavan Kashi Subodh Ratnakar (1982) are a must read for anyone looking to get a sneak peek into the lives of one of India’s first lady teacher.

Suniti Namjoshi

Born in 1941, Namjoshi is one of India’s leading feminist writers and one of the wittiest fabulists of our times. She came into prominence with her book “Feminist Fables” (1981), that retold folktales like The Panchatantra, Ovid’s Metamorphoses and European fairy tales from a distinctly queer perspective. She has written many collections of fables and poetry, novels and children’s books, and many of them have been translated into several languages.

 Anuja Chauhan

An advertising professional turned writer, Chauhan has been described by many as one of the best writers of Indian commercial fictional genre. Her novels have it all – romance, humor and intelligence told with a friendly candour and witty spin. Her first book “The Zoya Factor”, is about a young girl employed by an ad agency who finds her fate intertwined with that of the Indian cricket team.

Anita Anand

The BBC journalist has made quite a name for herself in the literary circles after the release of “Kohinoor: The Story Of The World’s Most Infamous Diamond” that she wrote with author William Dalrymple. The book traces the untold history of the Kohinoor diamond that goes back centuries.

 Sreemoyee Piu Kundu

Kundu has written such books as “Faraway Music” and “You’ve Got The Wrong Girl”. Her writing heavily focuses on exploring women’s sexuality , especially in books like Sita’s Curse, where she explores the sexual exploits of a woman who gives in to her desires.

 Samina Ali

Samina Ali is an Indian-American author and activist, known best for her debut award-winning novel “Madras On Rainy Days”. The book that details a young woman’s arranged marriage and political awakening was inspired by Ali’s experiences of growing up in India and the USA. A big thrust behind Ali’s work is her belief that personal narrative can play a big role in helping women achieve individual and political freedoms, and this belief comes across in that she writes.

 Abha Dawesar

An Indian writer based out of New York city, Dawesar is author of books like “Miniplanner”, “Family Values”, and “Madison Square Park”. She also won the Lambda Literary Award for Lesbian fiction and the Stonewall Book Award for fiction for “Babyji”, a novel that recounted the coming of age stories as well as sexual adventures and fantasies of a 16-year-old school girl.

Aaidan (The Weave of My Life: A Dalit Woman s Memoirs)

Aaidan her autobiography written in Marathi has been translated into English and titled as The Weave of My Life: A Dalit Woman s Memoirs. In her foreword to the English translation, Wandana Sonalkar writes that the title of the book The Weave is a metaphor of the writing technique employed by Pawar, "the lives of different members of her family, her husband's family, her neighbours and classmates, are woven together in a narrative that gradually reveals different aspects of the everyday life of Dalits, the manifold ways in which caste asserts itself and grinds them down"

Drishadwati Bargi
drishadwati bargiThe rather long title could have been longer if it were to encapsulate the full range of the subjectivity of this scribe. It should have been "The dilemma of being an upwardly mobile, English speaking, Dalit Feminist and ideologue who is simultaneously a wannabe intellectual, a commodity fetishist and a person with ambivalent sexual orientation (I am deliberately choosing not to use the word "queer" since I am not sure what it means) and who is working in Kolkata, West Bengal".
Much as I sound so, this paper is not a narcissistic exercise in dissecting, identifying and cataloguing my subjectivities. Rather, my focus will be on the experience of working in a University and a city which boast of being the intellectual hotbed of the country. Of course, I will be talking as a student who has studied here for five years. I do not claim to speak for other Dalit students. Nor do I claim to represent the sum total of the experience of caste discrimination that is faced by other Dalit students. There might be Dalits who will deny facing any discrimination, there might be Dalits who have had to physically bear the burden of their caste in the University. I belong to neither camp. Rather this article is about my personal journey with my caste in the campus, how I have sought to negotiate with it and the way I perceive it. Not only is the personal nature of the gaze very important here so is the personal motive since I am also writing, thinking and theorizing about caste for academic purpose.
It is not uncommon for Bengali Bhadroloks and Bhadromahilas to claim that caste does not exist in West Bengal. Why, do we hear or read about caste riots or caste rapes? There are Brahmins who reject their threads, relish beef and do not mind sharing hash, fag or biri with a scheduled caste (not Dalit) friend or two. The radicals take their time out of their busy schedules to have long addas at humble roadside tea stalls, binge (read gobble) into street food prepared by scheduled castes (not Dalits) and occasionally sneer at a scheduled caste (not Dalit) colleague who is hesitating to sit on the dusty pavement for fear of dirtying the first Peter England trousers of his life and is being castigated for his snobbishness.
If one desires to know the real radical that rests and occasionally bursts out in flames in every Bhadrolok and Bhadromahila's heart one must take into account what goes on in the addas. The addas are a gateway to the heart, mind and not to forget the stomach of Bengalis. One confronts the romantic, the intellectual and the splenetic or the bilious side of the Bengali Bhadrosamaj in its most unabashed nakedness in the adda sessions. The addas may include a heated discussion on the revolution in Cuba to the expression of anathema at having a Punjabi (i.e., non-Bengali) as an editor of a reputed literary journal in English, from the price of the newly purchased four bedroom apartment to Mayawati's lavish bungalow.
 Being a Bengali Dalit who has been extremely fortunate/unfortunate to enjoy and observe the company of the Bhadrosamaj for a long time, I have also caught some of the quirks of their nature. Perhaps you are thinking that I am simply beating about the bush by talking about bhadrosamaj and addas, but it is through these sessions that I have encountered the most obscene forms of casteism. It has come when classmates and professors have made fun of people with non-brahmanical surnames and then smiled at you in mock apology, when the academic failure of reserved category (not Dalit) students has been used to justify that reservation is an unmixed evil, when the ignorance of English language of reserved category (not Dalit) students is perceived as something that insults the intellect of the English speaking teacher.
Caste came to me when I ditched an upper caste guy for his sexism and was told in turn that he let me go easily because I was three notches lower than him in the caste ladder. It came from my Dalit friends who perceived my friendship with upper caste students as a form of betrayal. It invaded my mind and entered my bed when I was being caressed by a lover. The tenets of Manu that forbade Dalits from wearing gold and precious stones suddenly hit me when I was celebrating my first branded bag or reminiscing about my first experience of drinking a cup of hot chocolate at the age of twenty four in spite of living in a metropolis for the last ten years.
My recently acquired 'commodity fetishism' as pronounced by some Marxists has revealed that I am a hypocrite masquerading as Dalit emancipator. If the ignorance of the English language of scheduled caste students allegedly mocked the intelligence of our teachers my knowledge of the language (however incomplete and insufficient it is) is now seen as something that is making me a class enemy by otherwise anglophile Bengali Comrades.
The result is a dilemma, a kind of intellectual, emotional and psychological paralysis of sorts. Should I identify myself as a Dalit? Do I have the right to work on Dalit Literature? Do I have the right to do so, given my alleged hypocrisy and betrayal, which has been felt in some way or the other by Dalits as well as non-Dalits? This dilemma has been quite unnerving for me. It has led to mental and psychological alienation, anxiety and a sense of extreme loneliness.
Once, in an interview I was told, rather absurdly by a professor that there are no Dalits in West Bengal. I had responded with a wry smile and had nothing to say. It is my contention that there are no Dalits in West Bengal because of the simple fact that Dalits are not allowed to exist. You can be a casteless Brahmin, Baidya or Kayastha. On the other side of the equation, you can be an untouchable/achyut waiting to be emancipated (accultured) by upper caste casteless radicals or you can be a scheduled caste employee perpetually embarrassed for enjoying the "privilege" of affirmative action.
The word Dalit as I understand it refers to dignity of the person concerned without taking away the history of prejudice and discrimination that he or she still faces in forms that cannot be explained through Bhadrolok Marxism. It has gradually incorporated within itself the long history of resistance against caste system as well as our claim to an autonomous identity that cannot be equated with the predicament of being poor, working class or an untouchable but includes something more than that.
When I identify myself as a Dalit I am making a claim and seeking recognition for that discrimination, prejudice as well as that resistance. But inadvertently by identifying myself as a Dalit I am also doing something more. I am challenging a practice of "division of labourers" that is endemic to West Bengal. This is the division between emancipators (which includes writers, intellectuals, social activists, doctors, economists, trade union leaders, Naxalite leaders) and the to be emancipated (which includes peasants, workers in factories and homes, taxi drivers, rickshaw pullers etc).
Just browse at any book store or go through the names of the faculty of the famous universities or the list of authors in any random little magazine dedicated to social transformation in the state. You will find the Bhattacharjees, Mukherjees, Boses, and Dasguptas glittering on the pages. And then try to find out the surnames of the thousands of men and women who form the crowd at any political rally or gathering, the men who clean the streets every morning and take away our shit and waste the women who commute daily to keep the houses of Bhadrolok clean.
In this context a Brahmin taxi driver or a Dalit lecturer or activist (especially) is an eyesore, a cause of moral and political anathema. This is feudalism twisted to suit the needs of Bhadrolok Radicalism. Bhadrolok Marxism entailed that a caste of people /bhadrolok will be destined to emancipate another caste of people, the chotolok. If the chotolok suddenly claims to be a Dalit and emancipates himself or herself then he/she challenges the bhadrolok's prerogative to liberate the chotolok thereby challenging a system of dependence, power and relationship of dominance and subordination. He/she is also laying a claim to a history of movement that has focused on the agency of Dalits and suspected the benevolence and the radicalism of the savarnas.
The identity Dalit challenges the hierarchy between the caste of emancipator and the caste of emancipated and renders the emancipator redundant and useless. As a result not a single opportunity is missed to target the person, intellectually as well as psychologically who attempts to challenge this division and decry his/her claim to the identity. The question then is not whether I should identify myself as a Dalit or whether I have the right to. The question is whether I can afford to identify myself as a Dalit and bear the resultant alienation, intellectual and emotional that will inevitably accompany it. The dilemma then stems from an angst and a very human fear of being left alone in the world. All said and done I will love to be proved false. I would really love it if any other Bengali Dalit opposes my thesis and presents a better picture.

Drishadwati Bargi says:
I have done my M.A in English Literature from Jadavpur University and am currently doing my M.Phil at the School Of Women's Studies, Jadavpur University. My interests include literature in Bengali, English and Hindi. I am also a theatre aficionado. I am particularly interested in caste, gender and sexuality studies. I am also with a group called "Bangla Beyond Bhadrolok" that is devoted to studying, discussing and translating literature from the margins. Finally, I am gradually training myself to be a perfect addabaj!!!

Anita Bharti

Anita Bharti's photo.

Anita Bharti
Born9 February 1965 (age 49)
Seelampur, Delh
OccupationDalit writer,activist & lecturer
Anita Bharti is a Dalit writer and activist. She is a well-known dalit women writer. She has also gained popularity due to her tough critiques over Dalit Literature
Literacy work
Samajik Krantikari:Gabdu Ram Balmiki(Biography)


  • Radhakrishan Shikshak Puraskar
  • Indira Gandhi Shikshak Samman
  • Delhi Rajya Shikshak Samman
  • Birsa Munda Samman
  • Jhalkari Bai Rashtriya Sewa Samman

Post Held

She is secratary of Dalit Lekhak Sangh (Dalit Writers Association)

Personal life

She had an intercaste marriage with a Rajput person Rajeev.R.Singh. 
Arpita Arya - Journalist

Arun Krushnaji Kamble

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Arun Krushnaji Kamble

Professor Arun Kamble
March 14, 1953
Kargani, Athpadi, Sangli, Maharastra, India
December 20, 2009(aged 56)
Hydrabad, India
Political party
Dalit Panther, Janata Dal
Aparant Kamble
Ashutosh Kamble
Arun Krushnaji Kamble अरुण कृष्णाजी कांबळे (March 14, 1953 – December 2009) was a Marathi writer and Dalit activist. Arun Kamble, President and one of the founding members of the Dalit Panther was working as a Head Of Marathi department at University of Mumbai. He was National General Secretary of Janata Dal. He had taken many major decisions in favor of Dalit, Backward Class people and minorities.


Prof.Arun Kamble in early age.
Kamble formed Dalit Panther as a social organization alongside Namdeo Dhasal and Raja Dhale. Later Kamble became the National General Secretary of Janata Dal and worked with former prime minister V.P. Singh. He demanded the renaming of Marathwada University as Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar University. He started leading Dalit Panther from 1974. Kamble, a writer, poet and editor, authored many books such as Cultural Struggle in RamayanaConversion of Dr. Babasaheb AmbedkarCheevarVaad-SamvadYug-Pravartak AmbedkarChalvaliche Diwas, and Tarkateerth Ek Vadato-Vyaghyat. He was awarded with accolades such as "The Prabuddha Ratna Puraskar", Life Time Achievement International Award. Some of his work has been translated into English, German, French, Gujarati, Kannada, Telegu, Malyalam, Urdu (Dalit Awaz) and Hindi (Suraj ke Vansh-dhar).

Early days

Arun Kamble and Maisaheb Ambedkar in Dalit Panther days.
Kamble was born on March 14, 1953, in Mahar Dalit family of village-Kargani, Atpadi near Sangli. He was a follower of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as Dr.Ambedkar was an inspiration to him and Kamble's family converted to Buddhism because of him. His mother and father were School Headmasters in Sangli. His mother (Shantabai Kamble) and father (Krushnaji Kamble) have written autobiographies called Majya Jalmachi Chittarkatha and Mi Krushna respectively. His father was a well known personality in Kargani district.
Arun Kamble 3.JPG 


His school days were in Athapadi and Dighanchi at Sangli. He completed B.A. (honors) from Willingdon College, Deccan Education Society, Sangli in 1974. Later on he earned his M.A. from Siddhartha College in 1976 with distinction in "Shodhnibandh ani Shodhnibandhachi Lekhan Paddhati". His major interest was in Dalit literature and the Ambedkarite Movement.

Academic career

Prof. Arun Kamble discussing some issues with Former Prime minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi
He joined the Dr. Ambedkar College of Commerce and Economics, Wadala, Mumbai in 1976 as a lecturer of Marathi (1976–1985). Later he joined Kirti College, Dadar (W), Mumbai (1985–1989). In 1990 he joined the University of Mumbai as a reader. Until his death he was a PhD Guide in Marathi Department and was also the Head of Phule, Shahu chair in University of Mumbai.

Political and social career

Kamble was the national president and one of the founding members of Dalit Panther. He was also national general secretary of Janata Dal, a member of the National Election Committee — Janata Dal (Parliamentary Board), and a member of national committee and in charge of Bihar State. He successfully led the Namantar Andolan of Marathwada University as a president of Dalit Panther.
After a dispute arose on the book of Riddles in Hinduism (appendix, Riddles of Ram & Krishna) authored by Ambedkar, Kamble led intellectual fight and march in procession with ten lakh people (January 1987) and the provision for reservation to Buddhist, Backward class, and minorities from prime minister Vishwanath Pratap Singh. He got promises and assurance to implement the Mandal Commission, with immediate effect (1989).
Professor Arun Kamble in conversation with former Prime Minister V.P. Singh.
This picture was taken during the World Conference on Buddha, Phule, Ambedkar's Literature at Kalyan (Maharashtra).
Kamble resigned from Janata Dal on the issue of Dalit president of India. He led the march as a president of Dalit Panther during an Assembly Session at Nagpur on the issue to publish Ambedkar's complete body of literature (1979). He later worked as a member of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Charitra Sadhane Publication which was borne by march.
Kamble worked as a editor for the book Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Writings & Speeches. Government-placed decisions to omit a part from the appendix (Riddles in Hinduism, 4th series of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Writings and Speeches) for this issue caused him to leave the editor's committee and file lawsuit in the High Court against the government.
He inaugurated the Manusmruti Cremation Conference at Karur by Dravida Kazhagam who founded by Periyar E. V. Ramasamy (1983). He also inaugurated and led the march to protest against the outrageous behavior on Dalit at Karamchedu (1987). He led Samajik Nyay Jyoti (Social Justice Flame) with Ram Vilas Paswan from Chundur to New Delhi (1992).

This logo was used from 1976 in Dalit Panther. Their preamble shows (Samyak Kranti Hamara Sankalp)
He was the chief guest at the All India Dalit Writer's Conference (October 1987) and worked as a convener of the 'All India Dalit Writer's Association. He inaugurated the Social Gathering of Dalit Literature at Bangalore (1986) and gave a speech on the conference of the Namantar-Mandal Commission (1984). He inaugurated the 9th Marathi Conference at Badoda (1995) and gave a speech at the conference on All Indian Dalit Liberation (December 6, 1987). He undertook editorial work for the periodicals Ambedkar BharatShunya, and Sangharsh.

Committee undertakings

Kamble worked as a member for the National Police Commission and as a committee member on the advisory board of Special Department for Scheduled Caste & Scheduled Tribe at the University of Mumbai. He was president for 3rd All India Conference on Ambedkar's Literature at Wardha and president at the World Conference on Buddha, Phule, on Ambedkar's Literature at Kalyan (March 23–25, 2002).

Major works

Poetical works

  • "Arun Krushnaji Kamble", 1983 Awarded as Best Poetry Collection by Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad.
  • "Mudra" (Upcoming book)

Prose works

Prime minister V.P.Singh gifted his own painting of Buddha(his own creation) to Prof. Arun Kamble.
  • "Ramayanatil Samskrutik Sangharsh"- (Cultural Struggle in Ramayana - Critical study of Ramayana) This book earn immense publicity in Mumbai and Hydrabad High Court as Research work. Panther Publication 1982, 1987
  • "Ramayanma Samskrutik Sangharsh"- Published by Subhash Palekar on Dec 6, 1993.
  • "Janata Patratil Lekh"(JanataDr.B.R.Ambedkar, Edited by Arun Kamble -7 appendices and 47 pages preface) Published by University of Mumbai and Popular Publication, 1993.
  • "Cheevar"-(Essays on Literature and Culture),Ashay Publication, 1995.
  • "Yug Pravartak Ambedkar"-(Epoch Making Ambedkar) Ashay Publication, 1995.
  • "Chalvache Diwas"- (Reminisances of the Agitations), Ashay Publication, 1995.
  • "Vad Samvad"-(Debate and Dialog) an Intellectual Prose, Pratima Publication - 1996,Pune.
  • "Dharmantarachi Bheemgarjana" Conversion of Dr. B.R.Ambedkar) - Pratima Publication - 1996,Pune.
  • "Marathi Intellectual Prose", Edited by Arun Kamble and other, Text prepared for B.A. (University of Mumbai), Pratima Publication,2003.
  • "Tarkateerth Ek Vadata Vyadhat", Critical writing on Luxman Shastri Joshi,Ambedkar Bharat Publication, 1987.


  • "Priya Adarker" translated a selection of his poems into English under the title Arun Kamble: ARUN KRUSHNAJI KAMBLE, Poems.
  • "Modern Indian Poetry" Published by Pritish Nandy.
  • "An Anthology of Dalit Literature", Edited by Eleanor Zelliot and Mulk Raj Anand.
  • Poems published on the cover page, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, Journals of Michigan University,USA 1978 & 1998.
  • "Some Aspects of Half Social Justice, Krishna Aiyar
  • From "Untouchable to Dalit", Eleanor Zelliot(Carleton College,USA), Manohar 2005.
  • "Poisoned Bread" Edited by Arjun Dangle, Orient Longman and Co. 1992.
Kamble Family tree diagram 2.JPG


  • Speech at Panvel
  • Speech at Pandharpur
  • Speech at Amaravati
  • Speech at Parbhani
  • Documentary on Dalits (Mumbai's Way: Il buddismo negli slum. Visita a Daharawi con il Dr. Arun Kamble)


Kamble was found dead in a lake at Hyderabad. News of his suspected death in a mysterious manner came as a major shock to his friends in socio-political circles. Kamble had gone to Hyderabad on December 13, 2009 to take part in an International Seminar at Birla Scientific Institute in Saifabad and went missing the next day

Anand Teltumbde

Is a management rofessional,writer, civil rights activist, and political analyst. He has authored many books translated widely in most Indian languages) on various issues relating to Peoples' movement with particular emphasis on Left and Dalits and is a noted scholar on the subject.He has extensively written in English and Marathi in popular newspapers and magazines commenting on contemporary issues. He is a regular contributor to magazines like Outlook India, Tehelka, Mainstream, Seminar, Frontier, and Economic & Political Weekly in which he writes a regular column 'Margin Speak'.

Born in a family of landless labourers, he had a brilliant academic career throughout his education.


He has BE (Mechanical) from VNIT, Nagpur; PGDM (IIM, Ahmeddabad), FEI (I), Ph D (Management). He held responsible position in corporate sector such as Executive Director, Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. and Managing Director and CEO, Petronet India Ltd. He also handled important assignments in Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania and China.
Worked on many important industry and government committees and was a member of the study group on Petroleum Deregulation in 1995.
He has taught at various management institutes to post graduates and doctoral students and has been a Ph D examiner for various universities. Published more than 20 research papers in reputed international journals in the areas of Production Research, Ergonomics, Information Technology and Business Strategy.
Had a parallel career as an activist since student days during which he held many elected positions. He has actively participated in movements of unorganized and workers in informal sectors, slum dwellers, and Dalits and has been a noted activist in civil rights movement as a member of Committee for Protection of Democratic Rights (CPDR). He has participated more than 100 fact-finding missions in the incidents of civil rights violations and communal crimes.
As a noted public intellectual, he has delivered scores of public speeches on issues of public interests and education. He has delvered more than 100 memorial lectures and key note speeches in academic conferences in India and abroad.
He edited Marathi working class monthly - Thinagi (The Spark)and worked on the editorial boards of Samaj Prabodhan Patrika, Vidrohi and other progressive magazines. He has pioneered a critique of neoliberal globalization in India from a viewpoint of downtrodden people with a book (Marathi) published in 1995 and thereafter numerous papers, pamphlets and articles.
He received many prestigious awards and recognitions such as Vikas Ratna, Ambedkar Centenary Award (UK), Ram Manohar Lohia Centenary Award, Maharashtra Foundation (USA) Award for Social Work (2008) and Maharashtra Foundation (USA) Award (2010) for the book- Samrajyavadvirodh ani Jati Vinash.

He teaches Management at the School of Management IIT Kharagpur.

Arundhati Roy

From Wikipedia

Arundhati Roy

Arundhati Roy speaking at Harvard University in April 2010.
Born24 November 1961 (age 51)
Shillong, Meghalaya, India
OccupationNovelist, essayist, activist
Period1997 – present
Notable work(s)The God of Small Things
Notable award(s)Man Booker Prize (1997)
Sydney Peace Prize (2004)

Arundhati Roy (born 24 November 1961) is an Indian author and political activist who was best known for the 1998 Man Booker Prize for Fiction winning novel The God of Small Things (1997) and for her involvement in environmental and human rights causes. Roy’s novel became the biggest-selling book by a nonexpatriate Indian author.
Early life and background
Arundhati Roy was born in Shillong, Meghalaya, India to Ranjit Roy, a Bengali Hindu tea planter and Mary Roy, a Malayali Syrian Christian women's rights activist.
She spent her childhood in Aymanam in Kerala, and went to school at Corpus Christi, Kottayam, followed by the Lawrence School, Lovedale, in Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu. She then studied architecture at the School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi, where she met her first husband, architect Gerard da Cunha.
Roy met her second husband, filmmaker Pradip Krishen, in 1984, and played a village girl in his award-winning movie Massey Sahib. Until made financially secure by the success of her novel The God of Small Things, she worked various jobs, including running aerobics classes at five-star hotels in New Delhi. Roy is a cousin of prominent media personality Prannoy Roy, the head of the leading Indian TV media group NDTV. She lives in New Delhi.

Early career: screenplays

Early in her career, Roy worked for television and movies. She wrote the screenplays for In Which Annie Gives It Those Ones (1989), a movie based on her experiences as a student of architecture, which she also appeared as a performer, and Electric Moon (1992), both directed by her current husband Pradip Krishen. Roy attracted attention in 1994, when she criticised Shekhar Kapur's film Bandit Queen, based on the life of Phoolan Devi. In her film review entitled, "The Great Indian Rape Trick", she questioned the right to "restage the rape of a living woman without her permission," and charged Kapur with exploiting Devi and misrepresenting both her life and its meaning.

The God of Small Things

Roy began writing her first novel, The God of Small Things, in 1992, completing it in 1996. The book is semi-autobiographical and a major part captures her childhood experiences in Aymanam.
The publication of The God of Small Things catapulted Roy to instant international fame. It received the 1997 Booker Prize for Fiction and was listed as one of the New York Times Notable Books of the Year for 1997. It reached fourth position on the New York Times Bestsellers list for Independent Fiction. From the beginning, the book was also a commercial success: Roy received half a million pounds as an advance; It was published in May, and the book had been sold to eighteen countries by the end of June.
The God of Small Things received stellar reviews in major American newspapers such as The New York Times (a "dazzling first novel," "extraordinary," "at once so morally strenuous and so imaginatively supple". and the Los Angeles Times ("a novel of poignancy and considerable sweep".), and in Canadian publications such as the Toronto Star ("a lush, magical novel"). By the end of the year, it had become one of the five best books of 1997 by TIME. Critical response in the United Kingdom was less positive, and that the novel was awarded the Booker Prize caused controversy; Carmen Callil, a 1996 Booker Prize judge, called the novel "execrable," and The Guardian called the contest "profoundly depressing." In India, the book was criticised especially for its unrestrained description of sexuality by E. K. Nayanar, then Chief Minister of Roy's homestate Kerala, where she had to answer charges of obscenity.

Later career

Since the success of her novel, Roy has been working as a screenplay writer again, writing a television serial, The Banyan Tree, and the documentary DAM/AGE: A Film with Arundhati Roy(2002).
In early 2007, Roy announced that she would begin work on a second novel.
Arundhati Roy was one of the contributors on the book We Are One: A Celebration of Tribal Peoples, released in October 2009.The book explores the culture of peoples around the world, portraying their diversity and the threats to their existence. The royalties from the sale of this book go to the indigenous rights organisation Survival International
Advocacy and controversy

Since The God of Small Things Roy has devoted herself mainly to nonfiction and politics, publishing two more collections of essays, as well as working for social causes. She is a spokesperson of the anti-globalization/alter-globalization movement and a vehement critic of neo-imperialism and of the global policies of the United States. She also criticises India's nuclear weapons policies and the approach to industrialisation and rapid development as currently being practised in India, including the Narmada Dam project and the power company Enron's activities in India.

Support for Kashmiri separatism

In an interview with the Times of India published in August 2008, Arundhati Roy expressed her support for the independence of Kashmir from India after massive demonstrations in favour of independence took place—some 500,000 separatists rallied in Srinagar in the Kashmir part of Jammu and Kashmirstate of India for independence on 18 August 2008, following the Amarnath land transfer controversy. According to her, the rallies were a sign that Kashmiris desire secession from India, and not union with India She was criticised by Indian National Congress (INC) and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) for her remarks.
AICC member and senior Congress party leader Satya Prakash Malaviya asked Roy to withdraw her irresponsible statement saying it was 'contrary to historical facts'.
"She must withdraw her statement which is contrary to historical facts and could mislead the nation as well as the international community,"
"It would do better to brush up her knowledge of history and know that the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir had acceded to the Union of India after its erstwhile rulerMaharaja Hari Singh duly signed the Instrument of Accession on October 26, 1947. And the state, consequently has become as much an integral part of India as all the other erstwhile princely states have."

Sardar Sarovar Project

Roy has campaigned along with activist Medha Patkar against the Narmada dam project, saying that the dam will displace half a million people, with little or no compensation, and will not provide the projected irrigation, drinking water and other benefits. Roy donated her Booker prize money as well as royalties from her books on the project to the Narmada Bachao Andolan. Roy also appears in Franny Armstrong's Drowned Out, a 2002 documentary about the project. Roy's opposition to the Narmada Dam project was criticised as "maligning Gujarat" by Congress and BJP leaders in Gujarat.
In 2002, Roy responded to a contempt notice issued against her by the Indian Supreme Court with an affidavit saying the court's decision to initiate the contempt proceedings based on an unsubstantiated and flawed petition, while refusing to inquire into allegations of corruption in military contracting dealspleading an overload of cases, indicated a "disquieting inclination" by the court to silence criticism and dissent using the power of contempt. The court found Roy's statement, which she refused to disavow or apologise for, constituted criminal contempt and sentenced her to a "symbolic" one day's imprisonment and fined Roy Rs. 2500. Roy served the jail sentence for a single day and opted to pay the fine rather than serve an additional three months' imprisonment for default.
Environmental historian Ramachandra Guha has been critical of Roy's Narmada dam activism. While acknowledging her "courage and commitment" to the cause, Guha writes that her advocacy is hyperbolic and self-indulgent, "Ms. Roy's tendency to exaggerate and simplify, her Manichean view of the world, and her shrill hectoring tone, have given a bad name to environmental analysis". He faults Roy's criticism of Supreme Court judges who were hearing a petition brought by the Narmada Bachao Andolan as careless and irresponsible.
Roy counters that her writing is intentional in its passionate, hysterical tone: "I am hysterical. I'm screaming from the bloody rooftops. And he and his smug little club are going 'Shhhh... you'll wake the neighbours!' I want to wake the neighbours, that's my whole point. I want everybody to open their eyes".
Gail Omvedt and Roy have had fierce discussions, in open letters, on Roy's strategy for the Narmada Dam movement. Though the activists disagree on whether to demand stopping the dam building altogether (Roy) or searching for intermediate alternatives (Omvedt), the exchange has mostly been, though critical, constructive.

Roy sees American-style capitalism as the culprit: "In America, the arms industry, the oil industry, the major media networks, and, indeed, US foreign policy, are all controlled by the same business combines." She puts the attacks on the World Trade Center and on

Afghanistan on the same moral level, that of terrorism, and mourns the impossibility of imagining beauty after 2001: "Will it be possible ever again to watch the slow, amazed blink of a newborn gecko in the sun, or whisper back to the marmot who has just whispered in your ear – without thinking of the World Trade Centre and Afghanistan?"

In May 2003 she delivered a speech entitled "Instant-Mix Imperial Democracy (Buy One, Get One Free)" at the Riverside Church in New York City. In it she described the United States as a global empire that reserves the right to bomb any of its subjects at any time, deriving its legitimacy directly from God. The speech was an indictment of the U.S. actions relating to the Iraq War. In June 2005 she took part in the World Tribunal on Iraq. In March 2006, Roy criticised US President George W. Bush's visit to India, calling him a "war criminal"

India's nuclear weaponisation

In response to India's testing of nuclear weapons in Pokhran, Rajasthan, Roy wrote The End of Imagination (1998), a critique of the Indian government's nuclear policies. It was published in her collection The Cost of Living (1999), in which she also crusaded against India's massive hydroelectric dam projects in the central and western states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.

Criticism of Israel

In August 2006, Roy, along with Noam Chomsky, Howard Zinn, and others, signed a letter in The Guardian called the 2006 Lebanon War a "war crime" and accused Israel of "state terror." In 2007, Roy was one of more than 100 artists and writers who signed an open letter initiated by Queers Undermining Israeli Terrorism and the South West Asian, North African Bay Area Queers and calling on the San Francisco International LGBT Film Festival "to honor calls for an international boycott of Israeli political and cultural institutions, by discontinuing Israeli consulate sponsorship of the LGBT film festival and not cosponsoring events with the Israeli consulate."

2001 Indian Parliament attack

Roy has raised questions about the investigation into the 2001 Indian Parliament attack and the trial of the accused. She has called for the death sentence of Mohammad Afzal to be stayed while a parliamentary enquiry into these questions are conducted and denounced press coverage of the trial. The Bharatiya Janata Party spokesperson Prakash Javadekar criticised Roy for calling convicted terrorist Mohammad Afzal a 'prisoner-of-war' and called Arundhati a 'prisoner of her own dogma'.
He further said,
"No country has ever witnessed such kind of defense of a terrorist. They have gone beyond an academic discussion on capital punishment"

The Muthanga incident

In 2003, the Adivasi Gothra Maha Sabha, a social movement for adivasi land rights in Kerala, organised a major land occupation of a piece of land of a former Eucalyptus plantation in theMuthanga Wildlife Reserve, on the border of Kerala and Karnataka. After 48 days, a police force was sent into the area to evict the occupants—one participant of the movement and a policeman were killed, and the leaders of the movement were arrested. Arundhati Roy travelled to the area, visited the movement's leaders in jail, and wrote an open letter to the then Chief Minister of Kerala, A.K. Antonynow India's Defence Minister, saying "You have blood on your hands."

Comments on 2008 Mumbai attacks

In an opinion piece for The Guardian (13 December 2008), Roy argued that the November 2008 Mumbai attacks cannot be seen in isolation, but must be understood in the context of wider issues in the region's history and society such as widespread poverty, the Partition of India (which Roy calls "Britain's final, parting kick to us"), the atrocities committed during the 2002 Gujarat violence, and the ongoing conflict in Kashmir. Despite this call for context, Roy states clearly in the article that she believes "nothing can justify terrorism" and calls terrorism "a heartless ideology." Roy warns against war with Pakistan, arguing that it is hard to "pin down the provenance of a terrorist strike and isolate it within the borders of a single nation state", and that war could lead to the "descent of the whole region into chaos" Her remarks were strongly criticised by Salman Rushdie and others, who condemned her for linking the Mumbai attacks with Kashmir and economic injustice against Muslims in India;Rushdie specifically criticised Roy for attacking the iconic status of the Taj Mahal Palace & Tower Indian writer Tavleen Singh called Roy's comments "the latest of her series of hysterical diatribes against India and all things Indian."

Criticism of Sri Lanka

In an opinion piece, once again in The Guardian (1 April 2009), Roy made a plea for international attention to what she called a possible government-sponsored genocide of Tamils in Sri Lanka. She cited reports of camps into which Tamils were being herded as part of what she described as "a brazen, openly racist war." She also mentioned that the "Government of Sri Lanka is on the verge of committing what could end up being genocide" and described the Sri Lankan IDP camps where Tamil civilians are being held as concentration camps. Ruvani Freeman, a Sri Lankan writer called Roy's remarks "ill-informed and hypocritical" and criticised her for "whitewashing the atrocities of theLTTE." Roy has said of such accusations: "I cannot admire those whose vision can only accommodate justice for their own and not for everybody. However I do believe that the LTTE and its fetish for violence was cultured in the crucible of monstrous, racist, injustice that the Sri Lankan government and to a great extent Sinhala society visited on the Tamil people for decades."

Views on the Naxalites

Roy has criticised Government's armed actions against the Naxalite-Maoist insurgents in India, calling it "war on the poorest people in the country". According to her, the Government has "abdicated its responsibility to the people"] and launched the offensive against Naxals to aid the corporations with whom it has signed Memorandums of Understanding. While she has received support from various quarters for her views Roy's description of the Maoists as "Gandhians" raised a controversy In other statements, she has described Naxalites as "patriot of a kind" who are "fighting to implement the Constitution, (while) the government is vandalising it". Many commentators have hypothesized that Roy does not hold sympathy for the victims of Maoist terrorism and have called her a "Maoist sympathiser."
You cannot equate violence of the resistance with the structural violence of the Indian state which is resulting in 250,000 farmers killing themselves, 80% of the population living in poverty. You really can’t equate the two. And that’s what many people do.
— Arundhati Roy

Criticism of Anna Hazare

On 21 August 2011, at the height of Anna Hazare's anti-corruption campaign, Arundhati Roy severely criticised Hazare and his movement in an opinion-piece published in The Hindu. In the course of the article, she questions Hazare's secular credentials, points out the campaign's corporate backing, its suspicious timing, Hazare's silence on private-sector corruption and on other critical issues of the day, expressing her fear that the Lokpal will only end up creating "two oligarchies, instead of just one." She states that while "his means maybe Gandhian, his demands are certainly not", and alleges that by "demonising only the Government they" are preparing to call for "more privatisation, more access topublic infrastructure and India's natural resources", satirically adding that it "may not be long before Corporate Corruption is made legal and renamed a Lobbying Fee." Roy also accuses the electronic media of blowing the campaign out of proportion. Roy's comparison of the Jan Lokpal Bill with the Maoists: claiming both sought "the overthrow of the Indian State" met with resentment from members of Team Anna; Medha Patkar reacted sharply calling Roy's comments "highly misplaced" and chose to emphasise the "peaceful, non-violent" nature of the movement.

Sedition charges

In November 2010, Roy (along with Syed Ali Shah Geelani and five others) was brought up on charges of sedition by the Delhi Police. The filing of the FIR came following a directive from a local court on a petition filed by Sushil Pandit who alleged that Geelani and Roy made anti-India speeches at a conference on "Azadi-the Only Way" on 21 October 2010. In the words of Arundhati Roy "Kashmir has never been an integral part of India. It is an a historical fact. Even the Indian government has accepted this". A Delhi city court directed the police to respond to the demand for a criminal case after the central government declined to charge Roy, saying that the charges were inappropriate.


Arundhati Roy was awarded the 1997 Booker Prize for her novel The God of Small Things. The award carried a prize of about US $30,000 and a citation that noted, "The book keeps all the promises that it makes." Prior to this, she won the National Film Award for Best Screenplay in 1989, for the screenplay of In Which Annie Gives It Those Ones, in which she captured the anguish among the students prevailing in professional institutions.
In 2002, she won the Lannan Foundation's Cultural Freedom Award for her work "about civil societies that are adversely affected by the world’s most powerful governments and corporations," in order "to celebrate her life and her ongoing work in the struggle for freedom, justice and cultural diversity."
In 2003, she was awarded 'special recognition' as a Woman of Peace at the Global Exchange Human Rights Awards in San Francisco with Bianca Jagger, Barbara Lee and Kathy Kelly.
Roy was awarded the Sydney Peace Prize in May 2004 for her work in social campaigns and her advocacy of non-violence.
In January 2006, she was awarded the Sahitya Akademi Award, a national award from India's Academy of Letters, for her collection of essays on contemporary issues, The Algebra of Infinite Justice, but she declined to accept it "in protest against the Indian Government toeing the US line by 'violently and ruthlessly pursuing policies of brutalisation of industrial workers, increasing militarisation and economic neo-liberalisation.'"
In November 2011, she was awarded the Norman Mailer Prize for Distinguished Writing.


  • The God of Small Things. Flamingo, 1997.
  • The End of Imagination. Kottayam: D.C. Books, 1998.
  • The Cost of Living. Flamingo, 1999.. Contains the essays "The Greater Common Good" and "The End of Imagination."
  • The Greater Common Good. Bombay: India Book Distributor, 1999. 
  • The Algebra of Infinite Justice. Flamingo, 2002. Collection of essays: "The End of Imagination," "The Greater Common Good," "Power Politics", "The Ladies Have Feelings, So...," "The Algebra of Infinite Justice," "War is Peace," "Democracy," "War Talk", and "Come September."
  • Power Politics. Cambridge: South End Press, 2002.
  • War Talk. Cambridge: South End Press, 2003.
  • Foreword to Noam Chomsky, For Reasons of State. 2003.
  • An Ordinary Person's Guide To Empire. Consortium, 2004. 
  • Public Power in the Age of Empire Seven Stories Press, 2004.
  • The Checkbook and the Cruise Missile: Conversations with Arundhati Roy. Interviews by David Barsamian. Cambridge: South End Press, 2004.
  • Introduction to 13 December, a Reader: The Strange Case of the Attack on the Indian Parliament. New Delhi, New York: Penguin, 2006.
  • The Shape of the Beast: Conversations with Arundhati Roy. New Delhi: Penguin, Viking, 2008
  • Listening to Grasshoppers: Field Notes on Democracy. New Delhi: Penguin, Hamish Hamilton, 2009

Ambadas Shinde

Bhimsen Dethe

Bhau Panchbhai

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bhau Panchbhai.jpg
Bhau Panchabhai (1 March 1944 - 21Jan 2016) was a Marathi poet, writer, and Dalit activist. Panchbhai is best known for his first poetry collection Hunkaar Vadaalnche (हुंकार वादळांचे) for which he was awarded by the Government of Maharashtra for the best poetry collection of 1989. His poetry is considered as a prototype of Ambedkarite poetry and is translated in various languages including English. He lived in Nagpur and worked as a lawyer. He was awarded Laxmibai Ingole Kavya Puruskar by the Laxmibai Ingole Foundation Amravati in 2015 for his contribution to Ambedkarite literature.

Ambedkarite Activist

He was active in the Ambedkarite movement and Panthers of India.
(1) Hunkaar vaadalaanche ( हुंकार वादळांचे )1989.
(2) NikhaRyaa.nchyaa RaangoLyaa ( निखाऱ्यांच्या रांगोळ्या )2004.
(3) Abhanganchya Thingya ( अभंगांच्या ठिणग्या )2014.
(4) Spandanpisara ( स्पंदनपिसारा )2014.
(5) Aakantgandha ( आकांतगंधा ) Being Released Shortly...
(1) Jakhamancha Ajintha ( जखमांचा अजिंठा )1992.
(1) Samajkranti ( समाजक्रांती )1992.


Bandhu Madhav

Dev Kumar

Dev Kumar (born February 6, 1972) is a Dalit writer and dramatist.
Early life and career
Dev Kumar belonging to the Bhangi community, was born on 6 February 1972 in Haddi Godam locality of Kanpur. His mother Smt. Ganga Devi worked as a maid-servant in a school and his father Shri Prabhu dayal was a Supervisor in Municipal Corporation, Kanpur. He had four children and, thus, the burden of their up bring and education was enormous. But it did not deter him from encouraging his children to join school to obtain education. Dev had his primary education in a school set up by members of his own community and was situated in his own locality. All students in his school were either Dalits or Muslims. Not a single upper caste student even studied there. He passed his 8th standard from this school in the year 1984. In 1987 he passed his High School from Bishambhar Nath Sanatan Dharma Inter College, Kanpur. He sought admission in the Christ Church College for pursuing his in 1991. He was admitted to the college, but this time his fortune had something different for him in store. When he was in the 1st year of his graduation, his father died; a trauma too severe for a man struggling economically to raise his educational status. Suddenly, all his dreams were shattered, and he had no option but to leave his studies. Being the eldest in the family, he had to shoulder the entire responsibility of looking after his ailing mother and other members of the family. As per law of the land, he was offered a job on his father’s post i.e. a supervisor in the Municipal Corporation which he accepted with a heavy heart.
During his early days he encountered multiple instances of discrimination on account of being a Dalit, and that too a Bhangi, a torment that he had to bear for no fault of his. What afflicted him more was his neglect by the members of the other Dalit communities, as the community of sweepers was considered to be the lowest in their hierarchy. While studying in Inter College, one day he missed his classes. The next day, a Brahman class fellow of his inquired from him the reason for his absence. He replied, “I had gone to the dentist for getting one of my teeth extracted”. On this his friend knocked him down with his shoes, saying “When you people perform everything with your own hand why should you visit a doctor for this”. Dev was amazed and failed to understand the hidden meaning in this act.
The insult he met in his intermediate class was not a solitary incident of rebuke and repression. There were several other such humiliating and tormenting experiences. He began to understand what all this meant after reading the works of Ambedkar. Ambedkar gave him the vision through which he viewed not only his own past, but also the shortcomings in the Dalit communities and the injustice meted out to them by the savarna (the upper caste people). Ambedkar’s books transformed his perception of life, and evoked in him the zeal to work for the uplift of the marginalized communities. He pondered for many days on the status of the culturally marginalized communities. How to improve their condition? How to bring them out from a history that stretched so much into the past? At this critical moment, Ambedkar’s thought helped him to formulate strategies. Pen to him was mightier than the sword. So he took to writing booklets.

Literature work

‘More Bazaar’ was his first booklet to be published from the money he had saved from his tuition fee in 1992–1993. He published other booklets which include ‘Haan Haan Haan Main Bhangi Hoon’. Two booklets ‘Dom Se Mahar Tak’ and ‘Aatmaghati Dasta’ are the in press. His unpublished writings include Bhangi Tola, Yugdarshan-Sudarshan, Meri Lal Diary, Bheem Bawani (Poems), Vo Jhelti Gaadi, Bharat Mein Bhangi: Bhangi Mein Bharat, Abhang Shastra, Barood and Bhangiyon Ke Bachche. His desire for social transformation is so deep that he has no reluctance in paying for the publication, even at the cost of his means of livelihood.

Dramatic work

Conscious of the fact that the booklets do not reach out to all sections of society, he set up his own theatre known as ‘Apna Theatre’ on 14 April 1992. Through the medium of this theatre, he strives to awaken consciousness among the people of the Dalit communities. His first Natak (drama), ‘Daastan’, was based on the ill deeds of the Aryans. His other plays include Nakhuda, Bhadra Angulimaal, Chakradhari, Sudarshan, Kapat, Bhulni, Bhamti, Lautri Ke Beemar, Nihang, Agyat Etihaas (based on Veerangana Udadevi Pasi), Amar Shaheed Matadin Bhangi and Jamadaar Ka Kurta, etc.

Social work

In the year 2000, he also started publication of a bi-monthly newsletter called ‘Jai Bhim’, which was completely dedicated to the Dalit issues. But it closed down in 2001 due to financial crisis. He organized discussions among children, helping them to learn about leading a respectful life, unlike his own. He brings out pamphlets for distribution in different localities. These pamphlets contain messages to awaken self-respect among the people and develop a feeling of pride in being a member of their own community. But now he is a disillusioned man due to the attitude of indifference and apathy of his own community members towards his efforts. They refuse to give up their traditional occupation of sweeping. To inspire them, he has created captions like ‘Jharu ke upar kalam, kalam ke upar taj’, (pen over broom, crown over pen). His other slogans are, ‘Jharu chodo Kalam Pakdo’ (Leave broom, hold pen) and ‘Vote se raj tak, jharu se taj tak’(From vote to governance, from broom to crown). Despite his community’s attitude he refuses to lose faith in future and believes that the tears of Baba Saheb Ambedkar will never let him sleep and always encourage his dream of establishing an egalitarian social system. His passion for social work propels him to do anything and everything for the uplift of the marginalized communities.

Dagdu Maruti Pawar

Daya Pawar or Dagdu Maruti Pawar (1935–20 December 1996) was born to a Mahar Dalit family in Dhamangaon (Taluka: Akole, District: Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India), was a Marathi author and poet known for his contributions to Dalit literature that dealt with the atrocities experienced by the dalits or untouchables under the Hindu caste system.



He gained fame for his autobiographical 1978 novel Baluta  written as a story by Dagdu Pawar being told to the more literate Daya Pawar, with both being personas of the author. The novel recounts the "experiences of an untouchable struggling for a peaceful existence, mentally tormented but incapable of retaliation in word and deed." There was "strong anti-Dalit reaction" when it was published in Maharashtra.
Baluta created ripples in the literature circles and earned him many awards at all levels, including one from the Ford Foundation. It got translated into several languages. The strengths of the book are the simple, straightforward and to-the-point portrayal and a transparent realistic illustration of the ethos around him. This book created a new genre in Marathi literature. Many autobiographical books talking about harsh experiences hard realities were written after Baluta. What is special about Daya Pawar is his use of language which is not merely that of revolt but of a deeply introspecting analytical intellectual.
Deshpande reviews Baluta: "On reading this book the cataract of blind traditions stuck to our eyes that makes us unaware of facts will melt away in the tears that fill our eyes on seeing this horrifying reality will emerge new rays of hope. Reader will then seek to be more humane henceforth in life, What else is the intent of all good literature? Creating new kinship among mankind and free the society from artificial and vexing bonds, right? The same can be said for all Pawar s literature."

Poetry and other work

Although he earned fame through his autobiographical prose in Baluta, poetry was his forte. He gave expression to the oppression of the Dalits through his verse.

"Shilekhali haat hota, tari nahi phodla hambarda,

Kitr janmachi kaid, kuni nirmila ha kondvada"

(The hand was crushed under a stone, yet no outcry was heard

How many generations of imprisonment? Who created this prison?)
With effective verses like the above from his first collections of poems Kondvada, he voiced the atrocities and oppression faced by generations of Dalit. Published in 1974, Kondvada earned him a literary award from the State.
Among his other famous works are Chavdi and Dalit Jaanivaa, two of his compilation of articles, andVittal, a collection of short stories. He wrote the screenplay for Jabbar Patel s film Dr. Ambedkar. He was appointed with the National Film Development Corporation. Pawar won the prestigious Padmashri award the Government of India.
Pawar s writing s reflects his active participation in the social, cultural and literary movements on the national level, his avid following of foreign literature, analytical and contemplative thinking, unwavering stance, deep understanding and empathy towards social happenings and issues. His work was highly effective. He received some amount of recognition by way of awards. But due to oppressive circumstances, he suffered mentally and physically in his personal life. It is this perennial suffering that comes through sharply in his writings. One of his poems gives a feel for his suffering:

"Dukhaana gadgadtaana he zhaad me paahilela

Tashi yaachi mule kholvar boudhivrukshaasaarkhi

Boudhivrukshaala phula tari aali

He Zhaad saaryaa rutut kolpun gelela

Dhamani dhamanit phutu paahnaaryaa yaatanaa

Mahaarogyaachyaa botsanssarkhi zadleli paane 

He khod kasla? Phandiphandila jakhadleli kubdi

Maran yet naahi mhanun marankalaa sosnaara

Dukhaana gadgadtaanaa he zhaad me paahila"

(I have seen this tree tremble in pain

Albeit the tree has deep roots like the Bodhi tree

The Bodhi tree at least bore flowers

This tree though is withered in all seasons

Pain trying to burst through its very pore

Leaves withered like those of a leper s fingers

What is this disease? Crutches hung on every branch 

Death does not befall and so bearing the pains of death

I have seen this tree tremble in pain)


  • 1935 Birth
  • 1956 Joined as a clerk as well as a laboratory assistant in a veterinary college, Mumbai
  • 1967 First Dalit poem published in Asmitadarsh
  • 1968 Took active part in Dalit literature movement
  • 1969 First article on Dalit literature published in Pratisthan
  • 1972 Attended World Buddhist Conference in Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • 1975 Maharashtra Government Award for Kondwada
  • 1979 Maharashtra Government Award for Balute
  • 1982 Ford Foundation Fellowship, visited USA
  • 1984 Visited World Book Fair at Frankfurt and read a paper on Dalit literature
  • 1988-94 Member of textbook committee Bal Bharti
  • 1987-94 Member of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Source Material Publication Committee, Maharashtra State
  • 1990 Received Padmashri
  • 1993 Chairman Drama Pre-scrutiny Board, Maharashtra State
  • 1996 20 December, died in New Delhi.

D Gopi 

D.S.Ravindradoss, President, Tamil Nadu Union of Journalists; Vice-President, Indian Journalists Union

Daya Pawar

Giani Ditt Singh Ji - Famous Sikh Writer and Social Worker

Gurcharan Das

From Wikipedia

Gurcharan Das
Mr GD at New Delhi.jpg
Gurcharan Das
Born3 October 1943 (age 73)
Lyallpur, British India
OccupationAuthor, Commentator, public speaker, Intellectual.
Gurcharan Das (born 3 October 1943) is an Indian author, commentator and public intellectual. He is the author of The Difficulty of Being Good: On the subtle art of dharma which analyses the epic, Mahabharata. His international best-seller, India Unbound, is a narrative account of India from independence to the "global information age", and has been published in many languages and filmed by BBC.
He is a regular columnist for six Indian newspapers in English, Hindi, Telugu and Marathi. He writes periodic pieces for the New York TimesWall Street JournalFinancial TimesForeign Affairs, and Newsweek.
Gurcharan Das graduated with honours from Harvard University in Philosophy. He later attended Harvard Business School (AMP), where he is featured in three case studies. He was CEO of Procter & Gamble India and later managing director, Procter & Gamble Worldwide (Strategic Planning). In 1995, he took early retirement to become a full-time writer.
His other literary works include a novel, A Fine Family, a book of essays, The Elephant Paradigm, and anthology, Three English Plays.

Early life

Gurcharan Das was born in Lyallpur, India (now Faisalabad, Pakistan). His mildly autobiographical novel, A Fine Family, sheds light on his early life. After the partition of India, Das's family migrated to India. His father was an engineer with the government and he spent his childhood in Shimla and Delhi. When staying in Delhi he studied in Modern School, he also went to a high school in Washington D.C. when his father was posted there in the mid-1950s. He attended Harvard University and graduated with honours in Philosophy. He wrote his thesis under John Rawls. Later he attended Harvard Business School's Advanced Management Program, where he is featured in three case studies.


Gurcharan Das was the CEO of Procter & Gamble India and Vice-President for Procter & Gamble Far East between 1985 and 1992. He was later Vice-President and managing director, Procter & Gamble Worldwide, responsible for global strategic planning. Prior to P&G, he was chairman and managing director of Richardson Hindustan Limited from 1981 to 1985, the company where he started as a trainee.
At the end of 1994, after a 30-year career in six countries, he took early retirement to become a full-time writer.
He began to write a regular column on Sundays for The Times of India and continued to do so for 15 years. Gradually, he added Dainik Bhaskar, Prabhat Khabar, Eenadu, Sakal, andMathrubhumi. He also wrote occasional guest columns for Time and Newsweek magazines and occasional pieces for The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Financial Times,and Foreign Affairs .


Gurcharan Das has published India Grows at Night: A liberal case for a strong state in 2012. He is also general editor for a 15 volume series, The Story of Indian Business (Penguin) of which three volumes such as Arthashastra: The Science of Wealth, Merchants of Tamilakam: Pioneers of International Trade, The East India Company: The World's Most Powerful Corporation  have already appeared.
He is now mainly known for his two best-selling books, India Unbound and The Difficulty of Being GoodIndia Unbound, is a narrative account of India from Independence to the global information age, and has been published in over a dozen languages and filmed by BBC. The Difficulty of Being Good: On the subtle art of dharma (Penguin 2009) examines contemporary moral failures through the lens of the millennia year old epic, the Mahabharata.
India Unbound is mainly about the transformation of India from birth of the writer in (1942) to (1999). The author majorly speaks about the Indian politics and the economy of India. He categorises the complete timeline from 1942 to 1999 in three major sections: 'Spring of Hope (1942–65)', 'the Lost Generation (1966–91)' and 'Rebirth of Dream (1991–99)' and tells various stories (memoirs) and the historical facts of that time.
Gurcharan Das began to write soon after college. He wrote three plays in his twenties, which have been published as an anthology, Three English Plays (Oxford University Press, 2001). It consists of Larins Sahib, a prize-winning play about Sir Henry Lawrence and the British in India, which has been presented by Akademeia Repertory Theatre (ART) and its producer and artistic-director Rumi Palsetia, as the first-ever Indian theatre production in English, in the then 40-year history of the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, in 1991; Mira, which was produced off-Broadway to critical acclaim from New York critics; and 9 Jakhoo Hill which has been performed in major Indian cities. A new edition of the anthology, titled Three Plays, was published by Penguin India in 2011.
He wrote a novel in his thirties, A Fine Family, which follows the stories of several generations of a Punjabi family beginning with the Partition.
The Elephant Paradigm is a book of essays which covers subjects such as Panchayati raj, national competitiveness, and the sacred and philosophical concerns of the average Indian consequent to India's entry into what the author calls the "age of liberation."

Personal life

Gurcharan Das is married and lives with his wife in New Delhi, and has two children. He is a Classical Liberal.

Prof. Hari Narke (मराठीः प्रा. हरी नरके) Born on 1 June 1963 is a Scholar, Author and Orator of International repute. He is serving as professor and Head of Mahatma Phule Chair, in the University of Pune, India.

Early life

Prof. Hari Narke was born on 1 June 1963 in Ramchandra Narke and mother Sonabai Narke a very poor Mali caste family at Talegaon Dhamdhere, Tal. Shirur, Dist. Pune, Maharashtra, India. Prof. Narke's education was mostly in Pune. He has attended. He has completed his education by working in a graveyard
He is married to Sangita. They have a daughter Pramiti. Pramiti is attending her higher education.

List of works

Prof. Hari Narke is one of the prominent author of post globalized period of India. Till date he has penned 35 books on different issues in all three languages that are in Marathi, Hindi & English.
  • Mahatma Phule yanchi Badnaami - Ek Satyashodhan
  • Jnyanajyoti Savitribai Phule in second edition
  • OBC chya Bhavitavyavar Kurhad
  • Dalit Sahityachya Shodhat (Published at the hands of the then President of India K.R.Narayanan)
  • Mahatma Phule Shodhachya Navya Vata (Fifth edition)
  • Mahatma Phule Sahitya aur Vichaar - Published at the hands of the then President of India, Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma)
  • Mahatma Phule Samasta Sahitya - Vols. 1 to 4
  • Editor of Dr. Ambedkar’s speeches and writings, Vols. 17 to 22
  • Collected Works of Mahatma Phule, Vols. 1 to 3


Prof. Hari Narke has delivered 6,000 lectures in the last 30 years, lectures at London, Birmingham, Manchester, Bedford, Dubai, Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, Al-ain, Kathmandu, Lumbini were widely acclaimed.


  • ‘Samajbhushan Award’ by the Shahu Phule Ambedkar Vichaar Manch, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.
  • ‘Karandikar Trust’s award for researched writing’, Dharwad, Karnataka.
  • Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Dalitmitra award’ by the Government of Maharashtra.
  • ‘Best Orator award’ of the Aagya Publication Trust, Kolhapur.
  • ‘Dainik Mahanagar Award’ for scholarly writing.
  • ‘Samata Award’ by All India Mahatma Phule Samata Parishad.
  • ‘Best Professional Excellence Award’ by Rotary Club, Pune.

Special Contribution

  • Full-time contribution to the publication of Phule, Shahu, Ambedkar’s literature. Till date, Ambedkar’s literature has been translated and published in 13 languages and Phule’s in 9 languages.
  • Published 400 articles in well-known national newspapers and periodicals in the country. Participated in 70 programmes on television.
  • Presented research papers and delivered lectures at National Seminars in 40 Universities.
  • Taken initiative for the building of Mahtama Phule memorial at Pune, Savitribai Phule memorial at Naigaon (Satara) and the erection of Mahatma Phule’s statue at the Parliament of India.
  • Initiated the commemoration of 11 April Phule Jayanti and 14 April Dr.Ambedkar Jayanti jointly as well as commemoration of 3 January Savitribai Phule Jayanti and 12 January Jijau Jayanti jointly. Also initiated the government commemoration of Shahu Jayanti.
  • Chairperson of the Third All India Satyashodhak Literature Conference, Nagpur and First Satyashodhak Round Table Conference, Pune 2010.
  • Personal collection of Ten Thousand rare and precious books.

Additional responsibilities

  • Member-Secretary of Mahatma Phule Source Material Publication Committee, Govt. of Maharashtra, Mantralaya, Mumbai.
  • Member of MAaharashtra State Commission for backward classes.

Harsh Sawant

Heera Bansode

Hem Raj Phonsa

About me

OccupationExecutive Engineer (Retd),Chairman J&K Branch of the Institution of Valuers, All India Spokes Person the Bhartiya Dalit Sahitya Akademy Delhi& J&K Jammu
LocationJammu, Jammu & Kashmir, India
IntroductionAuthor of the book - Dr Ambedkar and His Associates.Spokesman of the Bhartiya Dalit Sahitya Akademy Delhi, J&K (Regd) Recipient of Dr Ambedkar National Award 2012 Dr. B.R. Ambedkar State Award ( J&K State) 1994 Dr. B.R. Ambedkar State Award ( J&K State) 1994 Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Distinguished Service Award 2003 Babu Jagjivan Ram centenary state( J&K) Award Dr B.R. Ambedkar Plaque of
InterestsCivil Structural Designing and Planning, Registered/Empanelled Valuer with I-Tax and many Banking Institutions including Nationalized Banks, Free lance writing on Technical topics, social and religious problems, Reading and writing of History and Biographies of Dalit Political, social and religious personalities. Many essays have been published in Dailies and Magazines country over in English and Hindi. Contributing Technical papers as well with having won many honors. I also give talks,interviews on Radio and TV Channels, Composing Poems in Dogri and Hindi,Striving for establishing universal brotherhood based on equal rights and privileges. Dalit problems have particularly concern and interests.
Favorite BooksW&S of Dr. Baba Sahib Ambedkar. Life and Mission of Dr.Ambedkar by D. Keer. Any other book on Dr. Ambedkar, Dalit Saints, social, political personalities

Joyti Lanjewar

Jaladi Raja Rao

Jaladi Raja Rao (Telugu: జాలాది రాజా రావు) (9 August 1932 – 14 October 2011) was a versatile writer,playwright and lyricist in Telugu cinema.

Jaladi was born in a Telugu Christian family on 9 August 1932 in Gudiwada in the Krishna district ofAndhra Pradesh. He was the fourth son of Amrutamma and the late Jaladi Emmanuel, a member of the Krishna District Board and Indian freedom fighter.Life .He passed his S.S.L.C. with Telugu as special course. He started his career as a drawing teacher in District Board Schools. He worked in various districts and learned the slang used in different areas of the State. He resigned his job during his stint at Veeraghattam in Srikakulam district in 1968 and went to chennai to try his luck in films. He entered the realm of films as a lyricist for the movie Palle Sema in 1950. His debut songChurattakku Jarutadhi Sittukku Sittuku is tuned by K V Mahadevan. He wrote several social, philosophical, patriotic and folk songs in Telugu movies. His songs consist of only Telugu words of various regions of Andhra Pradesh. Being from a Dalit background (Mala community), he always liked to write about Poverty, village life and folk type of songs. He penned nearly 1,500 songs in more than 270 movies and remained popular for his folk-oriented songs, which had an exotic rural touch.He also wrote books like Viswamohini and Kakulamma and plays like Amarajeevi, Tandri, Samadhi and Karumeghalu. He died on 14 October 2011 in Visakhapatnam.

Awards and Achievements

  • Best writer award from the Vijayawada Cultural Association for his play `Karu Meghalu' in 1957.
  • Conferred Twin Cities Cultural Award and the Hyderabad Film Fare Award in 1970
  • Conferred The Kalasagar Award, Madras in 1987.
  • Conferred The Cine Herald Award, Hyderabad in 1987
  • Nandi Award of the Government of AP in 1990.
  • Was given the title `Navarasa Kavi Samrat' by the Prabhu Chitra Arts Association of Eluru in 1991.
  • Was given the title `Kalasagar' for the song `Punya bhoomi naa desam namonamami' in the filmMajor Chandrakanth.
  • Served as a member of the AP Film and TV (Nandi) Awards Committee for 1990-91 and 1994-95.
  • Became member of the Executive Council of Sri Potti Sreeramulu Telugu University, Hyderabad, in 1997.
  • Honored with Kala Prapoorna award from Andhra University, 2008.


These are some of the popular songs penned by him for Telugu films.
1976Palle SeemaChurattuku Jaratadhi Sittuku Stittuku
1976Devude GelichaduEe kalam Padi Kalalu Bratakalani
1978Chal Mohan RangaGallu Galluna Kali Gajjelu
1978Chesedi PatnavasamChesedi Pattanavasam Mesedhi Pallela Grasam
1978Seetha MahalakshmiSitalu Singaram Malacchi Bangaram
1978Pranam KhareeduYethamesi Thodina Yeru Endadhu
1979Kotala RayuduOka Nelavanka Chiru Goruvanka
1979Thoorpu Velle RailuSandepoddu andaalunna chinnadi
1980Dharma ChakramGogula Pooche Gattu Meedha
1981vaaraalabbaayikaakamma kaaki
1982Gruha PravesamAbhinava Sasirekhavo
1986Repati PouruluMatrudevobhava Tallulara Tandrulara
1990Alludu GaruKonda Meeda Chukka Potu
1992BrahmaMusi Musi Nuvvulalona
1993Bobbili SimhamSrirasthu Subhamastu
1993O Tandri O KodukuKonda Meedha Poddhu Podupu
1994Major ChandrakanthSukhibhava Sukhibhava
1994Major ChandrakanthPunyabhumi Na Desam Namo Namami
1995ErroduRaja Nimmala Pandu

Kishor Shantabai Kale

Kotiganahalli Ramaiah

Kotiganahalli Ramaiah (born 1954) is an eminent Dalit poet, playwright, philosopher and cultural activist from KarnatakaIndia. He is one of the founders of Aadima, an institution that experiments with childrens's theatre, film, education and caste consciousness.

Early life and career

Kotiganahalli Ramaiah was born in the village of Kotiganahalli in Kolar district in Karnataka. He quit college, before completing a degree, in order to join the Dalit Sangharsha Samiti, a political group that spearheaded the struggle against caste discrimination and fought to acquire land rights for the former untouchables castes in Karnataka. He rose to be an instrumental figure in the Dalit Movement where his contribution is most remembered for the numerous songs of resistance and struggles penned by him, some of which were adapted from the political climate of the left movement in Andhra Pradesh, particularly those by the revolutionary poet Gaddar. During this period Ramaiah also worked as a journalist with Lankesh Patrike, Mungaru and Suggi Sangati; and as a screenplay writer for numerous Kannada films and T.V. serials.

Founding of Aadima

Disillusioned with the growing intellectual impoverishment, lumpen-ism and factionalism within the Dalit Movement, as well as the rapid erasure of the inclusive foundations of the modern Indian state, Ramaiah and a few others within the movement envisioned a broad based cultural response to address the roots of social exclusion in India. They saved a rupee a day for many years towards the establishment of Aadima,an experimental space that aims to temper the overarching need for political modernity with an understanding of the history of cultural resistance and the philosophical meaning systems that evolved as a response to centuries of marginalisation. Aadima was founded in 2005, ajoining Shivagange Village on the Anthargange Hill Range. Since then, Aadima has been researching and documenting oral traditions and narratives, creating plays and films and, experimenting in educational pedagogy with numerous communities that live in the Anthargange Hill Range. Aadima also plays host to Hunimme Haadu, an event on full moon nights that features plays from across Karnataka.


Karnataka Sahitya Akademy Award - 2012

Suvarna Ranga Samman - Kannada Sangha Kanthavara - 2012

Karnataka Rajyotsava Award - 2005


  • Kaage Kannu Irve Bala
  • Nayi Thipa
  • Ratnapaksi
  • Kannaspatre Quenalli Jagadambe

Published works

  • Kaage Kannu Irve Bala (2012)
  • No Alphabet in Sight: New Dalit Writing from South India, Dossier 2 - Editors - Susie Tharu and K. Satyanarayana (Forthcoming 2012)
  • Sindh Madigara Samskruti (1993)

कोदूराम दलित की कविता कोश में रचनाएँ
कोदूराम दलित का जन्म सन् 1910 में जिला दुर्ग के टिकरी गांव में हुआ था। गांधीवादी कोदूराम प्राइमरी स्कूल के मास्टर थे उनकी रचनायें करीब 800 (आठ सौ) है पर ज्यादातर अप्रकाशित हैं। कवि सम्मेलन में कोदूराम जी अपनी हास्य व्यंग्य रचनाएँ सुनाकर सबको बेहद हँसाते थे। उनकी रचनाओं में छत्तीसगढ़ी लोकोक्तियों का प्रयोग बड़े स्वाभाविक और सुन्दर तरीके से हुआ करता था। उनकी रचनायें - 1. सियानी गोठ 2. कनवा समधी 3. अलहन 4. दू मितान 5. हमर देस 6. कृष्ण जन्म 7. बाल निबंध 8. कथा कहानी 9. छत्तीसगढ़ी शब्द भंडार अउ लोकोक्ति। उनकी रचनाओं में छत्तीसगढ़ का गांव का जीवन बड़ा सुन्दर झलकता है।KoduramDalit.jpg
एक और परिचय
कवि कोदूराम 'दलित' का जन्म ५ मार्च १९१० को ग्राम टिकरी(अर्जुन्दा),जिला दुर्ग में हुआ। आपके पिता श्री राम भरोसा कृषक थे। उनका बचपन ग्रामीण परिवेश में खेतिहर मज़दूरों के बीच बीता। उन्होंने मिडिल स्कूल अर्जुन्दा में प्रारंभिक शिक्षा प्राप्त की। तत्पश्चात नार्मल स्कूल, रायपुर, नार्मल स्कूल, बिलासपुर में शिक्षा ग्रहण की। स्काउटिंग, चित्रकला तथा साहित्य विशारद में वे सदा आगे-आगे रहे। वे १९३१ से १९६७ तक आर्य कन्या गुरुकुल, नगर पालिका परिषद् तथा शिक्षा विभाग, दुर्ग की प्राथमिक शालाओं में अध्यापक और प्रधानाध्यापक के रूप में कार्यरत रहे।
ग्राम अर्जुंदा में आशु कवि श्री पीला लाल चिनोरिया जी से इन्हें काव्य-प्रेरणा मिली। फिर वर्ष १९२६ में इन्होंने कविताएँ लिखनी शुरू कर दीं। इनकी रचनाएँ लगातार छत्तीसगढ़ के समाचार-पत्रों एवं साहित्यिक पत्रिकाओं में प्रकाशित होती रहीं। इनके पहले काव्य-संग्रह का नाम है — ’सियानी गोठ’ (१९६७) फिर दूसरा संग्रह है — ’बहुजन हिताय-बहुजन सुखाय’ (२०००)। भोपाल ,इंदौर, नागपुर, रायपुर आदि आकाशवाणी-केन्द्रों से इनकी कविताओं तथा लोक-कथाओं का प्रसारण अक्सर होता रहा है। मध्य प्रदेश शासन, सूचना-प्रसारण विभाग, म०प्र०हिंदी साहित्य अधिवेशन, विभिन्न साहित्यिक सम्मलेन, स्कूल-कालेज के स्नेह सम्मलेन, किसान मेला, राष्ट्रीय पर्व तथा गणेशोत्सव में इन्होंने कई बार काव्य-पाठ किया। सिंहस्थ मेला (कुम्भ), उज्जैन में भारत शासन द्वारा आयोजित कवि सम्मलेन में महाकौशल क्षेत्र से कवि के रूप में भी आपको आमंत्रित किया जाता था। राष्ट्रपति और प्रधानमंत्री के नगर आगमन पर भी ये अपना काव्यपाठ करते थे।
आप राष्ट्र भाषा प्रचार समिति वर्धा की दुर्ग इकाई के सक्रिय सदस्य रहे। दुर्ग जिला साहित्य समिति के उपमंत्री, छत्तीसगढ़ साहित्य के उपमंत्री, दुर्ग जिला हरिजन सेवक संघ के मंत्री, भारत सेवक समाज के सदस्य,सहकारी बैंक दुर्ग के एक डायरेक्टर ,म्यु.कर्मचारी सभा नं.४६७, सहकारी बैंक के सरपंच, दुर्ग नगर प्राथमिक शिक्षक संघ के कार्यकारिणी सदस्य, शिक्षक नगर समिति के सदस्य जैसे विभिन्न पदों पर सक्रिय रहते हुए आपने अपने बहु आयामी व्यक्तित्व से राष्ट्र एवं समाज के उत्थान के लिए सदैव कार्य किया है.
आपका हिंदी और छत्तीसगढ़ी साहित्य में गद्य और पद्य दोनों पर सामान अधिकार रहा है. साहित्य की सभी विधाओं यथा कविता, गीत, कहानी ,निबंध, एकांकी, प्रहसन, बाल-पहेली, बाल-गीत, क्रिया-गीत में आपने रचनाएँ की है. आप क्षेत्र विशेष में बंधे नहीं रहे. सारी सृष्टि ही आपकी विषय-वस्तु रही है. आपकी रचनाएँ आज भी प्रासंगिक हैं. आपके काव्य ने उस युग में जन्म लिया जब देश आजादी के लिए संघर्षरत था .आप समय की साँसों की धड़कन को पहचानते थे . अतः आपकी रचनाओं में देश-प्रेम ,त्याग, जन-जागरण, राष्ट्रीयता की भावनाएं युग अनुरूप हैं.आपके साहित्य में नीतिपरकता,समाज सुधार की भावना ,मानवतावादी, समन्वयवादी तथा प्रगतिवादी दृष्टिकोण सहज ही परिलक्षित होता है.
हास्य-व्यंग्य आपके काव्य का मूल स्वर है जो शिष्ट और प्रभावशाली है. आपने रचनाओं में मानव का शोषण करने वाली परम्पराओं का विरोध कर आधुनिक, वैज्ञानिक, समाजवादी और प्रगतिशील दृष्टिकोण से दलित और शोषित वर्ग का प्रतिनिधित्व किया है. आपका नीति-काव्य तथा बाल-साहित्य एक आदर्श ,कर्मठ और सुसंस्कृत पीढ़ी के निर्माण के लिए आज भी प्रासंगिक है.
कवि दलित की दृष्टि में कला का आदर्श 'व्यवहार विदे' न होकर 'लोक-व्यवहार उद्दीपनार्थम' था. हिंदी और छत्तीसगढ़ी दोनों ही रचनाओं में भाषा परिष्कृत, परिमार्जित, साहित्यिक और व्याकरण सम्मत है. आपका शब्द-चयन असाधारण है. आपके प्रकृति-चित्रण में भाषा में चित्रोपमता,ध्वन्यात्मकता के साथ नाद-सौन्दर्य के दर्शन होते हैं. इनमें शब्दमय चित्रों का विलक्षण प्रयोग हुआ है. आपने नए युग में भी तुकांत और गेय छंदों को अपनाया है. भाषा और उच्चारण पर आपका अद्भुत अधिकार रहा है.कवि श्री कोदूराम "दलित" का निधन २८ सितम्बर १९६७ को हुआ। —अरुण कुमार निगम
गाँधीवादी विचारधारा के छत्तीसगढ़ी साहित्यकार -कोदूराम दलित
छत्तीसगढ़ के जन कवि स्व.कोदूराम"दलित" के १०१ वें जन्म दिवस पर विशेष स्मृति
(५ मार्च १९१० को जन्मे कवि कोदूराम "दलित" की स्मृति में हरि ठाकुर द्वारा पूर्व में लिखा गया लेख)
छत्तीसगढ़ की उर्वरा माटी ने सैकड़ो कवियों,कलाकारों और महापुरुषों को जन्म दिया है. हमारा दुर्भाग्य है कि हमने उन्हें या तो भुला दिया अथवा उनके विषय में कुछ जानने की हमारी उत्सुकता ही मर गई. जिस क्षेत्र के लोग अपने इतिहास, संस्कृति और साहित्य के निर्माताओं और सेवकों को भुला देते हैं, वह क्षेत्र हमेशा पिछड़ा ही रहता है. उसके पास गर्व करने के लिए कुछ नहीं रहता.छत्तीसगढ़ भी इसी दुर्भाग्य का शिकार है.
छत्तीसगढ़ी भाषा और साहित्य को विकसित तथा परिष्कृत करने का कार्य द्विवेदी युग से आरंभ हुआ. सन १९०४ में स्व.लोचन प्रसाद पाण्डेय ने छत्तीसगढ़ी में नाटक और कवितायेँ लिखी जो हिंदी मास्टर में प्रकाशित हुईं. उनके पश्चात् पंडित सुन्दर लाल शर्मा ने १९१० में "छत्तीसगढ़-दान लीला" लिखकर छत्तीसगढ़ भाषा को साहित्यिक संस्कार प्रदान किया. "छत्तीसगढ़ी दान लीला" छत्तीसगढ़ी का प्रथम प्रबंध काव्य है. उत्कृष्ट काव्य-तत्व के कारण यह ग्रन्थ आज भी अद्वितीय है.
पंडित सुन्दर लाल शर्मा के साहित्य के पश्चात् छत्तीसगढ़ी को अपनी सुगढ़ लेखनी से समृद्ध करनेवाले दो कवि प्रमुख हैं- पंडित द्वारिका प्रसाद तिवारी 'विप्र' तथा कोदूराम 'दलित'. विप्र जी को भाग्यवश प्रचार और प्रसार दोनों प्रचुर मात्रा में उपलब्ध हुए. दुर्भाग्यवश उन्हीं के समकालीन और सशक्त लेखनी के धनी कोदूराम जी को न तो प्रतिभा के अनुकूल ख्याति मिली और न ही प्रकाशन की सुविधा.
कोदूराम जी का जन्म ग्राम टिकरी, जिला दुर्ग में ५ मार्च १९१० में एक निर्धन परिवार में हुआ. विद्याध्ययन के प्रति उनमें बाल्यकाल से ही गहरी रूचि थी. गरीबी के बावजूद उन्होंन विशारद तक की शिक्षा प्राप्त की और शिक्षा समाप्त करके प्राथमिक शाला, दुर्ग में शिक्षक हो गए. योग्यता और निष्ठा के कारण उन्हें शीघ्र ही प्रधान पाठक के पद पर उन्नत कर दिया गया. वे जीवन के लिए शिक्षकीय कार्य करते थे, किन्तु मूलतः वे साहित्यिक साधना में लगे रहते थे. साहित्यिक साधना में वे इतने तल्लीन हो जाते थे की खाना, पीना और सोना तक भूल जाते थे. इसके बावजूद वे वर्षों दुर्ग जिला हिंदी साहित्य समिति, प्राथमिक शाला शिक्षक संघ, हरिजन सेवक तथा सहकारी साख समिति क मंत्री पद पर अत्यंत योग्यता के साथ कर्तव्यरत रहे. दलित जी विचारधारा के पक्के गाँधीवादी तथा राष्ट्र भक्त थे. राष्ट्र भाषा हिंदी के प्रचार-प्रसार के लिए वे सदैव चिंतित रहते थे. हिंदी और हिंदी की सेवा को उन्होंने अपने जीवन का लक्ष्य बना लिया था. वे आदतन खादी धारण करते थे और गाँधी टोपी लगाते थे. उनका रहन-सहन अत्यंत सदा और सरल था. सादगी में उनका व्यक्तित्व और भी निखर उठता था. दलित जी अत्यंत और सरल ह्रदय के व्यक्ति थे. पुरानी पीढ़ी के होकर भी नयी पीढ़ी के साथ सहज ही घुल-मिल जाते थे. मुझ जैसे एकदम नए साहित्यकारों के लिए उनके ह्रदय में अपर स्नेह था.
दलित जी मूलतः हास्य-व्यंग्य के कवि थे किन्तु उनके व्यक्तित्व में बड़ी गंभीरता और गरिमा थी. कवि-सम्मेलनों में वे मंच लूट लेते थे. उस समय छत्तीसगढ़ी में क्या, हिंदी में भी शिष्ट हास्य -व्यंग्य लिखने वाले उँगलियों में गिने जा सकते थे. वे सीधी-सादे ढंग से काव्य पाठ करते थे फिर भी श्रोता हँसते-हँसते लोट-पोट हो जाते थे और दलित जी गंभीर बने बैठे रहते थे. उनकी यह अदा भी देखने लायक ही रहती थी. देखने में वे ठेठ देहाती लगते और काव्य पाठ भी ठेठ देहाती लहजे में करते थे. छत्तीसगढ़ी भाषा और उच्चारण पर उनका अद्भुत अधिकार था. हिंदी के छंदों पर भी उनका अच्छा अधिकार था. वे छत्तीसगढ़ी कवितायेँ हिंदी के छंद में लिखते थे जो सरल कार्य नहीं है. दलित जी मूलतः छत्तीसगढ़ी के कवि थे.
वह तो आजादी के घोर संघर्ष का दिन था. अतः विचारों को गरीब जनता तक पहुँचाने के लिए छत्तीसगढ़ी से अच्छा माध्यम और क्या हो सकता था. दलित जी ने गद्य और पद्य दोनों में सामान गति और समान अधिकार से लिखा. उन्होंने कुल १३ पुस्तकें लिखी हैं. (१) सियानी गोठ (२) हमर देश (३) कनवा समधी (४) दू-मितान (५) प्रकृति वर्णन (६)बाल-कविता - ये सभी पद्य में हैं. गद्य में उन्होंने जो पुस्तकें लिखी हैं वे हैं (७) अलहन (८) कथा-कहानी (९) प्रहसन (१०) छत्तीसगढ़ी लोकोक्तियाँ (११) बाल-निबंध (१२) छत्तीसगढ़ी शब्द-भंडार. उनकी तेरहवीं पुस्तक कृष्ण-जन्म हिंदी पद्य में है. इतनी पुस्तकें लिख कर भी उनकी एक ही पुस्तक "सियानी-गोठ" प्रकाशित हो सकी. यह कितने दुर्भाग्य की बात है, दलित जी की अन्य पुस्तकें आज भी अप्रकाशित पड़ी हैं और हम उनके महत्वपूर्ण साहित्य से वंचित हैं. "सियानी-गोठ" में दलित जी की ७६ हास्य-व्यंग्य की कुण्डलियाँ संकलित हैं. हास्य-व्यंग्य के साथ दलित जी ने गंभीर रचनाएँ भी की हैं जो गिरधर कविराय की टक्कर की हैं.
दलित जी ने सन १९२६ से लिखना आरंभ किया. उन्होंने लगभग 800 कवितायेँ लिखीं. जिनमे कुछ कवितायेँ तत्कालीन पत्र-पत्रिकाओं में प्रकाशित हुई और कुछ कविताओं का प्रसारण आकाशवाणी से हुआ. आज छत्तीसगढ़ी में लिखनेवाले निष्ठावान साहित्यकारों की पूरी पीढ़ी सामने आ चुकी है, किन्तु इस वट-वृक्ष को अपने लहू-पसीने से सींचनेवाले, खाद बनकर उनकी जड़ों में समा जानेवाले साहित्यकारों को हम न भूलें.

-हरि ठाकुर

 Krushna Kamble,

Laxman Mane

Laxman Mane
BornJune 1, 1949
OccupationWriter, social activist.
Known forHis autobiography Upara and his work for upliftment of nomadic tribes in India.
Influenced byDr.B. R. Ambedkar, Mahatma Phule, Rajarshi Shahu
Laxman Bapu Mane (Marathi: लक्ष्मण बापू माने) (born June 1, 1949) is a Marathi writer and a social activist from Maharashtra, India. Mane came to sudden fame after publishing his autobiography Upara, (An Outsider), in 1980. Upara was considered as a milestone is MarathiDalit literature and received Sahitya Akademi Award in 1981.
Early life
Mane born on 1 June 1949 at Village-somanthali phaltn (Maharastra) in a nomadic tribe in India. He wrote his autobiography (upara)in 1980. And received sahitya aakadami in 1981.

After Upara

His autobiography Upara (उपरा) brought to the attention of the public in Maharashtra the problems of nomadic tribes arising out of their social and economic conditions. Under a two-year grant from the Ford Foundation for field work among nomadic tribes in Maharashtra, Mane wrote in 1984 his second book Band Darwaja (Closed door, 1984).

Conversion to Buddhism

Mane converted to Buddhism along with his followers from his community.
He received a Homi Bhabha Fellowship during 1986-88 for his continued social work.
Mane served for some time in the following capacities:
  • Acting president of the Indian Institute for research in the developmental problems of nomadic and denotified communities, Satara
  • Secretary of Bhartiya batke vimukt vikas va sanshodhan santha"
  • General secretary of Mahatma Jyotirao Phyle Samata Prathistan
  • A senator of Shivaji University's administration.
Mane is the president of the Bhatkya Ani Vimukth Jamati Sanghatana, Maharashtra, and a founder member of the Yashwantrao Chavan Pratishtan

Laxman Gaikwad

Murlidhar Bansode

Mayur Vhatkar

Manohar Biswas: A revolutionary Dalit voice in Bengali Dalit Literature

Of the great writers of Bengali Dalit Literature, Manohar Mouli Biswas stands out as an outstanding figure. He was born and brought up in a remote village Dakshin Matiargati in Khulna district in Purba Banga (East Bengal) in 1943. He passed matriculation in 1959. After passing Intermediate Science in 1961 with National Scholarship, he took admission in C.U and completed graduation in 1963.

His is a great revolutionary voice. His poems speak of the sorrows and sufferings of the oppressed Dalit people in the caste-ridden Indian society. For his excellent literary creations, he has been awarded Baba Saheb Dr. B R Ambedkar National Fellowship Award-2009 by Indian Dalit Literary Academy, New Delhi.

At present, he is the President of Bangla Dalit Sahitya Sanstha. He has been editing a famous pioneering bi-monthly literary magazine named “Dalit Mirror” in English for more than a decade. During his stay at Nagpur in 1968 for his Departmental Training as Engineering Supervisor in P and T Dept. of Central Govt. he came in contact with Dalit people and Dalit Literary Movement. That changed the course of his life as a writer.
His poems, short stories are of special flavor. His works are illuminated in the light of Dalit consciousness. Some of his famous works include: Ora Aamar Kabita (They are my poetry) poetry collection, Dalit Sahityer Dikboloy (History of Dalit Literature), Dalit Sahityer Ruprekha (Outline History of Dalit Literature), Poetic Rendering As Yet Unborn’ (Translation from his Bengali Poems). He has written more than a dozen books, and lately he has been writing his autobiography named-Aamar Bhubaney Aami Benche Thaki (I Live in my own world).
In a detailed interview, Manohar Mouli Biswas tells citizen journalist Santanu Halder about his love for the poetry and the significance of Dalit Literature. Excerpts.
Tell us a bit about your childhood days?
My childhood days were something unique and unparallel because of the fact that in those days I worked as a labourer in agricultural fields along with my father and great uncle. My schooling started late and as one with secondary in the scale of importance in life. Upbringing of cattle was the primary one.
Why do you write?
To be a writer is not my motto in life. What is there inside, I feel, life is full of lot of odd experiences, uncommon with others. The same I should share with people through penning.
Do you think of yourself as a Dalit writer?
Why shall I go to call myself a Dalit writer? What is fact I’m born in a Dalit caste and I write about my own people and their sufferings. That is the reason why people call me a Dalit writer.
What according to you is Dalit Literature?
It’s a new kind of literature that evolved recently in the field of Indian literature where the Dalit people themselves are directly expressing their own sufferings and feelings by writing novels, short stories, poetries, dramas, autobiographies etc. After going through a detailed study into the subject, once in my book of ‘Dalit Sahityer Digboloy’, published in 1992 I had defined it as “Dalit Sahitya is the introspection of the Dalit focussed by the Dalit themselves in the perspective of their retrospective misfortunes under the casteism of Hinduism.”
Let us know about the other Dalit writers in West Bengal.
In West Bengal, Dalit writers have a history different from the rest of India. They have their history of writings from hundred years back. Recently I’ve compiled a  book titled “Shatobarsher Bangla Dalit Sahity” where I’ve accommodated about hundred Dalit writers whose books had been published from1911 to 2010, on choosing and covering mostly all the genres of writing such as essays, short stories, novels, dramas, poetries and autobiographies. Beyond this group of writers there are more writers left out.   
Are you familiar with Indian Dalit Writers?
I do feel myself as one of the family members of Indian Dalit writers, because of the fact I keep myself in touch with the Dalit writings and writers of the states such as Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andra Pradesh, Delhi, Gujarat, Tripura, Assam and Uttarakhand. Sometimes in the national level seminar I do have interactions with them. Some of the Dalit writers are at present writing in English even. In the last Jaipur Literary Festival, you know, a Telegu writer, very favourite to me, Kancha Ilaiah’s novel ‘Untouchable God’ has been released. Om Prakash Valmiki known to me, a writer from Uttarakhand has written his autobiography in his mother tongue and the English version of the same has been published by a publisher in Kolkata.
You are involved with Choturtha Duniya. Tell us a bit about its activities, span, and its importance in the cultural perspective?
At present, I’m working as President of Bangla Dalit Sahitya Sanstha which we had formed in 1992 after the sad demise of Chuni Kotal, a university student of Vidyasagar University and it happened due to caste hatred in West Bengal. This Sanstha is an organisation of Dalit literary and cultural movement in the state. Chaturtha Dunia is a quarterly Dalit literary and cultural magazine published in Bengali since 1994, two years after the formation of Bangla Dalit Sahitya Sanstha as its mouth-piece, and at the initial stage I was working as one of the assistant editors. I’m still attached with it. Sometimes in between I had worked as its editor too.
Do you think being a Dalit writer one has to be a Dalit by birth? Is it compulsory to be a Dalit writer?
Literature and none of its activity is related with the birth. Anybody can write about the Dalits. If you talk about the Dalit literature, then of course we find its creators are coming from the Dalit background.
At present, some people are writing about the Dalits.Can they be categorized as Dalit Writers or Dalit literary critics?
Writer and critic are two different things. A critic has his authority to criticise any kind of literature whether it is a mainstream literature or Dalit literature.
What is the speciality of your writings which is absent in so-called literature?
The mainstream writers depict the Dalit-life in their own seeing them and a Dalit writer describes his own sufferings which are mostly becoming autobiographical in nature.
When did you get acquainted with Dalit Literature in West Bengal?
In the late sixties, I had been in Nagpur for a quite some time and became acquainted with the term ‘Dalit Literature’ and subsequently I could have traced out it in Bengal in the Charya poets. That I may term as old Dalit literature and what is being written at present is modern of the kind.
Do you think that Dalit literature has a separate identity?
The Dalit literature may be otherwise termed as, what I believe as a critic of literature, a kind of identity literature.
Tell a bit about your recent writings and where are they getting published?
You know our literary magazine is named Chaturtha Dunia and we have a small publishing shop in the same name at Stall 22, Bhabani Dutta Lane of Kolkata-73. Most of our writers are getting their books published from the same place at their own cost. The recent writings what I have just completed is my autobiography named “Aamar Bhubaney Aami Benche Thaki” which may be published soon. You know Calcutta publishers are not much interested in Dalit literature.
Do you have any autobiographical work? If any, please tell a bit about its speciality?
I’m a man born in a remote rural Bengal village abounded with marshy lands. In my autobiography, I have told of my life and livelihood what I enjoyed therein. It’s nothing but an untold story, a hyacinth floats unstably sometimes in favour of current and sometimes against the current.
Have you ever read the lives and writings of B.R Ambedkar and Phule, the pathfinders of Dalit communities? How do they influence Bengali Dalit Literature?
The life and writings of Dr. B R Ambedkar, Mahatma Jotiba Phule, E. V. Ramaswami Naicker are undoubtedly thought provoking in the minds of Dalits all over India. I’m also influenced by them in the formation of ideas. But what I feel every writer has his own way of moving forward. In Bengal, the Buddhist kings of the Pala dynasty had ruled Bengal for more than four hundred years at a stretch and Charya poets of Dalit castes came up at that time.
Mahasweta Devi worked on different marginalized people and their lives. Has she successfully portrayed the inner consciousness of your race?
I do have great regards for Mahasweta-di. I can now remember that my book of short stories ‘Krishna Mrittikar Manoosh’ which was published long back was dedicated to her. She has nicely talked about the tribal people. Her studies about them has inspired all other writers, mine too. But she has not gone to the best of details about the Dalits. However, I get her bliss all the time and she has written the foreword of my book ‘Dalit Sahityer Ruprekha’ published from Bani Shilpa of Kolkata.
What is the future of the Dalit writings in India?
The more and more the Dalits are becoming educated and knowing the art of expression the future of this kind of literature is becoming bigger and brighter.
Do you have any message in your writings?
All writings, I believe, carry some message and the message of becoming conscious of their position in the social spectrum. They can locate themselves and can find out the way how they should move on and survive.
What is your opinion on Brahminical system in Bengal?
The discriminations what are exercised in West Bengal in different fields due to the exigencies of this system are not outwardly visible and understandable but it works in very refined manner under the carpet. Only the sufferers know inner truth.
How about translation of your works into English?
India is a country of different federal states. Unless any writing is translated into English the people of the other states and people beyond India cannot know it. I’m happy to say that some critics and good translators have come forward to translate the Bengali Dalit writings into English. Dr. Joydeep Sarangi, Dr. Sipra Mukherjee, Dr. Sankar Prasad Singha and some other good translators are befriending me in this regard. A good number of my poems are translated and published with title ‘Poetic Rendering As Yet Unborn’.
Any memorable incident in your life?
I’d started my service career in Nagpur and perhaps that had provided me a turning point in my life.
Do you think Dalit Literature should be included in the B.A, M.A syllabus of our Indian universities to make it more relevant to the students?
At present, lot of Indian universities have introduced Dalit Literature in their syllabii. State University, Barasat had taught one of my short story (Nanchera Valmiki) for one year in M.A. (English) course. Some Brahmins, however, removed it out of the syllabus.

Mallepalli Laxmiah, 

Telangana Idealogue, Senior Journalist, Co-Chair, Joint action Committee (JAC), Telangana

Meena Kandasamy

She was the Charles Wallace India Trust Fellow at the School of English, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK and also served as a Visiting Fellow at the School of Literature, Language & Linguistics, Newcastle University, UK in 2011. In 2009, she was a writer-in-residence at the University of Iowa’s International Writing Program (IWP). 

Meena Kandasamy (1984) is an emerging poetMeena Kandasamy is a poet, writer, activist and translator. Her work maintains a focus on caste annihilation, linguistic identity and feminism. She has published two collections of poetry, Touch (2006) and Ms Militancy (2010)

She was the Charles Wallace India Trust Fellow at the School of English, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK and also served as a Visiting Fellow at the School of Literature, Language & Linguistics, Newcastle University, UK in 2011. In 2009, she was a writer-in-residence at the University of Iowa’s International Writing Program (IWP).

She was a featured poet at the City of Asylum Jazz Poetry Concert 2009 held in Pittsburgh, USA and the 14th Poetry Africa International Festival in October 2010 in Durban. In 2011, she performed at the DSC Jaipur Literature Festival, Blue Metropolis Festival, Ottawa Writers Festival and the Kovalam Literary Festival.

Two of her poems, ‘Mascara’ and ‘My Lover Speaks of Rape‘ have won first prizes in pan-India poetry competitions, and her poetry has been profiled in several international publications. Previously, she edited ‘The Dalit’, a bi-monthly English magazine.  

 Her poems, "Mascara" and "My lover speaks of Rape" won her the first prize in all India Poetry competition. Her works have been published in various journals that include The Little Magazine, Kavya Bharati, Indian Literature, Poetry International Web, Muse India, and the Quarterly Literary Review of Singapore. She was also invited to participate in the International Writing Program at the University of Iowa in 2009.

Selected translations

  • Talisman: Extreme Emotions of Dalit Liberation. Political essays of Viduthalai Chiruthaigal leader Thol. Thirumavalavan, Samya (Kolkata), 2003.
  • Uproot Hindutva: The Fiery Voice of the Liberation Panthers,Speeches of Thol. Thirumaavalavan, Samya, Kolkata, 2004.
  • Point-Blank, Poems of Tamil Eelam poet Kasi Anandan, Kudil, Chennai, 2005.
  • Fables, Short-stories of Kasi Anandan, Kudil, Chennai, 2005.
  • 30 poems of 18 Tamil Dalit poets for Muse India, Sept-Oct 2006 for a special feature on Tamil Dalit Literature.
  • Why were women enslaved? Essays of Periyar EV Ramasamy on women’s rights, Periyar Self Respect Propaganda Institution, Chennai, August 2007.

Book chapters

  • And One Shall Live in Two, Afterword in Tamil Dalit writer P. Sivakami’s novel “The Grip of Change,” Orient Longman, Chennai, March 2006.
  • Between Her Legs: Hindutva and Dalit Women in ‘Hindutva and Dalits’, editor: Anand Teltumbde, Samya, Kolkata, February 2005.

Selected essays

  • Slumdog debate: Let’s not be in denial of the reality, The New Indian Express, i.witness, January 25, 2009.
  • Dalits and the Press in India: With Specific Reference to Pandit C. Iyothee Thass and the Tamilian Weekly, Voice of Dalit, 1(2), July–December 2009.
  • Book. Booker. Booked: Indian Fiction in English, The New Indian Express, i.witness, September 13, 2008
  • Words Across Borders: Translation As Liberation, The Hindu Literary Review, January 6, 2008.
  • Heal Thyself, Opinion Column at Culture Vulture, Tehelka, 29 September 2007.
  • Dangerous Cacophony: Hindutva Consolidation and Conscription in Tamil Nadu through Celebrations, Communalism Combat, Mumbai, Nov–Dec 2004, Vol. 11, pp. 22–34. dangerous-cacophony.pdf
  • Udderly Fanatic. Boloji, 17 November 2002. (On the atrocity where five Dalits where lynched for skinning a dead cow in Jhajjar, Haryana).
  • Casteist. Communalist. Racist. And Now, A Nobel Laureate. Po-Co Web, 2002.


  • (with M. Nisar) AYYANKALI: A Dalit leader of Organic Protest. Foreword by Kancha Ilaiah, Other Books, Calicut, January 2008, pp. 103.


  • Ms. Militancy, Published by Navayana, 2010
  • TOUCH. Published by Peacock Books, the poetry imprint of Frog Books, Mumbai in August 2006,
  • (Chapbook) 16 elegant, untitled poems have been hosted as an e-chapbook The Eighth Day of Creation on the poetry website Slow Trains.

Madara Chennaiah

One of the first Dalit writers was Madara Chennaiah, an 11th-century cobbler-saint who lived in the reign of Western Chalukyas and who is also regarded by some scholars as the "father of Vachana poetry". Another poet who finds mention is Dohara Kakkaiah, a Dalit by birth, six of whose confessional poems survive.

In the 20th century, the term "Dalit literature" came into use in 1958, when the first conference of Maharashtra Dalit Sahitya Sangha (Maharashtra Dalit Literature Society) was held at Mumbai, a movement driven by thinkers like Jyotiba Phule and Bhimrao Ambedkar

Mallika Amershekh

Manoranjan Bharti

Mallepally Laxmaiah

Born1953 (age 58–59)
Andhra Pradesh, India
OccupationJournalist, Political analyst
Mallepally Laxmaiah is Indian Telugu language journalist. He worked with Vaartha and Andhra Jyothi newspaper before quitting in 2009 to participate in Telangana movement and also was one of the creators of HMTV television Telugu news channel.


Mallepally Laxmaiah worked with major newspapers. He has been an adviser to the Telangana Rashtra Samithi since its inception. Mallepalli Laxmaiah is the Telangana idealogue along with Jaishankar. Both of them were responsible for the creation of Telangana Rashtra samiti. He is also the Co-Chairman of the Joint Action Committee on Telangana which is spearheading the non-political movement. He is coordinator for Center for Dalit Studies

PUCL Bulletin, October 1994

Bhanwari Bai's brave struggle for justiceby Manimala

(Ms. Manimala is a recipient of PUCL Journalism Award)
Bhanwari Bai has been selected to receive the prestigious "Neerja Bhanot Memorial Award" for her extraordinary courage, conviction, and commitment. (Readers would recollect the incident, for the press had covered the happening, thanks to women's organisations joining the struggle). The award had been instituted in 1991 in memory of Neeraja Bhanot who had acted with unprecedented dedication and courage to save those under her care without bothering about her own life during the Pan-Am plane hijack at Karachi in 1986, to recognise the guts and grit of women who fight injustice and who act beyond the call of normal duty in a difficult situation. The Trust gives two awards-one to the woman-power from common civil life, and another to hardworking, risk-taking, dutiful women. The award of the first kind has been given to Bhanwari Bai.

By honouring Bhanwari Bai, the Trust has recognised with respect the struggle and strength of the downtrodden people who belong to the bottom layer of our hierarchical society and who have faced perpetual humiliation, indignity and torture-in fact they have hardly been recognised as persons. For the first time such a prestigious award of Rupees one lakh goes to a poor Dalit woman of a remote village Bhateri in Bassi Tehsil in Rajasthan, only 45 kms from Jaipur. Bhanwari Bai resides there with her husband Mohan, a rikshawpuller, and her two children. Upto 1992 she and her husband carried on with their caste allotted profession -claywork. Later she joined the government sponsored Women Development Programme (WDP). One of the important functions of WDP is to put a stop to the practice of child marriage which is widely prevalent in Rajasthan. Her trouble started when she tried to persuade members of a family not to get their one year old daughter married.

Under the WDP programme, 800 Sathins in 800 remote villages had created a wave against social injustice that has been inflicted on villager for centuries. Sathins became so popular among the rural folk that the people changed the name of the programme from WDP to Sathino ke Karyakrame. It was perhaps for the first time that a government sponsored programme came to be known by the lowest paid and lowest level workers. Bhanwari Bai has been one of these Sathins.

In the year 1992 all Sathins were instructed to inform the nearest police station and administrative unit about child marriages taking place on the occasion of Akha Teez, a religious festival. According to traditional beliefs and faith, marriages taking place on this day become happy and successful. Therefore maximum number of marriages take place on Akha Teej day in Rajasthan.

Almost all the Sathins including Bhanwari Bai were of the opinion that child marriages should not be stopped by using force. It should be done through persuasion and education. An environment should be created, they argued, to discourage child marriages. They suggested that more and more schools for girls and boys with vocational education as the core subject should be opened so that thee would be reasonable assurance of getting jobs after completion of school education. Which would mean better life in villages and more involvement of young people in social affairs.

Bhanwari was trying to save a victim of this tradition in her own village- the family referred to above. She took great pains to persuade the parents of an one-year old daughter who was to be married on the occasion, but in the meantime the police interfered and stopped the marriage forcibly. The Gujar community, to which this family belonged, thought that the police were informed by Bhanwari. They took it as a great insult to their superior status that a Dalit woman should have tried to persuade them and finally succeeded in stopping the marriage through police force. They reacted; as a first step they got the child married the next day, and , as the next step, inflicted socio-economic boycott on Bhanwari and her family. Those who were unhappy with the decision were compelled to abide by this as the village was dominated by this community who are economically and politically more powerful than others. The administration favoured them. Bhanwari was told to quit the village. She defied and paid a very heavy price. To teach her a lesson, in the evening of 22 September, 1992 five persons caught hold of Bhanwari and her husband. On return to the village she cried for justice from the village panchayat and the elders of the village, but none came to her help. Bhanwari was alone; she faced untold misery; none would sell even the basic necessities like food etc to her; but she stuck on to her duties. How could she, a Satin in her own village leave the village in such a difficult and trying time; being a Sathin she had to be with the villagers for their welfare, she told herself and resolved accordingly.

Police, magisterial and CID enquiries were conducted. According to all these reports, all her allegations were found to be false. The enquiries concluded that there was bad blood between her and the accused and hence these false allegations! The culprits now became more furious, and asked her to withdraw her complaint at once. She defied the mighty forces once again.

Meanwhile, Sathins, WDP officials, women's and civil rights organisations raised their voice, and demanded a CBI enquiry. The government was made to yield. The CBI report made public on 27 September 1993 found all the allegations made by Bhanwari Bai to be true. Arrest warrants for all the culprits were issued. But only one culprit could be arrested; the other four had managed anticipatory bail and then absconded.

Women's organisations did not relax; they filed a petition in the Rajasthan High Court at Jaipur seeking justice for her, and demanding that the other accused also must be arrested soon. The High Court passed an order on 17 December 1993 to the effect that all the culprits must be arrested without any delay while criticising the police and CID for playing a foul game and giving opportunity to the culprits to manage anticipatory bail thus enabling them to abscond.

Women's organisations approached the Supreme Court. The court directed the state government to compensate Bhanwari Bai by paying a sum of Rs. 25,000/- We all know that money cannot compensate what Bhanwari Bai has gone through. Our society must deliberate on whether money is the answer to such heinous crimes-crimes against women, against humanity. Bhanwari has desired that this amount be given to other poor women fighting injustice, insult, inhumanity, indignity, and torture. Bhanwari's courage, conviction, and defiance-facing the entire might of the village and the adminsitration-deserve to be emulated by all.

 Namdev Dhasal

Nilanjana S. Roy

Nilanjana S. Roy (b ca 1971) is a well-known Indian journalist and literary critic, author of The Wildings (Aleph Book Company, 2012). She currently writes a regular column for the Business Standard. She used to write a notorious literary blog called Kitabkhana under the pseudonym Hurree Babu. She is married to Devangshu Datta, a stock market columnist and a consultant to financial dailies and business magazines.

Roy is originally from Kolkata. She was educated at La Martiniere, Kolkata, and read English Literature at St Stephens at Delhi University in the 1990s. In 1998, she was Assistant Features Editor of Business Standard, and then Deputy Features Editor of the same newspaper.She did a brief stint as Books Editor for Outlook magazine and worked with Biblio before spending several years as a freelance writer. Her last job was as chief editor, Westland Books. She lives in Delhi with her husband.

Narendra Jadhav

From Wikipedia
Dr. Narendra Jadhav
Narendra Jadhav.jpg
Dr. Narendra Jadhav
Member of Parliament
Assumed office
25 April 2016
National Advisory Council
In office
Vice-Chancellor of the
University of Pune
In office
24 August 2006 – 15 June 2009
Preceded byRatnakar Gaikwad
Succeeded byR. K. Shevgaonkar
Personal details
Born28 May 1953
Alma materRamnarain Ruia College
University of Mumbai
Indiana University
OccupationEconomist, Educationist, Professor, Writer
Narendra Damodhar Jadhav (born 1953) is an Indian economist, bureaucrat, writer and educationist who is a member of the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian Parliament. He previously served as member of the Planning Commission of India and the National Advisory Council. Prior to this, he had worked with International Monetary Fund (IMF) and headed economic research at the Reserve Bank of India

Narendra Jadhav was born in a Mahar family (now Buddhist) and grew up in the village of Ozar and Mumbai suburb of Wadala Jadhav attended Chhabildas High School, Dadar. He did his BSc in Statistics from Ramnarain Ruia College, University of Mumbai in 1973. He also did his MA in Economics from University of Mumbai in 1975. He later received a PhD in Economics from Indiana University in 1986.


Jadhav served in the Reserve Bank of India for 31 years, taking voluntary retirement in October 2008, from the position of Principal Adviser and Chief Economist (in the rank of Executive Director). In the RBI, he steered a team of 120 career economists and played a significant role in macroeconomic policy-making in India especially after the macroeconomic crisis in 1991. He worked for four and half years at the International Monetary Fund (IMF), first as Adviser to Executive Director for India and briefly as a Consultant to the Independent Evaluation office of the IMF.
He worked as Chief Economic Counsellor for Afghanistan (2006) and earlier, also as an Advisor to the Government of Ethiopia (1988). He served as the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Pune from 24 August 2006 to 15 June 2009. In 2008, the Chief Minister of Maharashtra appointed him as the Chairman of a One Man High Powered Committee in the context of 'Farmers' Suicides'. He was appointed to the Planning Commission by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh during the second UPA government.
In April 2016, he was nominated to the Rajya Sabha by the President of India.


A writer with 100 research papers, 14 books on economic and social issues including four in Marathi to his credit. His latest contributions are two books in Marathi on Rabindranath Tagore – one is an anthology of Gurudev's poems translated into Marathi and the other one (being released) is on Gurudev's life and times. Jadhav's writings include:
  • Dr. Ambedkar : An Intellectual Biography (2013)
  • Ambedkar Writes (editor, two volumes, 2013)
  • Pradnya Mahamanavachi (2013)
  • Lasavi (editor)
  • Dr. Ambedkar Speaks (editor, three volumes, 2013)
  • Bol Mahamanavache
  • Ravindranath Tagore : Yug Nirmata Vishvamanav (2011)
  • Ravindranath Tagore : Samagra Sahitya Darshan (2011)
  • Bhayshoonya Chitta Jeth ... Ravindranathanchya Pratinidhik Kavita 151 (2010)
  • Untouchables: My Family's Triumphant Journey Out of the Caste System in Modern India (2005)
  • Monetary Policy, Financial Stability and Central Banking in India, (2005)
  • Re-emerging India: A Global Perspective (2005)
  • Outcaste – A Memoir, Life and Triumphs of an Untouchable Family In India (2003), winner of the Sahitya Academy Award for the Hindi version
  • Governors Speak (editor, 1997)
  • Challenges to Indian Banking: Competition, Globalization and Financial Markets (editor, 1996), winner of All-India Publishers' Association Award
  • Monetary Economics for India (1994), winner of All-India Publishers' Association Award
  • Amcha Baap Aan Amhi (1993)
  • Our Father and Us (2009)
  • Dr. Ambedkar : Economic Thought and Philosophy (1992)
  • Dr. Ambedkar: Aarthik Vichar Aani Tatvadnyan (1992), winner of Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad Award and Asmita Darsha Award
  • Macroeconomic Investment Management in LDCs: A Social Cost-Benefit Approach (1986)
Pushkar – Sub editor magazine “Muse of Murmur”

Raja Dhale

राम प्रसाद 'बिस्मिल'

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
राम प्रसाद 'बिस्मिल'
११ जून १८९७ से १९ दिसम्बर १९२७

रामप्रसाद 'बिस्मिल'
उपनाम :'बिस्मिल', 'राम', 'अज्ञात' व 'पण्डित जी'
जन्मस्थल :शाहजहाँपुर, ब्रिटिश भारत
मृत्युस्थल:गोरखपुर, ब्रिटिश भारत
माता-पिता:मूलमती/ मुरलीधर
भाई/बहन:रमेश सिंह,शास्त्री देवी,ब्रह्मादेवी ,भगवती देवी
आन्दोलन:भारतीय स्वतन्त्रता संग्राम
प्रमुख संगठन:हिन्दुस्तान रिपब्लिकन ऐसोसिएशन
उपजीविका:कवि, साहित्यकार
स्मारक:अमर शहीद पं॰ राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल उद्यान, ग्रेटर नोएडा
संग्रहालय, शाहजहाँपुर
अमर शहीद पं रामप्रसाद बिस्मिल संग्रहालय, िजला-मुरैना,म.प्र.
राम प्रसाद 'बिस्मिल' (११ जून १८९७-१९ दिसम्बर १९२७) भारतीय स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन की क्रान्तिकारी धारा के एक प्रमुख सेनानी थे, जिन्हें ३० वर्ष की आयु में ब्रिटिश सरकार ने फाँसी दे दी। वे मैनपुरी षड्यन्त्र व काकोरी-काण्ड जैसी कई घटनाओं में शामिल थे तथा हिन्दुस्तान रिपब्लिकन ऐसोसिएशन के सदस्य भी थे।
राम प्रसाद एक कवि, शायर, अनुवादक, बहुभाषाभाषी, इतिहासकार व साहित्यकार भी थे। बिस्मिल उनका उर्दू तखल्लुस (उपनाम) था जिसका हिन्दी में अर्थ होता है आत्मिक रूप से आहत। बिस्मिल के अतिरिक्त वे राम और अज्ञात के नाम से भी लेख व कवितायें लिखते थे।
शुक्रवार ज्येष्ठ शुक्ल एकादशी (निर्जला एकादशी) विक्रमी संवत् १९५४ को उत्तर प्रदेश के शाहजहाँपुर में जन्मे राम प्रसाद को ३० वर्ष की आयु में सोमवार पौष कृष्ण एकादशी (सफला एकादशी) विक्रमी संवत् १९८४ को वे शहीद हुए। उन्होंने सन् १९१६ में १९ वर्ष की आयु में क्रान्तिकारी मार्ग में कदम रखा था। ११ वर्ष के क्रान्तिकारी जीवन में उन्होंने कई पुस्तकें लिखीं और स्वयं ही उन्हें प्रकाशित किया। उन पुस्तकों को बेचकर जो पैसा मिला उससे उन्होंने हथियार खरीदे और उन हथियारों का उपयोग ब्रिटिश राज का विरोध करने के लिये किया। ११ पुस्तकें ही उनके जीवन काल में प्रकाशित हुईं और ब्रिटिश सरकार द्वारा ज़ब्त की गयीं।
बिस्मिल को तत्कालीन संयुक्त प्रान्त आगरा व अवध की लखनऊ सेण्ट्रल जेल की ११ नम्बर बैरक में रखा गया था। इसी जेल में उनके दल के अन्य साथियोँ को एक साथ रखकर उन सभी पर ब्रिटिश राज के विरुद्ध साजिश रचने का ऐतिहासिक मुकदमा चलाया गया था।

मुरैना (म॰प्र॰) के बरबई गाँव में राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल की प्रतिमा
बिस्मिल के दादा जी नारायण लाल का पैतृक गाँव बरबाई था। यह गाँव तत्कालीन ग्वालियर राज्य में चम्बल नदी के बीहड़ों के बीच स्थित तोमरघार क्षेत्र के मुरैना जिले में था और वर्तमान में यह मध्य प्रदेश में है। बरबाई ग्राम-वासी आये दिन अंग्रेज़ों व अंग्रेज़ी आधिपत्य वाले ग्राम-वासियों को तंग करते थे। पारिवारिक कलह के कारण नारायण लाल ने अपनी पत्नी विचित्रा देवी एवं दोनों पुत्रों - मुरलीधर व कल्याणमल सहित अपना पैतृक गाँव छोड़ दिया। उनके गाँव छोड़ने के बाद बरबाई में केवल उनके दो भाई - अमान सिंह व समान सिंह ही रह गये जिनके वंशज आज भी उसी गाँव में रहते हैं। आज बरबाई गाँव के एक पार्क में मध्य प्रदेश सरकार द्वारा राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल की एक प्रतिमा स्थापित कर दी गयी है।वहीं 'बरबाई' ग्राम को 'सांसद आदर्श ग्राम योजना 'के तहत भी विकसित किया जा रहा है।इसके अतिरिक्त मुरैना में बिस्मिल का एक मन्दिर एवं जिला मुख्यालय पर 'अमर शहीद पं रामप्रसाद बिस्मिल संग्रहालय' भी बनाया गया है,जो चम्बल अंचल के अमर शहीदों एवं अंचल के ऐतिहासिक व पुरा स्थलों की जानकारी प्रदान करता है।
कालान्तर में यह परिवार उत्तर प्रदेश के ऐतिहासिक नगर शाहजहाँपुर आ गया। शाहजहाँपुर में मुन्नूगंज के फाटक के पास स्थित एक अत्तार की दुकान पर मात्र तीन रुपये मासिक में नारायण लाल ने नौकरी कर ली। इतने कम पैसे में उनके परिवार का गुज़ारा नहीं होता था। बिस्मिल की दादी विचित्रा देवी ने अपने पति का हाथ बटाने के लिये अनाज पीसने का कार्य शुरू कर दिया। यह सिलसिला लगभग दो-तीन वर्षों तक चलता रहा।
बिस्मिल के पिता मुरलीधर
नारायण लाल यहीं के प्रसिद्धतोमर वंश के क्षत्रिय थे। किन्तु उनके आचार-विचार, सत्यनिष्ठा व धार्मिक प्रवृत्ति से स्थानीय लोग प्रायः उन्हें "पण्डित जी" ही कहकर सम्बोधित करते थे। इससे उन्हें एक लाभ यह भी होता था कि प्रत्येक तीज - त्योहार पर दान - दक्षिणा व भोजन आदि घर में आ जाया करता। इसी बीच नारायण लाल को स्थानीय निवासियों की सहायता से एक पाठशाला में सात रुपये मासिक पर नौकरी मिल गयी। कुछ समय पश्चात् उन्होंने यह नौकरी भी छोड़ दी और रेजगारी (इकन्नी-दुअन्नी-चवन्नी के सिक्के) बेचने का कारोबार शुरू कर दिया। इससे उन्हें प्रतिदिन पाँच-सात आने की आय होने लगी। नारायण लाल ने रहने के लिये एक मकान भी शहर के खिरनीबाग मोहल्ले में खरीद लिया और बड़े बेटे मुरलीधर का विवाह अपने ससुराल वालों के परिवार की ही एक कन्या मूलमती से करके उसे इस नये घर में ले आये। शादी पश्चात मुरलीधर को शाहजहाँपुर की नगरपालिका में १५ रुपये मासिक वेतन पर नौकरी मिल गयी। किन्तु उन्हें यह नौकरी पसन्द नहीं आयी। कुछ दिन बाद उन्होंने नौकरी त्याग कर कचहरी में स्टाम्प पेपर बेचने का काम शुरू कर दिया। इस व्यवसाय में उन्होंने अच्छा खासा धन कमाया। तीन बैलगाड़ियाँ किराये पर चलने लगीं व ब्याज पर रुपये उधार देने का काम भी करने लगे।

प्रारम्भिक जीवन एवं शिक्षा

११ जून १८९७ को उत्तर प्रदेश के शाहजहाँपुर शहर के खिरनीबाग मुहल्ले में मुरलीधर और उनकी पत्नी मूलमती को जन्मे बिस्मिल अपने माता-पिता की दूसरी सन्तान थे। उनसे पूर्व एक पुत्र पैदा होते ही मर चुका था। बालक की जन्म-कुण्डली व दोनों हाथ की दसो उँगलियों में चक्र के निशान देखकर एक ज्योतिषी ने भविष्यवाणी की थी - "यदि इस बालक का जीवन किसी प्रकार बचा रहा, यद्यपि सम्भावना बहुत कम है, तो इसे चक्रवर्ती सम्राट बनने से दुनिया की कोई भी ताकत रोक नहीं पायेगी।'' माता-पिता दोनों ही सिंह राशि के थे और बच्चा भी सिंह-शावक जैसा लगता था अतः ज्योतिषियों ने बहुत सोच विचार कर तुला राशि के नामाक्षर  पर नाम रखने का सुझाव दिया। माता-पिता दोनों ही राम के आराधक थे अतः बालक का नाम रामप्रसाद रखा गया। माँ मूलमती तो सदैव यही कहती थीं कि उन्हें राम जैसा पुत्र चाहिये था। बालक को घर में सभी लोग प्यार से राम कहकर ही पुकारते थे। रामप्रसाद के जन्म से पूर्व उनकी माँ एक पुत्र खो चुकी थीं अतः जादू-टोने का सहारा भी लिया गया। एक खरगोश लाया गया और नवजात शिशु के ऊपर से उतार कर आँगन में छोड़ दिया गया। खरगोश ने आँगन के दो-चार चक्कर लगाये और फौरन मर गया। इसका उल्लेख राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल ने अपनी आत्मकथा में किया है। मुरलीधर के कुल ९ सन्तानें हुईं जिनमें पाँच पुत्रियाँ एवं चार पुत्र थे। आगे चलकर दो पुत्रियों एवं दो पुत्रों का भी देहान्त हो गया।
बाल्यकाल से ही रामप्रसाद की शिक्षा पर विशेष ध्यान दिया जाने लगा। उसका मन खेलने में अधिक किन्तु पढ़ने में कम लगता था। इसके कारण उनके पिताजी तो उसकी खूब पिटायी लगाते परन्तु माँ हमेशा प्यार से यही समझाती कि "बेटा राम! ये बहुत बुरी बात है मत किया करो।" इस प्यार भरी सीख का उसके मन पर कहीं न कहीं प्रभाव अवश्य पड़ता। उसके पिता ने पहले हिन्दी का अक्षर-बोध कराया किन्तु उ से उल्लू न तो उन्होंने पढ़ना सीखा और न ही लिखकर दिखाया। उन दिनों हिन्दी की वर्णमाला में उ से उल्लू ही पढ़ाया जाता था। इस बात का वह विरोध करते थे और बदले में पिता की मार भी खाते थे। हार कर उसे उर्दू के स्कूल में भर्ती करा दिया गया। शायद यही प्राकृतिक गुण रामप्रसाद को एक क्रान्तिकारी बना पाये। लगभग १४ वर्ष की आयु में रामप्रसाद को अपने पिता की सन्दूकची से रुपये चुराने की लत पड़ गयी। चुराये गये रुपयों से उन्होंने उपन्यास आदि खरीदकर पढ़ना प्रारम्भ कर दिया एवं सिगरेट पीने व भाँग चढ़ाने की आदत भी पड़ गयी थी। कुल मिलाकर रुपये - चोरी का सिलसिला चलता रहा और रामप्रसाद अब उर्दू के प्रेमरस से परिपूर्ण उपन्यासों व गजलों की पुस्तकें पढ़ने का आदी हो गया था। संयोग से एक दिन भाँग के नशे में होने के कारण रामप्रसाद को चोरी करते हुए पकड़ लिया गया। खूब पिटाई हुई, उपन्यास व अन्य किताबें फाड़ डाली गयीं लेकिन रुपये चुराने की आदत नहीं छूटी। आगे चलकर जब उनको थोड़ी समझ आयी तभी वे इस दुर्गुण से मुक्त हो सके।
रामप्रसाद ने उर्दू मिडिल की परीक्षा में उत्तीर्ण न होने पर अंग्रेजी पढ़ना प्रारम्भ किया। साथ ही पड़ोस के एक पुजारी ने रामप्रसाद को पूजा-पाठ की विधि का ज्ञान करवा दिया। पुजारी एक सुलझे हुए विद्वान व्यक्ति थे। उनके व्यक्तित्व का प्रभाव रामप्रसाद के जीवन पर भी पड़ा। पुजारी के उपदेशों के कारण रामप्रसाद पूजा-पाठ के साथ ब्रह्मचर्य का पालन करने लगा। पुजारी की देखा-देखी रामप्रसाद ने व्यायाम करना भी प्रारम्भ कर दिया। किशोरावस्था की जितनी भी कुभावनाएँ एवं बुरी आदतें मन में थीं वे भी छूट गयीं। केवल सिगरेट पीने की लत नहीं छूटी। परन्तु वह भी कुछ दिनों बाद विद्यालय के एक सहपाठी सुशीलचन्द्र सेन की सत्संगति से छूट गयी। सिगरेट छूटने के बाद रामप्रसाद का मन पढ़ाई में लगने लगा। बहुत शीघ्र ही वह अंग्रेजी के पाँचवें दर्ज़े में आ गए।
रामप्रसाद में अप्रत्याशित परिवर्तन हो चुका था। शरीर सुन्दर व बलिष्ठ हो गया था। नियमित पूजा-पाठ में समय व्यतीत होने लगा था। इसी दौरान वह मन्दिर में आने वाले मुंशी इन्द्रजीत से उसका सम्पर्क हुआ। मुंशी इन्द्रजीत ने रामप्रसाद को आर्य समाज के सम्बन्ध में बताया और स्वामी दयानन्द सरस्वती की लिखी पुस्तक सत्यार्थ प्रकाश पढ़ने को दी। सत्यार्थ प्रकाश के गम्भीर अध्ययन से रामप्रसाद के जीवन पर आश्चर्यजनक प्रभाव पड़ा।

स्वामी सोमदेव से भेंट

रामप्रसाद जब गवर्नमेण्ट स्कूल शाहजहाँपुर में आठवीं कक्षा के छात्र थे तभी संयोग से स्वामी सोमदेव का आर्य समाज भवन में आगमन हुआ। मुंशी इन्द्रजीत ने रामप्रसाद को स्वामीजी की सेवा में नियुक्त कर दिया। यहीं से उनके जीवन की दशा और दिशा दोनों में परिवर्तन प्रारम्भ हुआ। एक ओर सत्यार्थ प्रकाश का गम्भीर अध्ययन व दूसरी ओर स्वामी सोमदेव के साथ राजनीतिक विषयों पर खुली चर्चा से उनके मन में देश-प्रेम की भावना जागृत हुई। सन् १९१६ के कांग्रेस अधिवेशन में स्वागताध्यक्ष पं॰ जगत नारायण 'मुल्ला' के आदेश की धज्जियाँ बिखेरते हुए रामप्रसाद ने जब लोकमान्य बालगंगाधर तिलक की पूरे लखनऊ शहर में शोभायात्रा निकाली तो सभी नवयुवकों का ध्यान उनकी दृढता की ओर गया। अधिवेशन के दौरान उनका परिचय केशव बलिराम हेडगेवार (छ्द्मनाम: केशव चक्रवर्ती), सोमदेव शर्मा व मुकुन्दीलाल आदि से हुआ। बाद में इन्हीं सोमदेव शर्मा ने किन्हीं सिद्धगोपाल शुक्ल के साथ मिलकर नागरी साहित्य पुस्तकालय, कानपुर से एक पुस्तक भी प्रकाशित की जिसका शीर्षक रखा गया था - अमेरिका की स्वतन्त्रता का इतिहास। यह पुस्तक बाबू गनेशप्रसाद के प्रबन्ध से कुर्मी प्रेस, लखनऊ में सन् १९१६ में प्रकाशित हुई थी। रामप्रसाद ने यह पुस्तक अपनी माताजी से दो बार में दो-दो सौ रुपये लेकर प्रकाशित की थी। इसका उल्लेख उन्होंने अपनी आत्मकथा में किया है। यह पुस्तक छपते ही जब्त कर ली गयी थी बाद में जब काकोरी काण्ड का अभियोग चला तो साक्ष्य के रूप में यही पुस्तक प्रस्तुत की गयी थी। अब यह पुस्तक सम्पादित करके सरफरोशी की तमन्ना नामक ग्रन्थावली के भाग-तीन में संकलित की जा चुकी है और तीन मूर्ति भवन पुस्तकालय, नई-दिल्ली सहित कई अन्य पुस्तकालयों में देखी जा सकती है।

मैनपुरी षड्यन्त्र

पण्डित गेंदालाल दीक्षित का जन्म यमुना किनारे स्थित मई गाँव में हुआ था। इटावा जिले के एक प्रसिद्ध कस्बे औरैया के डीएवी स्कूल में अध्यापक थे। देशभक्ति का जुनून सवार हुआ तो शिवाजी समिति के नाम से एक संस्था बना ली और हथियार एकत्र करने शुरू कर दिये। आगरा में हथियार लाते हुए पकड़े गये थे। किले में कैद थे वहाँ से पुलिस को चकमा देकर रफूचक्कर हो गये। बिस्मिल की मातृवेदी संस्था का विलय शिवाजी समिति में करने के बाद दोनों ने मिलकर कई काम किये। एक बार पुन: पकड़े गये, पुलिस पीछे पड़ी थी, भाग कर दिल्ली चले गये जहां उनका प्राणान्त हुआ। बिस्मिल ने अपनी आत्मकथा में पण्डित गेन्दालाल जी का बड़ा मार्मिक वर्णन किया है।सन १९१५ में भाई परमानन्द की फाँसी का समाचार सुनकर रामप्रसाद ब्रिटिश साम्राज्य को समूल नष्ट करने की प्रतिज्ञा कर चुके थे, १९१६ में एक पुस्तक छपकर आ चुकी थी, कुछ नवयुवक उनसे जुड़ चुके थे, स्वामी सोमदेव का आशीर्वाद भी उन्हें प्राप्त हो चुका था। एक संगठन उन्होंने पं॰ गेंदालाल दीक्षित के मार्गदर्शन में मातृवेदी के नाम से खुद खड़ा कर लिया था। इस संगठन की ओर से एक इश्तिहार और एक प्रतिज्ञा भी प्रकाशित की गयी। दल के लिये धन एकत्र करने के उद्देश्य से रामप्रसाद ने, जो अब तक 'बिस्मिल' के नाम से प्रसिद्ध हो चुके थे, जून १९१८ में दो तथा सितम्बर १९१८ में एक - कुल मिलाकर तीन डकैती भी डालीं, जिससे पुलिस सतर्क होकर इन युवकों की खोज में जगह-जगह छापे डाल रही थी। २६ से ३१ दिसम्बर १९१८ तक दिल्ली में लाल किले के सामने हुए कांग्रेस अधिवेशन में इस संगठन के नवयुवकों ने चिल्ला-चिल्ला कर जैसे ही पुस्तकें बेचना शुरू किया कि पुलिस ने छापा डाला किन्तु बिस्मिल की सूझ बूझ से सभी पुस्तकें बच गयीं।
मैनपुरी षडयंत्र में शाहजहाँपुर से ६ युवक शामिल हुए थे जिनके लीडर रामप्रसाद बिस्मिल थे किन्तु वे पुलिस के हाथ नहीं आये, तत्काल फरार हो गये। १ नबम्बर १९१९ को मजिस्ट्रेट बी॰ एस॰ क्रिस ने मैनपुरी षडयन्त्र का फैसला सुना दिया। जिन-जिन को सजायें हुईं उनमें मुकुन्दीलाल के अलावा सभी को फरवरी १९२० में आम माफी के ऐलान में छोड़ दिया गया। बिस्मिल पूरे २ वर्ष भूमिगत रहे। उनके दल के ही कुछ साथियों ने शाहजहाँपुर में जाकर यह अफवाह फैला दी कि भाई रामप्रसाद तो पुलिस की गोली से मारे गये जबकि सच्चाई यह थी कि वे पुलिस मुठभेड़ के दौरान यमुना में छलाँग लगाकर पानी के अन्दर ही अन्दर योगाभ्यास की शक्ति से तैरते हुए मीलों दूर आगे जाकर नदी से बाहर निकले और जहाँ आजकल ग्रेटर नोएडा आबाद हो चुका है वहाँ के निर्जन बीहड़ों में चले गये। वहाँ उन दिनों केवल बबूल के ही वृक्ष हुआ करते थे; और ऊसर जमीन में आदमी तो कहीं दूर-दूर तक दिखता ही नहीं था।

पलायनावस्था में साहित्य-सृजन

ग्रेटर नोएडा के बीटा वन सेक्टर स्थित रामपुर जागीर गाँव में अमर शहीद पं॰ राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल उद्यान
राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल ने यहाँ के एक छोटे से गाँव रामपुर जागीर (रामपुर जहाँगीर) में शरण ली और कई महीने यहाँ के निर्जन जंगलों में घूमते हुए गाँव के गूजरों की गाय भैंसचराईं। इसका बड़ा ही रोचक वर्णन उन्होंने अपनी आत्मकथा के द्वितीय खण्ड : स्वदेश प्रेम (उपशीर्षक - पलायनावस्था) में किया है। यहीं रहकर उन्होंने अपना क्रान्तिकारी उपन्यास बोल्शेविकों की करतूत लिखा। वस्तुतः यह उपन्यास मूलरूप से बांग्ला भाषा में लिखित पुस्तक निहिलिस्ट-रहस्य का हिन्दी - अनुवाद है जिसकी भाषा और शैली दोनों ही बड़ी रोचक हैं। अरविन्द घोष की एक अति उत्तम बांग्ला पुस्तक यौगिक साधन का हिन्दी - अनुवाद भी उन्होंने भूमिगत रहते हुए ही किया था। यमुना किनारे की जमीन उन दिनों पुलिस से बचने के लिये सुरक्षित समझी जाती थी अत: बिस्मिल ने उस निरापद स्थान का भरपूर उपयोग किया। वर्तमान समय में यह गाँव चूँकि ग्रेटर नोएडा के बीटा वन सेक्टर के अन्तर्गत आता है अत: उत्तर प्रदेश सरकार ने रामपुर जागीर गाँव के क्षेत्र में आने वाली वन विभाग की आरक्षित भूमि पर उनकी स्मृति में अमर शहीद पं॰ राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल उद्यान विकसित कर दिया है जिसकी देखरेख ग्रेटर नोएडा प्रशासन के वित्त-पोषण से प्रदेश का वन विभाग करता है।
'बिस्मिल' की एक विशेषता यह भी थी कि वे किसी भी स्थान पर अधिक दिनों तक ठहरते नहीं थे। कुछ दिन रामपुर जागीर में रहकर अपनी सगी बहन शास्त्री देवी के गाँव कोसमा जिला मैनपुरी में भी रहे। मजे की बात यह कि उनकी अपनी बहन तक उन्हें पहचान नहीं पायीं। कोसमा से चलकर बाह पहुँचे। कुछ दिन बाह रहे फिर वहाँ से पिनहट, आगरा होते हुए ग्वालियर रियासत स्थित अपने दादा के गाँव बरबई (जिला मुरैना, मध्य प्रदेश) चले गये। उन्होंने वहाँ किसान के भेस में रहकर कुछ दिनों हल भी चलाया। पलायनावस्था में रहते हुए उन्होंने १९१८ में प्रकाशित अँग्रेजी पुस्तक दि ग्रेण्डमदर ऑफ रसियन रिवोल्यूशन का हिन्दी - अनुवाद किया। उनके सभी साथियों को यह पुस्तक बहुत पसन्द आयी। इस पुस्तक का नाम उन्होंने कैथेराइन रखा था। इतना ही नहीं, बिस्मिल ने सुशीलमाला सीरीज से कुछ पुस्तकें भी प्रकाशित कीं थीं जिनमें मन की लहरनामक कविताओं का संग्रह, कैथेराइन या स्वाधीनता की देवी - कैथेराइन ब्रश्कोवस्की की संक्षिप्त जीवनी, स्वदेशी रंग व उपरोक्त बोल्शेविकों की करतूत नामक उपन्यास प्रमुख थे। स्वदेशी रंग के अतिरिक्त अन्य तीनों पुस्तकें आम पाठकों के लिये आजकल पुस्तकालयों में उपलब्ध हैं।

पुन: क्रान्ति की ओर

सरकारी ऐलान के बाद राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल ने अपने वतन शाहजहाँपुर आकर पहले भारत सिल्क मैनुफैक्चरिंग कम्पनी में मैनेजर के पद पर कुछ दिन नौकरी की उसके बाद सदर बाजार में रेशमी साड़ियों की दुकान खोलकर बनारसीलाल के साथ व्यापार शुरू कर दिया। व्यापार में उन्होंने नाम और नामा दोनों कमाया। कांग्रेस जिला समिति ने उन्हें लेखा परीक्षक के पद पर कार्यकारी कमेटी में ले लिया। सितम्बर १९२० में वे कलकत्ता कांग्रेस में शाहजहाँपुर काँग्रेस कमेटी के अधिकृत प्रतिनिधि के रूप में शामिल हुए। कलकत्ते में उनकी भेंट लाला लाजपत राय से हुई। लाला जी ने जब उनकी लिखी हुई पुस्तकें देखीं तो वे उनसे काफी प्रभावित हुए। उन्होंने उनका परिचय कलकत्ता के कुछ प्रकाशकों से करा दिया जिनमें एक उमादत्त शर्मा भी थे, जिन्होंने आगे चलकर सन् १९२२ में राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल की एक पुस्तक कैथेराइन छापी थी। सन् १९२१ के अहमदाबाद कांग्रेस अधिवेशन में रामप्रसाद'बिस्मिल' ने पूर्ण स्वराज के प्रस्ताव पर मौलाना हसरत मोहानी का खुलकर समर्थन किया और अन्ततोगत्वा गांधी जी से असहयोग आन्दोलन प्रारम्भ करने का प्रस्ताव पारित करवा कर ही माने। इस कारण वे युवाओं में काफी लोकप्रिय हो गये। समूचे देश में असहयोग आन्दोलन शुरू करने में शाहजहाँपुर के स्वयंसेवकों की अहम् भूमिका थी। किन्तु १९२२ में जब चौरीचौरा काण्ड के पश्चात किसी से परामर्श किये बिना गांधी जी ने असहयोग आन्दोलन वापस ले लिया तो १९२२ की गया कांग्रेस में बिस्मिल व उनके साथियों ने गांधी जी का ऐसा विरोध किया कि कांग्रेस में फिर दो विचारधारायें बन गयीं - एक उदारवादी या लिबरल और दूसरी विद्रोही या रिबेलियन। गांधी जी विद्रोही विचारधारा के नवयुवकों को कांग्रेस की आम सभाओं में विरोध करने के कारण हमेशा हुल्लड़बाज कहा करते थे। एक बार तो उन्होंने जवाहरलाल नेहरू को पत्र लिखकर क्रान्तिकारी नवयुवकों का साथ देने पर बुरी तरह फटकार भी लगायी थी।

एच॰आर॰ए॰ का गठन

लाला हरदयाल जिन्होंने एच॰आर॰ए॰ के गठन में अपनी अहम भूमिका निभायी
जनवरी १९२३ में मोतीलाल नेहरू व देशबन्धु चितरंजन दास सरीखे धनाढ्य लोगों ने मिलकर स्वराज पार्टी बना ली। नवयुवकों ने तदर्थ पार्टी के रूप में रिवोल्यूशनरी पार्टी का ऐलान कर दिया। सितम्बर १९२३ में हुए दिल्ली के विशेष कांग्रेस अधिवेशन में असन्तुष्ट नवयुवकों ने यह निर्णय लिया कि वे भी अपनी पार्टी का नाम व संविधान आदि निश्चित कर राजनीति में दखल देना शुरू करेंगे अन्यथा देश में लोकतन्त्र के नाम पर लूटतन्त्र हावी हो जायेगा। देखा जाये तो उस समय उनकी यह बड़ी दूरदर्शी सोच थी। सुप्रसिद्ध क्रान्तिकारी लाला हरदयाल, जो उन दिनों विदेश में रहकर हिन्दुस्तान को स्वतन्त्र कराने की रणनीति बनाने में जुटे हुए थे, राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल के सम्पर्क में स्वामी सोमदेव के समय से ही थे। लाला जी ने ही पत्र लिखकर राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल को शचींद्रनाथ सान्याल व यदु गोपाल मुखर्जी से मिलकर नयी पार्टी का संविधान तैयार करने की सलाह दी थी। लाला जी की सलाह मानकर राम प्रसाद इलाहाबाद गये और शचींद्रनाथ सान्याल के घर पर पार्टी का संविधान तैयार किया।
नवगठित पार्टी का नाम संक्षेप में एच॰ आर॰ ए॰ रखा गया व इसका संविधान पीले रँग के पर्चे पर छाप करके सदस्यों को भेजा गया। ३ अक्टूबर १९२४ को इस पार्टी (हिन्दुस्तान रिपब्लिकन ऐसोसिएशन) की एक कार्यकारिणी-बैठक कानपुर में की गयी जिसमें शचीन्द्रनाथ सान्याल, योगेश चन्द्र चटर्जी व राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल आदि कई प्रमुख सदस्य शामिल हुए। इस बैठक में पार्टी का नेतृत्व बिस्मिल को सौंपकर सान्याल व चटर्जी बंगाल चले गये। पार्टी के लिये फण्ड एकत्र करने में कठिनाई को देखते हुए आयरलैण्ड के क्रान्तिकारियों का तरीका अपनाया गया और पार्टी की ओर से पहली डकैती २५ दिसम्बर १९२४ (क्रिसमस की रात) को बमरौली में डाली गयी जिसका कुशल नेतृत्व बिस्मिल ने किया था। इसका उल्लेख चीफ कोर्ट आफ अवध के फैसले में मिलता है।

"दि रिवोल्यूशनरी" (घोषणा-पत्र) का प्रकाशन

क्रान्तिकारी पार्टी की ओर से १ जनवरी १९२५ को किसी गुमनाम जगह से प्रकाशित एवं २८ से ३१ जनवरी १९२५ के बीच समूचे हिन्दुस्तान के सभी प्रमुख स्थानों पर वितरित ४ पृष्ठ के पैम्फलेट "दि रिवोल्यूशनरी" में राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल ने विजय कुमार के छद्म नाम से अपने दल की विचार-धारा का लिखित रूप में खुलासा करते हुए साफ शब्दों में घोषित कर दिया था कि क्रान्तिकारी इस देश की शासन व्यवस्था में किस प्रकार का बदलाव करना चाहते हैं और इसके लिए वे क्या-क्या कर सकते हैं? केवल इतना ही नहीं, उन्होंने गांधी जी की नीतियों का मजाक बनाते हुए यह प्रश्न भी किया था कि जो व्यक्ति स्वयं को आध्यात्मिक कहता है वह अँग्रेजों से खुलकर बात करने में डरता क्यों है? उन्होंने हिन्दुस्तान के सभी नौजवानों को ऐसे छद्मवेषी महात्मा के बहकावे में न आने की सलाह देते हुए उनकी क्रान्तिकारी पार्टी में शामिल हो कर अँग्रेजों से टक्कर लेने का खुला आवाहन किया था। दि रिवोल्यूशनरी के नाम से अँग्रेजी में प्रकाशित इस क्रान्तिकारी (घोषणा पत्र) में क्रान्तिकारियों के वैचारिक चिन्तन* को भली-भाँति समझा जा सकता है। इस पत्र का अविकल हिन्दी काव्यानुवाद अब हिन्दी विकीस्रोत पर भी उपलब्ध है।


काकोरी-काण्ड के क्रान्तिकारी

सबसे ऊपर राम प्रसाद 'बिस्मिल' एवं अशफाक उल्ला खाँ नीचे ग्रुप फोटो में क्रमश: (from left to right)1.योगेशचन्द्र चटर्जी, 2.प्रेमकृष्ण खन्ना, 3.मुकुन्दी लाल, 4.विष्णुशरण दुब्लिश, 5.सुरेशचन्द्र भट्टाचार्य, 6.रामकृष्ण खत्री, 7.मन्मथनाथ गुप्त, 8.राजकुमार सिन्हा, 9.ठाकुर रोशनसिंह, 10.पं॰ रामप्रसाद 'बिस्मिल', 11.राजेन्द्रनाथ लाहिडी, 12.गोविन्दचरण कार, 13.रामदुलारे त्रिवेदी, 14.रामनाथ पाण्डेय, 15.शचीन्द्रनाथ सान्याल, 16.भूपेन्द्रनाथ सान्याल, 17.प्रणवेशकुमार चटर्जी
दि रिवोल्यूशनरी नाम से प्रकाशित इस ४ पृष्ठीय घोषणापत्र को देखते ही ब्रिटिश सरकार इसके लेखक को बंगाल में खोजने लगी। संयोग से शचीन्द्र नाथ सान्याल बाँकुरा में उस समय गिरफ्तार कर लिये गये जब वे यह घोषणापत्र अपने किसी साथी को पोस्ट करने जा रहे थे। इसी प्रकार योगेशचन्द्र चटर्जी कानपुर से पार्टी की मीटिंग करके जैसे ही हावड़ा स्टेशन पर ट्रेन से उतरे कि एच॰ आर॰ ए॰ के संविधान की ढेर सारी प्रतियों के साथ पकड़ लिये गये। उन्हें हजारीबाग जेल में बन्द कर दिया गया। दोनों प्रमुख नेताओं के गिरफ्तार हो जाने से राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल के कन्धों पर उत्तर प्रदेश के साथ-साथ बंगाल के क्रान्तिकारी सदस्यों का उत्तरदायित्व भी आ गया। बिस्मिल का स्वभाव था कि वे या तो किसी काम को हाथ में लेते न थे और यदि एक बार काम हाथ में ले लिया तो उसे पूरा किये बगैर छोड़ते न थे। पार्टी के कार्य हेतु धन की आवश्यकता पहले भी थी किन्तु अब तो और भी अधिक बढ़ गयी थी। कहीं से भी धन प्राप्त होता न देख उन्होंने ७ मार्च १९२५ को बिचपुरी तथा २४ मई १९२५ को द्वारकापुर में दो राजनीतिक डकैतियाँ डालीं। परन्तु उन्हें उनमें कुछ विशेष धन प्राप्त नहीं हो सका।
इन दोनों डकैतियों में एक-एक व्यक्ति मौके पर ही मारा गया। इससे बिस्मिल की आत्मा को अपार कष्ट हुआ। अन्ततः उन्होंने यह पक्का निश्चय कर लिया कि वे अब केवल सरकारी खजाना ही लूटेंगे, हिन्दुस्तान के किसी भी रईस के घर डकैती बिल्कुल न डालेंगे।
शाहजहाँपुर में उनके घर पर ७ अगस्त १९२५ को हुई एक इमर्जेन्सी मीटिंग में निर्णय लेकर योजना बनी और ९ अगस्त १९२५ को शाहजहाँपुर रेलवे स्टेशन से बिस्मिल के नेतृत्व में कुल १० लोग, जिनमें अशफाक उल्ला खाँ, राजेन्द्र लाहिड़ी, चन्द्रशेखर आजाद, शचीन्द्रनाथ बख्शी, मन्मथनाथ गुप्त, मुकुन्दी लाल, केशव चक्रवर्ती (छद्मनाम), मुरारी शर्मा (वास्तविक नाम मुरारी लाल गुप्त) तथा बनवारी लाल शामिल थे, ८ डाउन सहारनपुर-लखनऊ पैसेंजर रेलगाड़ी में सवार हुए। इन सबके पास पिस्तौलों के अतिरिक्त जर्मनी के बने चार माउज़र पिस्तौल भी थे जिनके बट में कुन्दा लगा लेने से वह छोटी स्वचालित राइफल की तरह लगता था और सामने वाले के मन में भय पैदा कर देता था। इन माउजरों की मारक क्षमता भी साधारण पिस्तौलों से अधिक होती थी। उन दिनों ये माउजर आज की ए॰ के॰ - ४७ रायफल की तरह चर्चित थे। लखनऊ से पहले काकोरी रेलवे स्टेशन पर रुक कर जैसे ही गाड़ी आगे बढ़ी, क्रान्तिकारियों ने चेन खींचकर उसे रोक लिया और गार्ड के डिब्बे से सरकारी खजाने का बक्सा नीचे गिरा दिया। उसे खोलने की कोशिश की गयी किन्तु जब वह नहीं खुला तो अशफाक उल्ला खाँ ने अपना माउजर मन्मथनाथ गुप्त को पकड़ा दिया और हथौड़ा लेकर बक्सा तोड़ने में जुट गये। मन्मथनाथ गुप्त ने उत्सुकतावश माउजर का ट्रिगर दबा दिया जिससे छूटी गोली अहमद अली नाम के मुसाफिर को लग गयी। वह मौके पर ही ढेर हो गया। शीघ्रतावश चाँदी के सिक्कों व नोटों से भरे चमड़े के थैले चादरों में बाँधकर वहाँ से भागने में एक चादर वहीं छूट गयी। अगले दिन अखबारों के माध्यम से यह खबर पूरे संसार में फैल गयी। ब्रिटिश सरकार ने इस ट्रेन डकैती को गम्भीरता से लिया और डी॰ आई॰ जी॰ के सहायक (सी॰ आई॰ डी॰ इंस्पेक्टर) मिस्टर आर॰ ए॰ हार्टन के नेतृत्व में स्कॉटलैण्ड की सबसे तेज तर्रार पुलिस को इसकी जाँच का काम सौंप दिया।

गिरफ्तारी और अभियोगर को इस बात की पुष्टि कर दी कि काकोरी ट्रेन डकैती क्रान्तिकारियों का एक सुनियोजित षड्यन्त्र है। पुलिस ने काकोरी काण्ड के सम्बन्ध में जानकारी देने व षड्यन्त्र में शामिल किसी भी व्यक्ति को गिरफ्तार करवाने के लिये इनाम की घोषणा के विज्ञापन सभी प्रमुख स्थानों पर लगा दिये। इसका परिणाम यह हुआ कि पुलिस को घटनास्थल पर मिली चादर में लगे धोबी के निशान से इस बात का पता चल गया कि चादर शाहजहाँपुर के ही किसी व्यक्ति की है। शाहजहाँपुर के धोबियों से पूछने पर मालूम हुआ कि चादर बनारसी लाल की है। बनारसी लाल से मिलकर पुलिस ने सारा भेद प्राप्त कर लिया। यह भी पता चल गया कि ९ अगस्त १९२५ को शाहजहाँपुर से उसकी पार्टी के कौन-कौन लोग शहर से बाहर गये थे और वे कब-कब वापस आये? जब खुफिया तौर से इस बात की पुष्टि हो गयी कि राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल, जो एच॰ आर॰ ए॰ का लीडर था, उस दिन शहर में नहीं था तो २६ सितम्बर १९२५ की रात में बिस्मिल के साथ समूचे हिन्दुस्तान से ४० से भी अधिक लोगों को गिरफ्तार कर लिया गया।

काकोरी काण्ड में केवल १० ही लोग वास्तविक रूप से शामिल हुए थे अत: उन सभी को नामजद किया गया। इनमें से पाँच - चन्द्रशेखर आजाद, मुरारी शर्मा (छद्मनाम), केशव चक्रवर्ती (छद्मनाम), अशफाक उल्ला खाँ व शचीन्द्र नाथ बख्शी को छोड़कर, जो पुलिस के हाथ नहीं आये, शेष सभी व्यक्तियों पर अभियोग चला और उन्हें ५ वर्ष की कैद से लेकर फाँसी तक की सजा सुनायी गयी। फरार अभियुक्तों के अतिरिक्त जिन-जिन क्रान्तिकारियों को एच॰ आर॰ ए॰ का सक्रिय कार्यकर्ता होने के सन्देह में गिरफ्तार किया गया था उनमें से १६ को साक्ष्य न मिलने के कारण रिहा कर दिया गया। स्पेशल मजिस्ट्रेट ऐनुद्दीन ने प्रत्येक क्रान्तिकारी की छबि खराब करने में कोई कसर बाकी नहीं रक्खी। सिर्फ़ इतना ही नहीं, केस को सेशन कोर्ट में भेजने से पहले ही इस बात के सभी साक्षी व साक्ष्य एकत्र कर लिये थे कि यदि अपील भी की जाये तो एक भी अभियुक्त बिना सजा के छूटने न पाये। बनारसी लाल को हवालात में ही पुलिस ने कड़ी सजा का भय दिखाकर तोड़ लिया। शाहजहाँपुर जिला काँग्रेस कमेटी में पार्टी-फण्ड को लेकर इसी बनारसी का बिस्मिल से झगड़ा हो चुका था। बिस्मिल ने, जो उस समय जिला काँग्रेस कमेटी के ऑडीटर थे, बनारसी पर पार्टी-फण्ड में गबन का आरोप सिद्ध करते हुए उसे काँग्रेस पार्टी की प्राथमिक सदस्यता से निलम्बित कर दिया था। बाद में जब गांधी जी १६ अक्टूबर १९२० (शनिवार) को शाहजहाँपुर आये तो बनारसी ने उनसे मिलकर अपना पक्ष रक्खा। गान्धी जी ने उस समय यह कहकर कि छोटी-मोटी हेरा-फेरी को इतना तूल नहीं देना चाहिये, इन दोनों में सुलह करा दी। परन्तु बनारसी बड़ा ही धूर्त आदमी था। उसने पहले तो बिस्मिल से माफी माँग ली फिर गांधी जी को अलग ले जाकर उनके कान भर दिये कि रामप्रसाद बड़ा ही अपराधी किस्म का व्यक्ति है। वे इसकी किसी बात का न तो स्वयं विश्वास करें न ही किसी और को करने दें।
आगे चलकर इसी बनारसी लाल ने बिस्मिल से मित्रता कर ली और मीठी-मीठी बातों से पहले उनका विश्वास अर्जित किया और उसके बाद उनके साथ कपड़े के व्यापार में साझीदार बन गया। जब बिस्मिल ने गान्धी जी की आलोचना करते हुए अपनी अलग पार्टी बना ली तो बनारसी लाल अत्यधिक प्रसन्न हुआ और मौके की तलाश में चुप साधे बैठा रहा। पुलिस ने स्थानीय लोगों से बिस्मिल व बनारसी के पिछले झगड़े का भेद जानकर ही बनारसी लाल को अप्रूवर (सरकारी गवाह) बनाया और बिस्मिल के विरुद्ध पूरे अभियोग में एक अचूक औजार की तरह इस्तेमाल किया। बनारसी लाल व्यापार में साझीदार होने के कारण पार्टी सम्बन्धी ऐसी-ऐसी गोपनीय बातें जानता था, जिन्हें बिस्मिल के अतिरिक्त और कोई भी न जान सकता था। इसका उल्लेख राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल ने अपनी आत्मकथा में किया है।
लखनऊ जिला जेल, जो उन दिनों संयुक्त प्रान्त (यू॰पी॰) की सेण्ट्रल जेल कहलाती थी, की ११ नम्बर बैरक में सभी क्रान्तिकारियों को एक साथ रक्खा गया और हजरतगंज चौराहे के पास रिंग थियेटर नाम की एक आलीशान बिल्डिंग में अस्थाई अदालत का निर्माण किया गया। रिंग थियेटर नाम की यह बिल्डिंग कोठी हयात बख्श और मल्लिका अहद महल के बीच हुआ करती थी जिसमें ब्रिटिश अफसर आकर फिल्म व नाटक आदि देखकर मनोरंजन किया करते थे। इसी रिंग थियेटर में लगातार १८ महीने तक किंग इम्परर वर्सेस राम प्रसाद 'बिस्मिल' एण्ड अदर्स के नाम से चलाये गये ऐतिहासिक मुकदमे में ब्रिटिश सरकार ने १० लाख रुपये[18] उस समय खर्च किये थे जब सोने का मूल्य २० रुपये तोला (१२ ग्राम) हुआ करता था। ब्रिटिश हुक्मरानों के आदेश से यह बिल्डिंग भी बाद में ढहा दी गयी और उसकी जगह सन १९२९-१९३२ में जी॰ पी॰ ओ॰ (मुख्य डाकघर) लखनऊ[21] के नाम से एक दूसरा भव्य भवन बना दिया गया। १९४७ में जब भारत आजाद हो गया तो यहाँ गांधी जी की भव्य प्रतिमा स्थापित करके रही सही कसर नेहरू सरकार ने पूरी कर दी। जब केन्द्र में गैर काँग्रेसी जनता सरकार का पहली बार गठन हुआ तो उस समय के जीवित क्रान्तिकारियों के सामूहिक प्रयासों से सन् १९७७ में आयोजित काकोरी शहीद अर्द्धशताब्दी समारोह के समय यहाँ पर काकोरी स्तम्भ का अनावरण उत्तर प्रदेश के राज्यपाल गणपतिराव देवराव तपासे ने किया ताकि उस स्थल की स्मृति बनी रहे।
इस ऐतिहासिक मुकदमे में सरकारी खर्चे से हरकरननाथ मिश्र को क्रान्तिकारियों का वकील नियुक्त किया गया जबकि जवाहरलाल नेहरू के रिश्ते में साले लगने वाले सुप्रसिद्ध वकील जगतनारायण 'मुल्ला' को एक सोची समझी रणनीति के अन्तर्गत सरकारी वकील बनाया गया। जगत नारायण ने अपनी ओर से सभी क्रान्तिकारियों को कड़ी से कड़ी सजा दिलवाने में कोई कसर बाकी न रक्खी। यह वही जगत नारायण थे जिनकी मर्जी के खिलाफ सन् १९१६ में बिस्मिल ने लोकमान्य बालगंगाधर तिलक की भव्य शोभायात्रा पूरे लखनऊ शहर में निकाली थी। इसी बात से चिढ़ कर मैनपुरी षडयंत्र में भी इन्हीं मुल्लाजी ने सरकारी वकील की हैसियत से काफी जोर लगाया परन्तु वे राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल का एक भी बाल बाँका न कर पाये क्योंकि मैनपुरी षडयन्त्र में बिस्मिल फरार हो गये थे और दो साल तक पुलिस के हाथ ही न आये।

फाँसी की सजा और अपील

६ अप्रैल १९२७ को विशेष सेशन जज ए० हैमिल्टन ने ११५ पृष्ठ के निर्णय में प्रत्येक क्रान्तिकारी पर लगाये गये आरोपों पर विचार करते हुए लिखा कि यह कोई साधारण ट्रेन डकैती नहीं, अपितु ब्रिटिश साम्राज्य को उखाड़ फेंकने की एक सोची समझी साजिश है। हालाँकि इनमें से कोई भी अभियुक्त अपने व्यक्तिगत लाभ के लिये इस योजना में शामिल नहीं हुआ परन्तु चूँकि किसी ने भी न तो अपने किये पर कोई पश्चाताप किया है और न ही भविष्य में इस प्रकार की गतिविधियों से स्वयं को अलग रखने का वचन दिया है अतः जो भी सजा दी गयी है सोच समझ कर दी गयी है और इस हालत में उसमें किसी भी प्रकार की कोई छूट नहीं दी जा सकती। फिर भी, इनमें से कोई भी अभियुक्त यदि लिखित में पश्चाताप प्रकट करता है और भविष्य में ऐसा न करने का वचन देता है तो उनकी अपील पर अपर कोर्ट विचार कर सकती है।
फरार क्रान्तिकारियों में अशफाक उल्ला खाँ और शचीन्द्र नाथ बख्शी को बहुत बाद में पुलिस गिरफ्तार कर पायी। विशेष जज जे॰ आर॰ डब्लू॰ बैनेट की अदालत में काकोरी षड़यंत्र का अतिरिक्त केस दायर किया गया और १३ जुलाई १९२७ को यही बात दोहराते हुए अशफाक उल्ला खाँ को फाँसी तथा शचीन्द्रनाथ बख्शी को आजीवन कारावास की सजा सुना दी गयी। सेशन जज के फैसले के खिलाफ १८ जुलाई १९२७ को अवध चीफ कोर्ट में अपील दायर की गयी। चीफ कोर्ट के मुख्य न्यायाधीश सर लुइस शर्ट और विशेष न्यायाधीश मोहम्मद रज़ा के सामने दोनों मामले पेश हुए। जगतनारायण 'मुल्ला' को सरकारी पक्ष रखने का काम सौंपा गया जबकि सजायाफ्ता क्रान्तिकारियों की ओर से के॰ सी॰ दत्त, जयकरणनाथ मिश्र व कृपाशंकर हजेला ने क्रमशः राजेन्द्र नाथ लाहिड़ी, ठाकुर रोशन सिंह व अशफाक उल्ला खाँ की पैरवी की। राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल ने अपनी पैरवी खुद की क्योंकि सरकारी खर्चे पर उन्हें लक्ष्मीशंकर मिश्र नाम का एक बड़ा साधारण-सा वकील दिया गया था जिसको लेने से उन्होंने साफ मना कर दिया।
बिस्मिल ने चीफ कोर्ट के सामने जब धाराप्रवाह अंग्रेजी में फैसले के खिलाफ बहस की तो सरकारी वकील मुल्ला जी बगलें झाँकते नजर आये। बिस्मिल की इस तर्क क्षमता पर चीफ जस्टिस लुइस शर्टस को उनसे यह पूछना पड़ा - "मिस्टर रामप्रसाद! फ्रॉम व्हिच यूनीवर्सिटी यू हैव टेकेन द डिग्री ऑफ लाॅ?" (राम प्रसाद! तुमने किस विश्वविद्यालय से कानून की डिग्री ली है?) इस पर उन्होंने हँस कर कहा था- "एक्सक्यूज मी सर! ए किंगमेकर डजन्ट रिक्वायर ऐनी डिग्री।" (क्षमा करें महोदय! सम्राट बनाने वाले को किसी डिग्री की आवश्यकता नहीं होती।) अदालत ने इस जवाब से चिढ़कर बिस्मिल द्वारा १८ जुलाई १९२७ को दी गयी स्वयं वकालत करने की अर्जी खारिज कर दी। उसके बाद उन्होंने ७६ पृष्ठ की तर्कपूर्ण लिखित बहस पेश की। उसे पढ़ कर जजों ने यह शंका व्यक्त की कि यह बहस बिस्मिल ने स्वयं न लिखकर किसी विधिवेत्ता से लिखवायी है। आखिरकार अदालत द्वारा उन्हीं लक्ष्मीशंकर मिश्र को बहस करने की इजाजत दी गयी जिन्हें लेने से बिस्मिल ने मना कर दिया था।
काकोरी काण्ड का मुकदमा लखनऊ में चल रहा था। पण्डित जगतनारायण मुल्ला सरकारी वकील के साथ उर्दू के शायर भी थे। उन्होंने अभियुक्तों के लिये "मुल्जिमान" की जगह "मुलाजिम" शब्द बोल दिया। फिर क्या था, पण्डित राम प्रसाद 'बिस्मिल' ने तपाक से उन पर ये चुटीली फब्ती कसी: "मुलाजिम हमको मत कहिये, बड़ा अफ़सोस होता है; अदालत के अदब से हम यहाँ तशरीफ लाये हैं। पलट देते हैं हम मौजे-हवादिस अपनी जुर्रत से; कि हमने आँधियों में भी चिराग अक्सर जलाये हैं।" उनके कहने का मतलब था कि मुलाजिम वे (बिस्मिल) नहीं, बल्कि मुल्ला जी हैं जो सरकार से तनख्वाह पाते हैं। वे (बिस्मिल आदि) तो राजनीतिक बन्दी हैं अत: उनके साथ तमीज से पेश आयें। इसके साथ ही यह चेतावनी भी दे डाली कि वे समुद्र की लहरों तक को अपने दुस्साहस से पलटने का दम रखते हैं; मुकदमे की बाजी पलटना कौन सी बड़ी बात है? भला इतना बोलने के बाद किसकी हिम्मत थी जो बिस्मिल के आगे ठहरता। मुल्ला जी को पसीने छूट गये और उन्होंने कन्नी काटने में ही भलाई समझी। वे चुपचाप पिछले दरवाजे से खिसक लिये। फिर उस दिन उन्होंने कोई जिरह नहीं की।
चीफ कोर्ट में शचीन्द्र नाथ सान्याल, भूपेन्द्र नाथ सान्याल व बनवारी लाल को छोड़कर शेष सभी क्रान्तिकारियों ने अपील की थी। २२ अगस्त १९२७ को जो फैसला सुनाया गया उसके अनुसार राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल, राजेन्द्र नाथ लाहिड़ी व अशफाक उल्ला खाँ को आई॰ पी॰ सी॰ की दफा १२१ (ए) व १२० (बी) के अन्तर्गत आजीवन कारावास तथा ३०२ व ३९६ के अनुसार फाँसी एवं ठाकुर रोशन सिंह को पहली दो दफाओं में ५+५ = कुल १० वर्ष की कड़ी कैद तथा अगली दो दफाओं के अनुसार फाँसी का हुक्म हुआ। शचीन्द्र नाथ सान्याल, जब जेल में थे तभी लिखित रूप से अपने किये पर पश्चाताप प्रकट करते हुए भविष्य में किसी भी क्रान्तिकारी कार्रवाई में हिस्सा न लेने का वचन दे चुके थे। इसके आधार पर उनकी उम्र-कैद बरकरार रही। शचीन्द्र के छोटे भाई भूपेन्द्र नाथ सान्याल व बनवारी लाल ने अपना-अपना जुर्म कबूल करते हुए कोर्ट की कोई भी सजा भुगतने की अण्डरटेकिंग पहले ही दे रखी थी इसलिये उन्होंने अपील नहीं की और दोनों को ५-५ वर्ष की सजा के आदेश यथावत रहे। चीफ कोर्ट में अपील करने के बावजूद योगेशचन्द्र चटर्जी, मुकुन्दी लाल व गोविन्दचरण कार की सजायें १०-१० वर्ष से बढ़ाकर उम्र-कैद में बदल दी गयीं। सुरेशचन्द्र भट्टाचार्य व विष्णुशरण दुब्लिश की सजायें भी यथावत (७ - ७ वर्ष) कायम रहीं। खूबसूरत हैण्डराइटिंग में लिखकर अपील देने के कारण केवल प्रणवेश चटर्जी की सजा को ५ वर्ष से घटाकर ४ वर्ष कर दिया गया। इस काण्ड में सबसे कम सजा (३ वर्ष) रामनाथ पाण्डेय को हुई। मन्मथनाथ गुप्त, जिनकी गोली से मुसाफिर मारा गया, की सजा १० से बढ़ाकर १४ वर्ष कर दी गयी। काकोरी काण्ड में प्रयुक्त माउजर पिस्तौल के कारतूस चूँकि प्रेमकृष्ण खन्ना के शस्त्र-लाइसेन्स पर खरीदे गये थे जिसके पर्याप्त साक्ष्य मिल जाने के कारण प्रेमकृष्ण खन्ना को ५ वर्ष के कठोर कारावास की सजा भुगतनी पड़ी।
चीफ कोर्ट का फैसला आते ही समूचे देश में सनसनी फैल गयी। ठाकुर मनजीत सिंह राठौर ने सेण्ट्रल लेजिस्लेटिव कौन्सिल में काकोरी काण्ड के सभी फाँसी (मृत्यु-दण्ड) प्राप्त कैदियों की सजायें कम करके आजीवन कारावास (उम्र-कैद) में बदलने का प्रस्ताव पेश करने की सूचना दी। कौन्सिल के कई सदस्यों ने सर विलियम मोरिस को, जो उस समय संयुक्त प्रान्त के गवर्नर थे, इस आशय का एक प्रार्थना-पत्र भी दिया किन्तु उन्होंने उसे अस्वीकार कर दिया।
सेण्ट्रल कौन्सिल के ७८ सदस्यों ने तत्कालीन वायसराय व गवर्नर जनरल एडवर्ड फ्रेडरिक लिण्डले वुड को शिमला में हस्ताक्षर युक्त मेमोरियल भेजा जिस पर प्रमुख रूप से पं॰ मदन मोहन मालवीय, मोहम्मद अली जिन्ना, एन॰ सी॰ केलकर, लाला लाजपत राय, गोविन्द वल्लभ पन्त, आदि ने हस्ताक्षर किये थे किन्तु वायसराय पर उसका भी कोई असर न हुआ। अन्त में मदन मोहन मालवीय के नेतृत्व में पाँच व्यक्तियों का एक प्रतिनिधि मण्डल शिमला जाकर वायसराय से मिला और उनसे यह प्रार्थना की कि चूँकि इन चारो अभियुक्तों ने लिखित रूप में सरकार को यह वचन दिया है कि वे भविष्य में इस प्रकार की किसी भी गतिविधि में हिस्सा न लेंगे और उन्होंने अपने किये पर पश्चाताप भी प्रकट किया है अतः जजमेण्ट पर पुनर्विचार किया जा सकता है। चीफ कोर्ट ने अपने फैसले में भी यह बात लिखी थी। इसके बावजूद वायसराय ने उन्हें साफ मना कर दिया।
अन्ततः बैरिस्टर मोहन लाल सक्सेना ने प्रिवी कौन्सिल में क्षमादान की याचिका के दस्तावेज़ तैयार करके इंग्लैण्ड के विख्यात वकील एस॰ एल॰ पोलक के पास भिजवाये। परन्तु लन्दन के न्यायाधीशों व सम्राट के वैधानिक सलाहकारों ने उस पर बड़ी सख्त दलील दी कि इस षड्यन्त्र का सूत्रधार राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल बड़ा ही खतरनाक और पेशेवर अपराधी है। यदि उसे क्षमादान दिया गया तो वह भविष्य में इससे भी बड़ा और भयंकर काण्ड कर सकता है। उस स्थिति में सरकार को हिन्दुस्तान में शासन करना असम्भव हो जायेगा। इस सबका परिणाम यह हुआ कि प्रिवी कौन्सिल में भेजी गयी क्षमादान की अपील भी खारिज हो गयी।

गोरखपुर जेल में फाँसी

१६ दिसम्बर १९२७ को बिस्मिल ने अपनी आत्मकथा का आखिरी अध्याय (अन्तिम समय की बातें) पूर्ण करके जेल से बाहर भिजवा दिया। १८ दिसम्बर १९२७ को माता-पिता से अन्तिम मुलाकात की और सोमवार १९ दिसम्बर १९२७ (पौष कृष्ण एकादशी विक्रमी सम्वत् १९८४) को प्रात:काल ६ बजकर ३० मिनट पर गोरखपुर की जिला जेल में उन्हें फाँसी दे दी गयी। बिस्मिल के बलिदान का समाचार सुनकर बहुत बड़ी संख्या में जनता जेल के फाटक पर एकत्र हो गयी। जेल का मुख्य द्वार बन्द ही रक्खा गया और फाँसीघर के सामने वाली दीवार को तोड़कर बिस्मिल का शव उनके परिजनों को सौंप दिया गया। शव को डेढ़ लाख लोगों ने जुलूस निकाल कर पूरे शहर में घुमाते हुए राप्ती नदी के किनारे राजघाट पर उसका अन्तिम संस्कार कर दिया।
इस घटना से आहत होकर भगतसिंह ने जनवरी १९२८ के किरती (पंजाबी मासिक) में 'विद्रोही' छद्मनाम नाम से लिखा: "फाँसी पर ले जाते समय आपने बड़े जोर से कहा - 'वन्दे मातरम! भारतमाता की जय!' और शान्ति से चलते हुए कहा - 'मालिक तेरी रज़ा रहे और तू ही तू रहे, बाकी न मैं रहूँ न मेरी आरजू रहे; जब तक कि तन में जान रगों में लहू रहे, तेरा ही जिक्र और तेरी जुस्तजू रहे!' फाँसी के तख्ते पर खड़े होकर आपने कहा - 'I wish the downfall of British Empire! अर्थात मैं ब्रिटिश साम्राज्य का पतन चाहता हूँ!' उसके पश्चात यह शेर कहा - 'अब न अह्ले-वल्वले हैं और न अरमानों की भीड़, एक मिट जाने की हसरत अब दिले-बिस्मिल में है!' फिर ईश्वर के आगे प्रार्थना की और एक मन्त्र पढ़ना शुरू किया। रस्सी खींची गयी। रामप्रसाद जी फाँसी पर लटक गये।"
अपने लेख के अन्त में भगतसिंह लिखते हैं - "आज वह वीर इस संसार में नहीं है। उसे अंग्रेजी सरकार ने अपना सबसे बड़ा खौफ़नाक दुश्मन समझा। आम ख्याल यही था कि वह गुलाम देश में जन्म लेकर भी सरकार के लिये बड़ा भारी खतरा बन गया था और लड़ाई की विद्या से खूब परिचित था। आपको मैनपुरी षड्यन्त्र के नेता श्री गेंदालाल दीक्षित जैसे शूरवीर ने विशेष तौर पर शिक्षा देकर तैयार किया था। मैनपुरी के मुकदमे के समय आप भागकर नेपाल चले गये थे। अब वही शिक्षा आपकी मृत्यु का कारण बनी। ७ बजे आपकी लाश मिली और बड़ा भारी जुलूस निकला। 'स्वदेश' में प्रकाशित एक समाचार के अनुसार आपकी माता ने कहा था - 'मैं अपने पुत्र की इस मृत्यु पर प्रसन्न हूँ, दुःखी नहीं। मैं श्री रामचन्द्र जैसा ही पुत्र चाहती थी। वैसा ही मेरा 'राम' था। बोलो श्री रामचन्द्र की जय!'
इत्र फुलेल और फूलों की वर्षा के बीच उनकी लाश का जुलूस जा रहा था। दुकानदारों ने उनके शव के ऊपर वेशुमार पैसे फेंके। दोपहर ११ बजे आपकी लाश शमशान-भूमि पहुँची और अन्तिम-क्रिया समाप्त हुई। आपके पत्र का आखिरी हिस्सा आपकी सेवा में प्रस्तुत है - 'मैं खूब सुखी हूँ। १९ तारीख को प्रातः जो होना है उसके लिये तैयार हूँ। परमात्मा मुझे काफी शक्ति देंगे। मेरा विश्वास है कि मैं लोगों की सेवा के लिये फिर जल्द ही इस देश में जन्म लूँगा। सभी से मेरा नमस्कार कहें। दया कर इतना काम और करना कि मेरी ओर से पण्डित जगतनारायण (सरकारी वकील, जिन्होंने इन्हें फाँसी लगवाने के लिये बहुत जोर लगाया था) को अन्तिम नमस्कार कह देना। उन्हें हमारे खून से लथपथ रुपयों के बिस्तर पर चैन की नींद आये। बुढ़ापे में ईश्वर उन्हें सद्बुद्धि दे।"
रामप्रसाद जी की सारी हसरतें दिल-ही-दिल में रह गयीं। आपने एक लम्बा-चौड़ा ऐलान किया है जिसे संक्षेप में हम दूसरी जगह दे रहे हैं। फाँसी से दो दिन पहले सी.आई.डी. के डिप्टी एस.पी. और सेशन जज मि. हैमिल्टन आपसे मिन्नतें करते रहे कि आप मौखिक रूप से सब बातें बता दो। आपको पन्द्रह हजार रुपया नकद दिया जायेगा और सरकारी खर्चे पर विलायत भेजकर बैरिस्टर की पढ़ाई करवाई जायेगी। लेकिन आप कब इन सब बातों की परवाह करते थे। आप तो हुकूमतों को ठुकराने वाले व कभी-कभार जन्म लेने वालों में से थे। मुकदमे के दिनों आपसे जज ने पूछा था - 'आपके पास कौन सी डिग्री है?' तो आपने हँसकर जवाब दिया था - 'सम्राट बनाने वालों को डिग्री की कोई जरूरत नहीं होती, क्लाइव के पास भी तो कोई डिग्री नहीं थी।' आज वह वीर हमारे बीच नहीं है, आह!"

अस्थि-कलश की स्थापना

बिस्मिल की अन्त्येष्टि के बाद बाबा राघव दास ने गोरखपुर के पास स्थित देवरिया जिले के बरहज नामक स्थान पर ताम्रपात्र में उनकी अस्थियों को संचित कर एक चबूतरा जैसा स्मृति-स्थल बनवा दिया। 

फाँसी के बाद क्रान्तिकारी आन्दोलन में तेज़ी

१९२७ में बिस्मिल के साथ ३ अन्य क्रान्तिकारियों के बलिदान ने पूरे हिन्दुस्तान के हृदय को हिलाकर रख दिया। ९ अगस्त १९२५ के काकोरी काण्ड के फैसले से उत्पन्न परिस्थितियाँ ने भारतीय स्वतन्त्रता संग्राम की दशा और दिशा दोनों ही बदल दी। समूचे देश में स्थान-स्थान पर चिनगारियों के रूप में नई-नई समितियाँ गठित हो गयीं। बेतिया (बिहार) में फणीन्द्रनाथ का हिन्दुस्तानी सेवा दल, पंजाब में सरदार भगत सिंह की नौजवान सभा तथा लाहौर (अब पाकिस्तान) में सुखदेव की गुप्त समिति के नाम से कई क्रान्तिकारी संस्थाएँ जन्म ले चुकी थीं। हिन्दुस्तान के कोने-कोने में क्रान्ति की आग दावानल की तरह फैल चुकी थी। कानपुर से गणेशशंकर विद्यार्थी का प्रताप व गोरखपुर से दशरथ प्रसाद द्विवेदी का स्वदेश जैसे अखबार इस आग को हवा दे रहे थे।
काकोरी काण्ड के एक प्रमुख क्रान्तिकारी चन्द्रशेखर आजाद, जिन्हें राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल उनके पारे (mercury) जैसे चंचल स्वभाव के कारण क्विक सिल्वर कहा करते थे, पूरे हिन्दुस्तान में भेस बदल कर घूमते रहे। उन्होंने भिन्न-भिन्न समितियों के प्रमुख संगठनकर्ताओं से सम्पर्क करके सारी क्रान्तिकारी गतिविधियों को एक सूत्र में पिरोने का कार्य किया। ८ व ९ सितम्बर १९२८ में फिरोजशाह कोटला दिल्ली में एच॰ आर॰ ए॰, नौजवान सभा, हिन्दुस्तानी सेवा दल व गुप्त समिति का विलय करके एच॰ एस॰ आर॰ ए॰ नाम से एक नयी क्रान्तिकारी पार्टी का गठन हुआ। इस पार्टी को बिस्मिल के बताये रास्ते पर चलकर ही देश को आजाद कराना था किन्तु ब्रिटिश साम्राज्य के दमन चक्र ने वैसा भी नहीं होने दिया।
नोएडा-ग्रेटर नोएडा एक्सप्रेस वे के समीप स्थित नलगढ़ा गाँव में रखा ऐतिहासिक पत्थर जिसका प्रयोग भगतसिंह ने बम बनाने के लिये किया
३० अक्टूबर १९२८ को साइमन कमीशन का विरोध करते हुए लाला लाजपत राय डिप्टी सुपरिण्टेण्डेण्ट जे॰ पी॰ साण्डर्स के बर्बर लाठीचार्ज से बुरी तरह घायल हुए और १७ नवम्बर १९२८ को उनकी मृत्यु हो गयी। इस घटना से आहत एच॰ एस॰ आर॰ ए॰ के चार युवकों ने १७ दिसम्बर १९२८ को लाहौर जाकर दिन दहाड़े साण्डर्स का वध कर दिया और फरार हो गये। साण्डर्स हत्याकाण्ड के प्रमुख अभियुक्त सरदार भगत सिंह को पुलिस पंजाब में तलाश रही थी जबकि वह यूरोपियन के भेस में कलकत्ता जाकर बंगालके क्रान्तिकारियों से बम बनाने की तकनीक और सामग्री जुटाने में लगे हुए थे। दिल्ली से २० मील दूर ग्रेटर नोएडा एक्सप्रेस वे के निकट स्थित नलगढ़ा गाँव में रहकर भगत सिंह ने दो बम तैयार किये और बटुकेश्वर दत्त के साथ जाकर ८ अप्रैल १९२९ को दिल्ली की सेण्ट्रल असेम्बली में उस समय विस्फोट कर दिया जब सरकार जन विरोधी कानून पारित करने जा रही थी। इस विस्फोट ने बहरी सरकार पर भले ही असर न किया हो परन्तु समूचे देश में अद्भुत जन-जागरण का काम अवश्य किया।
लाहौर से प्रकाशित २५ मार्च १९३१ के ट्रिब्यून का मुखपृष्ठ (भगतसिंह को फाँसी)
बम विस्फोट के बाद दोनों ने "इंकलाब! जिन्दाबाद!!" व "साम्राज्यवाद! मुर्दाबाद!!" के जोरदार नारे लगाये और एच॰ एस॰ आर॰ ए॰ के पैम्फलेट हवा में उछाल दिये। असेम्बली में मौजूद सुरक्षाकर्मियों - सार्जेण्ट टेरी व इन्स्पेक्टर जॉनसन ने उन्हें वहीं गिरफ्तार करके जेल भेज दिया। यह सनसनीखेज खबर अगले ही दिन समूचे देश में फैल गयी। ४ मई १९२९ के अभ्युदय में इलाहाबाद से यह समाचार छपा - ऐसेम्बली का बम केस: काकोरी केस से इसका सम्बन्ध है। आई॰ पी॰ सी॰ की दफा ३०७ व एक्सप्लोसिव एक्ट की धारा ३ के अन्तर्गत इन दोनों को उम्र-कैद का दण्ड देकर अलग-अलग जेलों में रक्खा गया। जेल में राजनीतिक बन्दियों जैसी सुविधाओं की माँग करते हुए जब दोनों ने भूख हड़ताल शुरू की तो उन दोनों का सम्बन्ध साण्डर्स-वध से जोड़ते हुए एक और केस कायम किया गया जिसे लाहौर कांस्पिरेसी केस के नाम से जाना जाता है। इस केस में कुल २४ लोग नामजद हुए, इनमें से ५ फरार हो गये, १ को पहले ही सजा हो चुकी थी, शेष १८ पर केस चला। इनमें से एक - यतीन्द्रनाथ दासकी बोर्स्टल जेल लाहौर में लगातार भूख हड़ताल करने से मृत्यु हो गयी, शेष बचे १७ में से ३ को फाँसी, ७ को उम्र-कैद, एक को ७ वर्ष व एक को ५ वर्ष की सजा का हुक्म हुआ। तीन को ट्रिब्यूनल ने रिहा कर दिया। बाकी बचे तीन अभियुक्तों को अदालत ने साक्ष्य न मिलने के कारण छोड़ दिया।

बिस्मिल का क्रान्ति-दर्शन

बिस्मिल की पहली पुस्तक सन् १९१६ में छपी थी जिसका नाम था-अमेरिका की स्वतन्त्रता का इतिहास। बिस्मिल के जन्म शताब्दी वर्ष: १९९६-१९९७ में यह पुस्तक स्वतन्त्र भारत में फिर से प्रकाशित हुई जिसका विमोचन भारत के पूर्व प्रधानमन्त्री अटल बिहारी वाजपेयी ने किया।" उस कार्यक्रम में राष्ट्रीय स्वयंसेवक संघ के तत्कालीन सरसंघचालक प्रो॰ राजेन्द्र सिंह (रज्जू भैया) भी उपस्थित थे। इस सम्पूर्ण ग्रन्थावली में बिस्मिल की लगभग दो सौ प्रतिबन्धित कविताओं के अतिरिक्त पाँच पुस्तकें भी शामिल की गयी थीं। परन्तु आज तक किसी भी सरकार ने बिस्मिल के क्रान्ति-दर्शन को समझने व उस पर शोध करवाने का प्रयास ही नहीं किया। जबकि गान्धी जी द्वारा १९०९ में विलायत से हिन्दुस्तान लौटते समय पानी के जहाज पर लिखी गयी पुस्तक हिन्द स्वराज पर अनेकोँ संगोष्ठियाँ हुईं। बिस्मिल सरीखे असंख्य शहीदों के सपनों का भारत बनाने की आवश्यकता है।भारतवर्ष को ब्रिटिश साम्राज्य से मुक्त कराने में यूँ तो असंख्य वीरों ने अपना अमूल्य बलिदान दिया परन्तु राम प्रसाद बिस्मिल एक ऐसे अद्भुत क्रान्तिकारी थे जिन्होंने अत्यन्त निर्धन परिवार में जन्म लेकर साधारण शिक्षा के बावजूद असाधारण प्रतिभा और अखण्ड पुरुषार्थ के बल पर हिन्दुस्तान प्रजातन्त्र संघ के नाम से देशव्यापी संगठन खड़ा किया जिसमें एक - से - बढ़कर एक तेजस्वी व मनस्वी नवयुवक शामिल थे जो उनके एक इशारे पर इस देश की व्यवस्था में आमूल परिवर्तन कर सकते थे किन्तु अहिंसा की दुहाई देकर उन्हें एक-एक करके मिटाने का क्रूरतम षड्यन्त्र जिन्होंने किया उन्हीं का चित्र भारतीय पत्र मुद्रा (Paper Currency) पर दिया जाता है। जबकि अमरीका में एक व दो अमरीकी डॉलर पर आज भी जॉर्ज वाशिंगटन का ही चित्र छपता है जिसने अमरीका को अँग्रेजों से मुक्त कराने में प्रत्यक्ष रूप से आमने-सामने युद्ध लड़ा था।

साहित्य रचना

बिस्मिल एक लेखक थे और उन्होंने कई कविताएँ, ग़ज़लें एवं पुस्तकें लिखी थीं। कुछ प्रमुख कविताओं व ग़ज़लों के बारे में नीचे दिया जा रहा है।

कविताएँ एवं ग़ज़लें

  • सरफरोशी की तमन्ना: बिस्मिल की यह गज़ल क्रान्तिकारी जेल से पुलिस की लारी में अदालत में जाते हुए, अदालत में मजिस्ट्रेट को चिढ़ाते हुए व अदालत से लौटकर वापस जेल आते हुए कोरस के रूप में गाया करते थे। बिस्मिल के बलिदान के बाद तो यह रचना सभी क्रान्तिकारियों का मन्त्र बन गयी।
  • जज्वये-शहीद (बिस्मिल का मशहूर उर्दू मुखम्मस): बिस्मिल का यह यह उर्दू मुखम्मस भी उन दिनों सर्वाधिक लोकप्रिय हुआ करता था यह उनकी अद्भुत रचना है यह इतनी अधिक भावपूर्ण है कि लाहौर कान्स्पिरेसी केस के समय जब प्रेमदत्त नाम के एक कैदी ने अदालत में गाकर सुनायी थी तो श्रोता रो पड़े थ]। जज अपना फैसला तत्काल बदलने को मजबूर हो गया और उसने प्रेमदत्त की सजा उसी समय कम कर दी थी। अदालत में घटित इस घटना का उदाहरण भी इतिहास में दर्ज़ हो गया।
  • जिन्दगी का राज (बिस्मिल की एक अन्य उर्दू गजल): बिस्मिल की इस गजल में जीवन का वास्तविक दर्शन निहित है शायद इसीलिये उन्होंने इसका नाम राजे मुज्मिर या जिन्दगी का राज मुजमिर (कहीं-कहीं यह भी मिलता है) दिया था। वास्तव में अपने लिये जीने वाले मरने के बाद विस्मृत हो जाते हैं पर दूसरों के लिये जीने वाले हमेशा के लिये अमर हो जाते हैं।
  • बिस्मिल की तड़प (बिस्मिल की अन्तिम रचना: गोरखपुर जेल से चोरी छुपे बाहर भिजवायी गयी इस गजल में प्रतीकों के माध्यम से अपने साथियों को यह सन्देशा भेजा था कि अगर कुछ कर सकते हो तो जल्द कर लो वरना पछतावे के अलावा कुछ भी हाथ न आयेगा। बिस्मिल की आत्मकथा के अनुसार इस बात का उन्हें मलाल ही रह गया कि उनकी पार्टी का कोई एक भी नवयुवक उनके पास उनका रिवाल्वर तक न पहुँचा सका। उनके अपने वतन शाहजहाँपुर के लोग भी इसमें भागदौड़ के अलावा कुछ न कर पाये। बाद में इतिहासकारों ने न जाने क्या-क्या मन गढन्त लिख दिया।
वर्ष १९८५ में विज्ञान भवन, नई दिल्ली में आयोजित भारत और विश्व साहित्य पर अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय संगोष्ठी में एक भारतीय प्रतिनिधि ने अपने लेख के साथ पण्डित रामप्रसाद बिस्मिल की कुछ लोकप्रिय कविताओं का द्विभाषिक काव्य रूपान्तर (हिन्दी-अंग्रेजी में) प्रस्तुत किया था जिसे उनकी पुस्तक से साभार उद्धृत करके अंग्रेजी विकीस्रोत पर दे दिया गया है ताकि हिन्दी के पाठक भी उन रचनाओं का आनन्द ले सकें।


रामप्रसाद 'बिस्मिल' की जिन पुस्तकों का विवरण मिलता है, उनके नाम इस प्रकार हैं:
  1. मैनपुरी षड्यन्त्र,
  2. स्वदेशी रंग,
  3. चीनी-षड्यन्त्र (चीन की राजक्रान्ति),
  4. तपोनिष्ठ अरविन्द घोष की कारावास कहानी
  5. अशफ़ाक की याद में,
  6. सोनाखान के अमर शहीद-'वीरनारायण सिंह',
  7. जनरल जार्ज वाशिंगटन
  8. अमरीका कैसे स्वाधीन हुआ?


बिस्मिल की आत्मकथा को हिन्दी में काकोरी षड्यन्त्र नामक एक पुस्तक के अन्दर निज जीवन की एक छटा के नाम से भजनलाल बुकसेलर ने आर्ट प्रेस सिन्ध (अब पाकिस्तान) से और काकोरी के शहीद शीर्षक से गणेश शंकर विद्यार्थी ने प्रताप प्रेस, कानपुर से छापा था। सुपरिंटेंडेंट गवर्नमेंट प्रेस इलाहाबाद से किन्हीं भीष्म के छद्मनाम नाम से अनूदित होकर यही पुस्तक सन् १९२९ में अंग्रेजी में भी छपी थी। ब्रिटिश राज के दौरान संयुक्त प्रान्त आगरा व अवध के खुफिया विभाग ने यह पुस्तक प्रत्येक जिले के पुलिस अधिकारियों को भिजवायी थी।

Shantabai Kamble

Sharankumar Limbale

S. M. White, Indie Fantasy Author

S. M. White is a self-published fantasy author working out of Louisville, KY. He has a novel and a collection of short stories available on His novel, "The Pale Hand of God," is the first half of a fantasy series titled "The Paruus Histories." This series follows a cast of characters as they work to right the wrongs of their fallen world. Their quests leads to an unimaginable reemergence of a lost magic, one that lifts up beggar villains, casts down honorable kings, and threatens to destroy the world.

Urmila Pawar

Urmila Pawar (born 1945) is a female writer, who writes in the Marathi language an Indian language . According to Dharmarajan her work as a writer reflects her experiences of the difficulties of being a woman and a Dalit, according to her Pawar's "frank and direct" style has made her controversial.


Pawar was born in the Konkan region of the Indian state of Maharashtra, she was born in a Hindu Mahar family, belonging to a community that traditionally weaved bamboo baskets. She has a Master of Arts in Marathi literature. She retired as an employee of the Public Works Department of the state of Maharashtra. She won the Laxmibai Tilak award for the best published autobiography given by the Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad, for Aaidan. Like other members of her community she converted to Buddhism following Ambedkar's conversion in 1956.

Mahad satyagraha and inter-dining

She mentions in her autobiography Aaidan that her father neither participated in the Mahad satyagraha organised by Ambedkar nor inter-dining arranged by Savarkar, though her elder sister Shantiakka she recalls often missed school to attend the inter-dining lured by sweet delicacies served there.

Vivek Kumar

Vivek Kumar is author of ‘Questions of Caste: Including Dalits in Global Politics’  

Vivek Kumar (Ph.D.) Associate Professor at the Centre for the Study of Social Systems, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi he’s engaged in the study of the social movements of one of the most excluded sections in South-Asia (Dalits).
He has analyzed the process and mechanism involved in strengthening the democracy by the ‘Independent Dalits Movement’ in the largest populated State of India i.e. Uttar Pradesh. Kumar has also examined how Dalit movement has diversified its demands for inclusion in the modern institutions of governance and other spheres of day-to-day life after India became a democracy.

Now Kumar is studying internal differences within the Indian Diaspora and its relationship with Indian democracy. Author of three books he has contributed few dozens of academic articles in journals and books. He also writes in newspapers and participates in debates on television channels regularly.

When asked why he joined the Building Global Democracy Programme, Vivek replied:
" is a unique or perhaps only attempt which promises a new world order. Secondly, he believes that only a democratic order is open to dissent and undertakes piecemeal social-engineering rather holistic reforms. Last but not least experiences of the world prove that ‘marginalized’ and ‘excluded’ have hope only in a democratic world order."

Waman Nibalkar


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चमार कुल जनसंख्या१.१ % ख़ास आवास क्षेत्रभारत • पाकिस्तान भाषाएँहिन्दी, बंगाली, मराठी, पंजाबी, उर्दू आदिअन्य सम्बंधित समूहरामदासिया, रविदासिया, जुलाहा, आदिचमार अथवा चर्मकार भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप में पाई जाने वाली जाति समूह है। वर्तमान समय में यह जाति अनुसूचित जातियों की श्रेणी में आती है। यह जाति अस्पृश्यता की कुप्रथा का शिकार भी रही है। इस जाति के लोग परंपरागत रूप से चमड़े के व्यवसाय से जुड़े रहे हैं। संपूर्ण भारत में चमार जाति अनुसूचित जातियों में अधिक संख्या में पाई जाने वाली जाति है, जिनका मुख्य व्यवसाय, चमड़े की वस्‍तु बनाना था । संविधान बनने से पूर्व तक इनकोअछूतों की श्रेणी में रखा जाता था। अंग्रेजों के आने से पहले तक भारत में चमार जाति के लोग बहुत धनवान थे परन्तु चमड़े का कार्य करने से छूआछूत के शिकार थे । आजादी के बाद इनके साथ हो रहे छूआछूत को रोकने के लिए इनको भारत के संविधान में अनुसूचित जाति की श्रेणी में रखा गया तथा सभी तरह के ज़ुल्‍मों तथा छूआछूत को प्रतिबंधित कर दिया गया। इसके बावजूद भी देश में कुछ जगहों पर इन जातियों तथा अन्‍य अनु…

Dalit in Cricket


लेख सूचनाक्रिकेट पुस्तक नाम हिन्दी विश्वकोश खण्ड 3 पृष्ठ संख्या 200 भाषा हिन्दी देवनागरी संपादक सुधाकर पांडेय प्रकाशक नागरी प्रचारणी सभा वाराणसी मुद्रक नागरी मुद्रण वाराणसी संस्करण सन्‌ 1976 ईसवी उपलब्ध भारतडिस्कवरी पुस्तकालय कॉपीराइट सूचना नागरी प्रचारणी सभा वाराणसी लेख सम्पादक परमेश्वरीलाल गुप्त क्रिकेट एक अति प्रसिद्ध अंग्रेजी खेल। इस खेल का प्रचार 13 वीं शती में भी था, यह उस समय के एक चित्र को देखने से ज्ञात होता है। उसमें लड़के क्रिकेट खेल रहे हैं। 16वीं शताब्दी से तो निरंतर पुस्तकों में क्रिकेट की चर्चा प्राप्त होती है। कहा जाता है, इंग्लैंड का प्रसिद्ध शासक ऑलिवर क्रॉमवेल बचपन में क्रिकेट का खिलाड़ी था।
क्रिकेट का पुराना खेल आधुनिक खेल से भिन्न था। प्रारंभ में भेंड चरानेवाले लड़के क्रिकेट खेला करते थे। वे पेड़ की एक शाखा काटकर उसका बल्ला बना लेते थे, जो आजकल की हॉकी स्टिक से मिलता जुलता था। वे कटे हुए किसी पेड़ के तने (stump) के सामने खड़े होकर खेलते थे या अपने घर के छोटे फाटक (wicket gate) को आउट बना लेते थे। आजकल के क्रिकेट में न तो पेड़ के तने (stump) हैं और…

Dalit Officers

Case of an IAS Topper

Fate of a Scheduled Caste Candidate

The Union Public Service Commission under the Constitution of free India started functioning from January 26, 1950. The The Union Public Service Commission Commission conducted its first examination to recruit personnel for the IAS and Central Services the same year. There were 3,647 candidates for this examination. The First Report of the UPSC does not mention the number of Scheduled Caste or Scheduled Tribe candidates. But it discloses that Achyutananda Das was the country's first SC to make it to the IAS in 1950 itself. He was, in fact, the topper of his batch in the written examination.

Achyutananda Das, from West Bengal, secured 613 (58.38 per cent) out of 1050 marks in written examination whearas N. Krishnan from Madras secured 602 (57.33 per cent). But in the interview, Krishnan secured 260 (86.66 per cent) out of 300 as against 110 (36.66 per cent) by Achyutananda Das. Thus Achyutananda was left miles behin…