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There have been influential people born into Shudra families who through their devotion to God became great well-known Hindu saints. Some saint-gurus like Gulabrao, Potuluri and Tukaram even had Brahmins as their disciples. While Vedas were texts that most Brahmins claimed as their's to preech and interpret, sages like Badari taught that even Shudras havete legitimacy to to do so, and many Shudras and Ati-Shudras were taught the Vedas even in ancient times such Raikva did wi    th his pupil Janasruti Pautrayana. P.43, Śaṃkara's Advaita Vedānta: a way of teaching, By Jacqueline Suthren Hirst Other saints attained the status of Brahmin through their devotion and tapasya such as Jalandhara and Nandanar. Some Shudras are ritually concecrated to become Brahmins like the Thachudaya Kaimal caste of Kudalmannikam in Tamil Nadu.

Some scriptures written by Brahmin it is described that God manifested as Shudras such as in the Srimad Bhagavatam where the God as the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva incarnates as a Brahmin, Shudra, and Harijan to test Rantideva. P. 231, The concise Śrīmad Bhāgavataṁ, By Venkatesananda (Swami.)

There were also Brahmins that served as priests in temples sponsored by Shudra kings and civilians, such as Ramakrishna who served for the widow Rani Rasmani. P. 94, The madness of the saints: ecstatic religion in Bengal, By June McDaniel

Shudra devotees have made great contribution through their compositions of hymns, texts and translations of Sanskrit texts into other languages. For example, Kasi Das translated the Mahabharata into Bengali. Kirti Bas translated the Ramayana into Bengali. Prem Das composed the scriptures Chaitanyea Bhagavat, Chaitanyea Chundroday, Chaitanyea Churitamirita, Chaitanyea Mongal, and Chaitanyea Sangita. Other devout Shudras composed non-scriptural texts praising Hindu saints as done by Nil Mani Bysack who wrote History of India and Lives of nine eminent Hindu females.

  • Aitreya Mahidasa, composed the Aitreya Brahmana and sections 1-3 of the Aitreya Aranyaka (the latter contains the Aitreya Upanishad - one of the 10 canonical Upanishads for Hindus) belonging to the Rigveda.

  • Acyutananda, Karanam caste, 1 of the 5 Panchasakhas, born in Tilakana (Cuttack district in Orissa) P. 140, Prataparudradeva, the last great Suryavamsi King of Orissa (A.D. 1497 to A.D ..., By Dipti Ray , ethnic Oriya-speaker, and major figure of Vaishnavism, and was the patron saint of Gopalas (cow-hearders), Kaivartas (fishermen), Kamaras (blacksmiths).

  • Ajahn Chah

    For more detailed information, have a look at the video-series of the Life of Ajahn  Chah. Ajahn Chah meditating.Venerable Ajahn Chah (Phra Bodhiñāna Thera) was born into a typical farming family in a rural village in the province of Ubon Rachathani, N.E. Thailand, on June 17, 1918. He lived the first part of his life as any other youngster in rural Thailand, and, following the custom, took ordination as a novice in the local village monastery for three years, where he learned to read and write, in addition to studying some basic Buddhist teachings. After this he returned to the lay life to help his parents, but, feeling an attraction to the monastic life, at the age of twenty (on April 26, 1939) he again entered a monastery, this time for higher ordination as a bhikkhu, or Buddhist monk. 

  • He spent the first few years of his bhikkhu life studying some basic Dhamma, discipline, Pāli language and scriptures, but the death of his father awakened him to the transience of life. It caused him to think deeply about life's real purpose, for although he had studied extensively and gained some proficiency in Pāli, he seemed no nearer to a personal understanding of the end of suffering. Feelings of disenchantment set in, and a desire to find the real essence of the Buddha's teaching arose. Finally (in 1946) he abandoned his studies and set off on mendicant pilgrimage. He walked some 400 km to Central Thailand, sleeping in forests and gathering almsfood in the villages on the way. He took up residence in a monastery where the vinaya (monastic discipline) was carefully studied and practiced. While there he was told about Venerable Ajahn Mun Bhuridatto, a most highly respected Meditation Master. Keen to meet such an accomplished teacher, Ajahn Chah set off on foot for the Northeast in search of him. He began to travel to other monasteries, studying the monastic discipline in detail and spending a short but enlightening period with Venerable Ajahn Mun, the most outstanding Thai forest meditation master of this century. At this time Ajahn Chah was wrestling with a crucial problem. He had studied the teachings on morality, meditation and wisdom, which the texts presented in minute and refined detail, but he could not see how they could actually be put into practice. Ajahn Mun told him that although the teachings are indeed extensive, at their heart they are very simple. With mindfulness established, if it is seen that everything arises in the heart-mind: right there is the true path of practice. This succinct and direct teaching was a revelation for Ajahn Chah, and transformed his approach to practice. The Way was clear.  

  • For the next seven years Ajahn Chah practiced in the style of an ascetic monk in the austere Forest Tradition, spending his time in forests, caves and cremation grounds, ideal places for developing meditation practice. He wandered through the countryside in quest of quiet and secluded places for developing meditation. He lived in tiger and cobra infested jungles, using reflections on death to penetrate to the true meaning of life. On one occasion he practiced in a cremation ground, to challenge and eventually overcome his fear of death. Then, as he sat cold and drenched in a rainstorm, he faced the utter desolation and loneliness of a homeless monk.  

  • Ajahn Chah sweepingAfter many years of travel and practice, he was invited to settle in a thick forest grove near the village of his birth. This grove was uninhabited, known as a place of cobras, tigers and ghosts, thus being as he said, the perfect location for a forest monk. Venerable Ajahn Chah's impeccable approach to meditation, or Dhamma practice, and his simple, direct style of teaching, with the emphasis on practical application and a balanced attitude, began to attract a large following of monks and lay people. Thus a large monastery formed around Ajahn Chah as more and more monks, nuns and lay-people came to hear his teachings and stay on to practice with him. 

  • Ajahn Chah's simple yet profound style of teaching has a special appeal to Westerners, and many have come to study and practice with him, quite a few for many years. In 1966 the first westerner came to stay at Wat Nong Pah Pong, Venerable Sumedho Bhikkhu. The newly ordained Venerable Sumedho had just spent his first vassa ('Rains' retreat) practicing intensive meditation at a monastery near the Laotian border. Although his efforts had borne some fruit, Venerable Sumedho realized that he needed a teacher who could train him in all aspects of monastic life. By chance, one of Ajahn Chah's monks, one who happened to speak a little English visited the monastery where Venerable Sumedho was staying. Upon hearing about Ajahn Chah, he asked to take leave of his preceptor, and went back to Wat Nong Pah Pong with the monk. Ajahn Chah willingly accepted the new disciple, but insisted that he receive no special allowances for being a Westerner. He would have to eat the same simple almsfood and practice in the same way as any other monk at Wat Nong Pah Pong. The training there was quite harsh and forbidding. Ajahn Chah often pushed his monks to their limits, to test their powers of endurance so that they would develop patience and resolution. He sometimes initiated long and seemingly pointless work projects, in order to frustrate their attachment to tranquility. The emphasis was always on surrender to the way things are, and great stress was placed upon strict observance of the vinaya. 

  • Ajahn Chah with three first western monk-disciples.

  • In 1977, Ajahn Chah and Ajahn Sumedho were invited to visit Britain by the English Sangha Trust, a charity with the aim of establishing a locally-resident Buddhist Sangha. Seeing the serious interest there, Ajahn Chah left Ajahn Sumedho (with two of his other Western disciples who were then visiting Europe) in London at the Hampstead Vihara. He returned to Britain in 1979, at which time the monks were leaving London to begin Chithurst Buddhist Monastery in Sussex. He then went on to AmeFrom that time on, the number of foreign people who came to Ajahn Chah began to steadily increase. By the time Venerable Sumedho was a monk of five vassas, and Ajahn Chah considered him competent enough to teach, some of these new monks had also decided to stay on and train there. In the hot season of 1975, Venerable Sumedho and a handful of Western bhikkhus spent some time living in a forest not far from Wat Nong Pah Pong. The local villagers there asked them to stay on, and Ajahn Chah consented. The Wat Pah Nanachat ('International Forest Monastery') came into being, and Venerable Sumedho became the abbot of the first monastery in Thailand to be run by and for English-speaking monks.  rica and Canada to visit and teach. 

  • In 1980 Venerable Ajahn Chah began to feel more accutely the symptoms of dizziness and memory lapse which had plagued him for some years. In 1980 and 1981, Ajahn Chah spent the 'rains retreat' away from Wat Nong Pah Pong, since his health was failing due to the debilitating effects of diabetes. As his illness worsened, he would use his body as a teaching, a living example of the impermanence of all things. He constantly reminded people to endeavor to find a  true refuge within themselves, since he would not be able to teach for very much  longer. This led to an operation in 1981, which, however, failed to reverse the onset of the paralysis which eventually rendered him completely bedridden and unable to speak. This did not stop the growth of monks and lay people who came to practise at his monastery, however, for whom the teachings of Ajahn Chah were a constant guide and inspiration. 

  • After remaining bedridden and silent for an amazing ten years, carefully tended by his monks and novices, Venerable Ajahn Chah passed away on the 16th of January, 1992, at the age of 74, leaving behind a thriving community of monasteries and lay suporters in Thailand, England, Switzerland, Italy, France, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the U.S.A, where the practise of the Buddha's teachings continues under the inspiration of this great meditation teacher. 

  • Although Ajahn Chah passed away in 1992, the training which he established is still carried on at Wat Nong Pah Pong and its branch monasteries, of which there  are currently more than two hundred in Thailand. Discipline is strict, enabling one to lead a simple and pure life in a harmoniously regulated community where virtue, meditation and understanding may be skillfully and continuously cultivated. There is usually group meditation twice a day and sometimes a talk by the senior teacher, but the heart of the meditation is the way of life. The monastics do manual work, dye and sew their own robes, make most of their own requisites and keep the monastery buildings and grounds in immaculate shape. They live extremely simply following the ascetic precepts of eating once a day from the almsbowl and limiting their possessions and robes. Scattered throughout the forest are individual huts where monks and nuns live and meditate in solitude, and where they practice walking meditation on cleared paths under the trees. 

  • Ajahn ChahWisdom is a way of living and being, and Ajahn Chah has endeavored to preserve the simple monastic life-style in order that people may study and practice the Dhamma in the present day. Ajahn Chah's wonderfully simple style of teaching can be deceptive. It is often only after we have heard something many times that suddenly our minds are ripe and somehow the teaching takes on a much deeper meaning. His skillful means in tailoring his explanations of Dhamma to time and place, and to the understanding and sensitivity of his audience, was marvelous to see. Sometimes on paper though, it can make him seem inconsistent or even self-contradictory! At such times the reader should remember that these words are a record of a living experience. Similarly, if the teachings may seem to vary at times from tradition, it should be borne in mind that the Venerable Ajahn spoke always from the heart, from the depths of his own meditative experience.
  • Arun Anand-
  •  Former Scholar BTech Mech, MBA IIT Delhi, Social Worker, Running NGO for Dalit and poor in bangalore
  Dr. Baldev Singh Sher 
 First Dalit (Ravidasia/Ramdasia Sikh) Medical Graduate from Glasgow in 1910 and son of Giani Ditt Singh Ji

   Indian independence advocate, tribal leader and folk hero

  • (Bahila, from Kabhauradesa in Kamarupa P. 37 The Ṣaṭsāhasra saṃhitā: chapters 1-5 By J. A. Schoterman , a devotee of Shiva)

 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bāhila was an Arab tribe based in Najd (central Arabia). Part of the tribe was settled and part of it was semi-nomadic. The Bahila was first mentioned during the early years of Islam, in the mid-7th century. During that time, many Bahila tribesmen migrated to Syria and Basra. Many of those who went to Syria later moved to Khurasan as part of the Umayyad garrison there. As a sub-tribe of Qays, they fought alongside the Qaysi coalition against the Yamani tribes during the Umayyad era. The scholar al-Asma'i and the general Qutayba ibn Muslim both belonged to the tribe. The Bahila were last mentioned in the 10th century.


According to W. Caskel, the genealogy of the Bahila "is somewhat complicated". The namesake of the tribe, Bahila, was a wife of Malik ibn A'sur ibn Sa'd ibn Qays, and after the latter's death, was married to Malik's brother Ma'n. Bahila mothered one son from Malik and two sons from Ma'n, and was also the foster mother of ten other sons of Ma'n (the foster sons came from two other mothers). Caskel describes this genealogy as a series of "artifices", which were familiar to the Arab genealogists, though the "accumulation" of such artifices with the origins of the Bahila was "remarkable". Among the sons of Bahila who later fathered large clans were Qutayba, Wa'il, Ji'awa and Awd. The Qutayba and Wa'il were the largest sub-tribes of the Bahila and both were engaged in a rivalry for supremacy over the Bahila.


Map of Bata'ih region (in orange) of the lower Euphrates

The Bahila's original homeland was called Sūd Bāhila or Sawād Bāhila. It was situated in the Najd (central Arabia). The tribe's settlements, including al-Quway', Idhnayn Shammal, Hufayra and Juzayla, were located on either side of the route between Mecca and the area corresponding with modern-day Riyadh. The Ji'awa clan of Bahila lived further west at the foot of the al-Jidd mountains. They were the northern neighbors of the Banu Ghani, another tribe that descended from A'sur ibn Sa'd ibn Qays. The Bahila were partly settled and partly semi-nomadic. They lived under the protection of the Banu Kilab and Banu Ka'b, sub-tribes of the Banu 'Amir. There is scant reference to the Bahila in the pre-Islamic period. Among these references were the slaying of a warrior from the tribe named al-Muntashir, and a battle involving the tribe. Both episodes occurred shortly before the emergence of Islam in Arabia in the 610s.

According to Caskel, "The history of the [Bahila] tribe becomes clear for the first time under Islam." In the 630s, part of the Bahila migrated from Arabia to Syria and to the vicinity of Basra.They formed part of the early Muslim army, and Bahila tribesmen from Syria were part of the Arab garrison in Khurasan. As members of the Qays, the Bahila took part in the revenge-driven battles between the Qays and Yaman coalitions in the years following the rout of the Qays at the Battle of Marj Rahit in 684. A second major exodus of Bahila tribesmen from Arabia occurred in the early to mid-9th century. Around that time, the Bahila's Arabian territories were largely overrun by the Banu Numayr, a sub-tribe of the Banu 'Amir. The Bahila migrants entered the lower Euphrates region, first in the vicinity of al-Hufayr near Basra and from there into the sandy al-Taff tract on the southern border of the Bata'ih marshes. After 837, these Bahila tribesmen settled in the Bata'ih itself, where in 871 they were attacked by Abbasid troops on their way to suppress the Zanj Rebellion. Consequently, the Bahila allied with the Zanj. Afterward nothing is heard of the Bahila.


Caskel writes that the "Bahila developed an abundance of talents of all kinds". A companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, Abu Umamah, hailed from the tribe. Two brothers from the tribe, Salman ibn Rabi'ah and Abd al-Rahman ibn Rabi'ah, both served as generals under caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar in the 630s–640s. In the early 8th century, a member of the Bahila, Qutayba ibn Muslim, was appointed the Umayyad governor of Khurasan and was a key general in the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana. The tribe also produced al-Asma'i, the well-known philologist.
    • Bhagat Amir Shankar, butcher, devotee of Shirdi Sai Baba

    • Bhagat Bala Ganpat Shimpi, tailor, friend of Shirdi Sai Baba

    • Bhakta Ghosa, the daughter to Bhakta Kakshivat who wrote verses in the Rig Veda.

    • Bhakta Jaidev, made poetry of the Gita-Govinda

    • Bhakta Kakshivat, a Brahmavadin, was the son of Dirghatamas by a Shudra maid servant (Brihaddevata 4.24-25). His descendants are also referred to as "Kakshivat".

    • Bhakta Murtigana, disciple of Varmashiva,initiated into all tantric rahasyas by Varmashiva and became a great tantric himself. He was made the preceptor of the Rathod king Shurapala, despite being Shudra on account of his learning, he succeeded Varmashiva as the lord of the math
  • Balaram Das, Bauri P. 31, Prataparudradeva, the last great Suryavamsi King of Orissa (A.D. 1497 to A.D..., By Dipti Ray caste, called Shudra Muni, 1 of the 5 Panchasakhas, born in Orissa and a major figure of Vaishnavism. P. 43, The Quarterly review of historical studies, Volume 43, Institute of Historical Studies (Calcutta, India) , he wrote the Sidhanta DamaruJagmohan Ramayana, and some commentaries
  • Bhagat Prasanna, disciple of Brahmin Lalmohan P. 116,Between history and histories: the making of silences and commemorations, By Gerald M. Sider, Gavin A. Smith
  • Bhakta Narayan Baba, the youngest son of Tukaram, began Pandharpur Festival in 1685
  • Beant Singh Khalsa - Kill Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and take the revenge of attack on Shri Akal Takhat Sahib.
  • Shaeed Baba Sangat Singh Ji Martyr in the Battle of Chamkaur Sahib
  •   Dr.M.Velusamy (1973) is well known Social Science Scholar from Tamil Nadu. First Dalit Scholar Who has awarded his PhD at Madras Institute of Development Studies (MIDS), Chennai. His thesis entitled on Indian Constitution and Dalit Welfare : A Study of Tamil Nadu, 1950-2005. Published books on topic related to Dalits Periyar Dravidian Politics in Tamil Nadu.


    Haunted by dying screams NRI doctor donates US$ 20 million to Kerala village Chemmanakary in Kottayam


    CHEMMANAKARY, ONE of the typical Kerala villages in Kottayam district has had the fortune to have a Kumar Bahuleyan born there. Dr Bahuleyan, look up to the village as his own home and started transforming the village into a heaven by investing his hard earned American dollars into make a shape to the life of his counterparts in Kerala.

    Bahuleyan, who belongs to the ‘untouchable community’ (read as Dalit), lived in the village seeing the poverty even though his father was a physician in the village. He saw his three siblings dying because of starvation. The family brought up the two remaining in the poor family and Bahuleyan who was good in education, fought to survive and go to the school. He fought, disease and hunger every step of the way and his brilliancy helped him to get through the Kerala government’s scholarship while studying. He stood first in while education and it helped him to acquire a medical degree. Dr Bahuleyan was an eternal optimist, in his own words.

    After graduating in medical science, the Kerala government taking into account his ability to circumvent sent him to the United Kingdom for for neurosurgical training as the state did not have a neurosurgeon at that time. When the doctor returned home the military picked him up for the forces, which did not have a qualified neurosurgeon, during the time of Chinese aggression.

    However, the Keralites does not have the fortune to get served by the eminent doctor or it may be the doctors ‘fortune’ that the Kerala government did not have a place for him. A fresh man had filled his place, when he returned. The bureaucratic red tape followed doctor and the qualified surgeon had to sit at home ideally. Waiting made doctor to flee his mother country to Onatario, Canada in the United Kingdom seeking an opportunity their. He found a right place in Buffalo, where for the first time in his life he achieved economic and professional security.

    However, doctor never forgot his native place, Chemmanakary. He kept visiting the village regularly whenever he got a short vacation. Whenever he visited his native village he found the sad state of his village is as it is even after fifty years of much celebrated Independence. The doctor found that his native still did not have potable drinking water, sanitation, electricity, roads and health centers. The condition of sanitation in the village was very poor and he noticed that even well settled community in his village never bothered about the contamination, which was lacking people’s awareness.

    The doctor started acting accordingly. He never tried to blame the authorities or the people living around him. Instead, the energetic doctor took an oath to set up a beautiful and clean village. In 1989, doctor established a not-for-profit private organization to bring basic health care to Kerala villages. The doctor put in around Rs 10 crore during two three years, and his attempt was to come back to his village and do some community work.

    The Bahuleyan Charitable Foundation, founded by Dr Kumar Bahuleyna, began with a health survey to pick a target area. It chose an area comprising 17 sq. miles with a population of 66,356.The foundation plunged into a latrine construction programme in this area where 5009 of the 18,362 houses did not have latrines.So far 619 latrinees meeting WHO standards and costing Rs.4,000 each have been built. "The people initially had no clue what to do with a latrine and started using it as a store room,” says Bahuleyan.

    In 1993 the foundation built a small clinic in the village to treat pregnant women and children. Demand was so high in spite of poor accessibility ( there were no roads leading to the clinic),that the centre was soon upgraded and moved to Vaikom town. The foundation also spent Rs.50 lakh to construct a 6km road to the main highway and subsidiary roads to link the clinic.

    The Vaikom wing of The Indo- American Hospital opened in 1995 with 30 beds."It was named to highlight the fact that it is built with the money I earned in the U.S and to acknowledge the American taxpayer’s contribution,” explained the doctor.

    But with most of the patients being poor the hospital was making little by way of revenue and its very existence was threatened . "I started this whole project out of my sentiments, with no planning,” said Bahuleyan.” " However I realized I had to do something revenue generating to make it viable.”

    Today the Indo American Speciality Hospital for Neuro Surgery is a supreme blend of American Technology occupied with Indian tradition of selfless service to humanity. This super speciality hospital provides all facilities as available in any of the finest humanity. This super speciality hospital provides all facilities as available in any of the finest hospitals in Europe or the US. The hospital comes along with a posh backwater resort, Kalathil Health Resort that caters to the aspirations of the national and international patients and tourists. The revenue surplus and the proceeds from the resort would help to augment and expand the reach of charity of Indo-American Hospital.

    The Latest Take from the Press…
    EIGHTY-ONE-YEAR-OLD KUMAR Bahuleyan, a neurosurgeon, who once led a lavish lifestyle that included moving around in a Rolls Royce and five Mercedes, besides an aeroplane, has used the money to build a hospital specialising in neurosurgery, a health clinic and a spa in Chemmanakary in Kerala's Kottayam District. A Dalit based in Buffalo, New York, for the last 34 years, has given 20 million dollars to his village in Kerala.

    Bahuleyan said that the desire to do something for his native place germinated between 1982 and 1987, when he visited the area, and found that nothing had changed. He said that he felt like returning something to the village, which had taught him and made him something in life.

    Bahuleyan says he lost two younger brothers and a sister to water-borne disease in 1930s, and even today he says he is haunted by their dying screams. As a 'untouchable', Bahuleyan had to take a circuitous route to school because he wasn't allowed to pass a Hindu temple. A brilliant student, he succeeded in joining a medical college in Madras. From their, he proceeded to Edinburgh for six years of neurosurgical training before eturning home.

    Unfortunately, there was no vacancy for a neurosurgeon in those days, and Bahuleyan left for Kingston and then Albany Medical College, before coming to Buffalo in 1973 to work with noted American neurosurgeon Dr John Zoll.

    During his 26-year career, Bahuleyan served as a clinical associate professor in neurosurgery at the University at Buffalo before retiring in 1999 as a multi-millionaire.

    In 1989, he set up the Bahuleyan Charitable Foundation, which built a small clinic in India for young children and pregnant women in 1993 in south India. Bahuleyan's foundation also built the Indo-American Hospital Brain and Spine Centre in 1996, starting with 80 beds.

    The foundation opened the Kalathil Health Resorts, offering luxury rooms, health spas and exercise rooms in 2004.

    Bahuleyan's latest venture -- East India Seven Seas Sailing Company, plans to invite applications from Americans willing to spend a few weeks in India, to volunteer in Bahuleyan's hospital and to teach sailing.

    Bahuleyan lives with his wife, pathologist Indira Kartha. He spends six months of the year in America, and rest in India, looking after the work of his foundation.

    Chemmanakary, Akkarappadam (P.O),
    Vaikom 686 143, Kerala, India
    Tel / Fax: (91-4829) 273281, 273282, 273283, 274163 

    Dadaji Ramaji Khobragade

    68-yr-old Dadaji Ramaji Khobragade is a Indian Buddhist farmer with a grouse. Ten years ago he shot to fame for breeding a variety of rice called Hmt which went on to become one of the highest yielding varieties in the region.It even became popular in neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. In Maharashtra it is grown in over 6,88,000 hectares ..

     Dadaji Khobragade, HMT Rice Variety Developer

    ” When my neighbours took it to the market to sell it, the traders could immediately tell this was different variety and asked for its name. One of the farmers was wearing an Hmt watch and decided to call the rice variety that. Eversince it been called Hmt rice”.
    Grassroots innovation like Khobragade’s are classic example of necessity being the mother of invention. And yet he is a bitter man today. While the seeds he helped develop sell for as much as 1500 rupees a quintal he’s got nothing. Leave alone money even recognition seems to be taking its time finding him.
    By 1994 when Hmt became a rage with paddy farmers as far as Chattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh. The local agricultural university took 5 Kgs kg of HMT seeds from Khobragade saying that the rice station wanted to experiment with it. In 1998, the university released a new variety in the State called Pkv hmt after the researchers say they “purified” the seed they had obtained from Khobragade.
    Sharad Nimbalkar, Vc Punjabrao Krishi Vidyapeeth says”The original seed may have come from Khobragade but now it is entirely the University’s intellectual property.”
    In a tragic twist of fortunes. Khobragade has fallen on hard time. He has to work for daily wages to support his seven-member family but his grassroots research has helped fellow farmers.
    Dadaji Khobragade, Rice Variety Developer says “I have worked very hard to develop this new variety of paddy. I though this will help me and my family economically. But today we lead a hard life due to poverty.”
    Bhimrao Shende, Neighbour says ” In 1990 we all had haystack roofs… Now we have pucca roofs and better homes and our village’s economic condition has improved because of his high yield producing seeds”.
    Khobragade has not lost hope. He showed us his six new varieties of rice. Each of them carefully framed and labelled. One of them is called Drk after himself. He’s asked the government to convince the university to allow him to claim royalty for his variety of rice.

    Pic1: D R Khobragade indiginious research thesis, who is going to hear him?

    B. Shyam Sunder

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    B. Shyam Sunder
    B.Shyam Sunder.jpg
    Shyam Sunder
    Born 21 December 1908
    Aurangabad, Maharashtra
    Died 19 May 1975 (aged 66)
    Cause of death Heart attack
    Resting place Hyderabad
    Nationality Indian
    Education B.A.LLB.
    Occupation lawyer
    Years active Four decades
    Organization Bhim Sena
    Home town Aurangabad
    Title Quied-e-Pushthkhome
    Movement Eradication of Untouchability,
    Awards Khusro-e-Deccan
    B. Shyam Sunder (21 December 1908 – 19 May 1975) was born in Aurangabad district in Maharashtra State, India. His father was B. Manicham, a railway employee, and his mother Sudha Bai and had one younger sisiter. He was a political thinker, jurist, prolific writer, parliamentarian and a revolutionary leader. In 1937, he founded the Dalit-Muslim unity movement at Parbhani in Aurangabad, Maharashtra and urged his people to join hands with Muslims. He was a legislator representing Andhra Pradesh and Mysore State. 

    In 1956, he established the "All India Federal Association of Minorities" at Hyderabad and finally organised a movement for Bahujans in 1968 at Lucknow district in Uttar Pradesh State and formally declared that Minorities slogan "India is ours." He inaugurated 'Bhim Sena', a voluntary corps force, at Gulbarga in Karnataka State which later spread to all parts of India. V. T. Rajshekar an eminent Dalit scholar, writer and editor Dalit Voice credited him as Father of Dalits Movements in India.

    Early life and education

    Shyam Sunder was born on 21 December 1908 in Aurangabad district, Maharashtra State, which was then part of the Nizam of Hyderabads princely state. He completed his early schooling at Aurangabad. He was greatly moved by caste ill-feelings and practice of untouchability, his agitated mind took him to Buddha's Ajanta Caves to seek solace. When his family moved to Hyderabad, he enrolled in the Osmania University, graduating in Political Science, Economics and went on to earn a law degree. He could speak Urdu, English and Marathi. He was popular among the student community and he was elected Senate and Syndicate member of the Osmania University. He entered active politics and joined the student wing of Depressed Classes Association; he was chosen as General Secretary and later became its President in 1947.

    Political career

    He practiced law briefly and joined the Swadeshi movement under the leadership of Smt Sarojini Naidu and served as its General Secretary to Andhra Pradesh. He was elected the President of Literary Society of Hyderabad. He accepted the membership of Exhibition Society to Hyderabad. He was elected unopposed from Graduate Constituency, to Hyderabad Legislative Assembly and later served as its Deputy Speaker.
    He was a part of the Nizam's delegation to UNO. Sri PR Venkat Swamy, who authored Our Struggle for Emancipation, says "the entry of Shyam Sunder is a red day in the history of Depressed Class Movement" and mentions he was fondly addressed as Queid-e-Pusthakhome [Leader of Depressed Class]. The Nizam of Hyderabad conferred Khusro-e-Deccan, highest civilian award, on Shyam Sunder for his yeoman service. Rajsheker VT editor Dalit Voice, an eminent Dalit writer, gives a graphic picture of Shyam Sunder and achievement of Bhim Sena.

    Missions of life

    Shyam Sunder was a social-political and ideological leader of the Mool Bharathis the during pre- and post-independence period. He was able to alleviate the conscience of his brethren by making them realise they are not Untouchable but the Mool Bharathis of India; they are born Buddhist and builders of Harappan civilization and heir apparent to rule this land. He strove hard to provide education facilities and fought for land reforms for his brethren. He spearheaded a movement to federate Minorities and Bahujans to fight for their legitimate constitutional rights.

    We are not Hindus, we are born Buddhist

    Hinduism has a practice of "untouchability", wherein certain people are Untouchable. The Father of Nation, Sri Mahatma Gandhi, fondly said they are Harijan, meaning sons of God. The Constitution of India declared they are Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and Human Right activists say they are Dalit. Shyam Sunder, from the beginning of his political career, bluntly refuted this, saying "We are not Hindus, we have nothing to do with the Hindu caste system, yet we have been included among them by them and for them." and wisely said that Caste system is to them by them and for them.

    Dalit-Muslim unity movement

    Shyam Sunder with B. S. Venkar Rao
    Change! Change swiftly; if you do not change now you will never change!" said Shyam Sunder at the "All India Depressed Classes Association" Conference on 30–31 May 1941 at Parbhani in Aurangabad District held under his Presidency. He laid the foundation for Dalit-Muslim Unity Movement. It was decided in the conference that the untouchables should abandon all the traditional activities and get themselves freed from untouchability and caste system. He read sixty-four pages printed presidential address known as Khutbe-e-Sadarat and asked his people to raise a banner of militant revolt against caste system and join hands with the Muslims. He was a fiery pro-Muslim leader. It turned out to be a social-cultural movement and has contributed to the sociology of development. He was the apostle of Dalit-Muslim unity movement in India. Sheetal Markan's Blog it has contributed for political awareness between both communities. Indeed, it is a great document in the history of untouchables movement, he in detailed elucidated the history of Mool Bharathis, Indus valley civilization; a Dravidian civilization, Advent of Aryans in India; Origin of caste system, are Mool Bharthis are adherent of Hinduism, and Aryans (Brhamins) usurpation of power from Mool Bharathis.

    Contribution to education

    In 1932, His Highness the Nizam of Hyderabad set up the "One Crore Scheduled Caste Welfare Fund". Shyam Sunder was a trustee member for three years.[5] To avoid caste ill-feeling among students, the trust opened Madarsa-e-Pushthkhome schools, residential hostels and to combat school dropout, it distributed monthly scholarships and even clothes to the students. This kind of education scheme was not found elsewhere in India. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar started the People's Educational Society at Aurangabad; aforementioned trust gave twelve 1.2 million rupees as a grant and the Nizam of Hyderabad personally gave two hundred acres of land to the Society. With these donations, Milind College, the first PES institution at Aurangabad, was established. Shyam Sunder served as Executive Council Member to the Society from 1964-66.

    Land Reforms

    Shyam Sunder realised that land alone could bring a qualitative-quantitative change in the lives of his brethren. PR Venkat Swamy recalls that he organized a mammoth rally of landless peasants at Hyderabad. He demanded land reforms from Nizam's State government, asking his followers to encroach on government-held "Gairan" land and even surplus lands of landed gentry. Dalits occupying agricultural lands belonging to the Government and privately held properties were first noticed in this part of India. He proposed many amendments to land reform bills in the Karnataka Assembly and his contributions are hailed. But the feudal mentality were stumbling blocks for successful land reform; thus, he went to the extent of demanding a Mool Bharathi State 'Dalitastan'.

    Address to the UN Security Council

    He was part of the Nizam's delegation to the UN Security Council. He is the first post-independent untouchables leader who addressed the UN security council. He, as a sole representative of the 9 million Depressed class people, formed a part of the delegation took advantage of his presence among the representative of world nations. He gave the Security Council a clear picture of the embittered strife between groups and inhuman conditions of the suppressed masses of independent India. His comparison of the pathetic plight of the depressed Classes of India to the segregation of Negros in the United States created an indelible impression in the world diplomatic parlors. He was given a place of honour everywhere, as the true representative of sixty millions "untouchables", "Unapproachable", "Unseeable" and "Unshadowable" people. 

    The Indian governments Operation Polo wherein the Nizam signed an accession treaty with government occurred, and Shyam Sunder cut short his European tour and returned to India. He was kept under house arrest at his sisters house in Pune and later freed. He renewed his political activities and contested the first General Election from Chanchal Guda constituency from Hyderabad, which he lost. He was later elected to Mysore Legislative Assembly from Bhalki constituency in Bidar district. In 1962 he contested for an Assembly seat from Aland constituency in Gulbarga district, and Lok Sabha seat from Bidar district, but lost both elections. After the demise of Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia he became the president of Praja Socialist Party.

    Minorities Movement

    Minorities Movement
    With the blessings of Sardar Master Tara Singh, on 13 October 1956 Shyam Sunder formed "All India Federal Association of Minorities" at Hyderabad. Shyam Sunder also wrote the pamphlet Federation is a must for Indian Minorities; his demands for Minorities included enforcement of their Constitutional rights, preservation of culture, electoral reforms, and even nationalisation of Administration Problems of India Minorities. His main objectives were to undertake a nationwide educative campaign in favor of secularism, to ensure that minorities were not denied their constitutional rights, and a fair deal in recruitment for civil and military appointments and admissions to educational and technical institutions. Articles 29 and 30 of the constitution of India (part III) were implemented in letters as well as in spirit so far as the minorities are concerned. He warned minorities that "the alternative before the minorities is federate or face a lingering death.". National Integration and Problems of Minorities" He specifically suggests safeguards such as effective representation of minorities in Parliament and Legislature, safety of their life and culture and re iterates the re-organisation of states and further he says prejudice and discrimination against minorities hurts the country more than its victims.

    Four Immediate Needs of 12 Crore Suppressed Human beings in India

    Shyam Sunder with B. D. Jatti
    On 26 January 1968, a conference of "All India Scheduled Caste Federation" conference was held at Nanded District in Maharashtra State under the Presidency of Shyam Sunder. He thundered that the practice of Apartheid is a racial one and untouchability is religious in nature. The "ghetto apartheid" has been operation for three thousand years in India in spite of India’s Constitutional provisions for Scheduled Caste has made no differences in the practice of untouchability and they are living in burning furnace and conference also decided to co-ordinate all political parties.
    The federation put forth Four Demands: Separate settlement, separate election for them, establishment of a separate University at Milind college in Aurangabad or Siddharth College at Bombay and lastly, form an education trust funded by the government of India.The conference also demanded that the Marthawada University should be named after B. R. Ambedkar

    Bhim Sena

    Shyam Sunder, H. Shreyesker and Bhim Rao Bharthi
    He created Bhim Sena, a voluntary corps force, on 29 April,1968 in Gulbarga district in Karnataka on the seventy-seventh anniversary of the birth of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. He gave Ambedkars name to Bhim Sena is a self-defense movement based on truth and non-violence.It repulsed the caste Hindus atrocities on the untouchables. A militant force comprised about 2,00,000 Dalits. The movement was revolt against Hindu caste system. Shyam Sunder wished to create Dalitastan, a country for Untouchables, and desired an alliance between the Dalits, the Muslims and the Untouchables. For this reason, Bhim Sena became popular. The Bhim Sena movement was a caste struggle rather than a class struggle, to confront Hindus militarily. The main objectives of Bhim Sena were three-fold: twenty-five percent villages to be surrendered to them, a separate electorate, and separate elections and a separate University for them.


    Bhim Sena should be organised on a district wise basis. The Flag of the Bhim Sena will be blue. In the centre there will be a white shining sun in which there will be likeness of the plough, the hammer and the arrow in red colour representing peasants, workers and the traves. The plough also indicates that the Scheduled Castes are the principal producers of food, the hammer indicates that they are the power behind all industrial activities, while the arrow shows that it is they who once ruled India. powers Self-defence is our main object, subsidiary activities like Prepare for census and election work, The Legal Aid Committee, Adult education.

    Father of Bahujans Movement

    Shyam Sunder, EVR, Fareedi and Bhadat Anand Kaushlya, 1968 at Lucknow
    Shyam Sunder held a conference concerning Scheduled Caste, Minorities, Backward Classes and other Minorities Convention at Lucknow district in Uttar Pradesh on 12 and 13 October 1968. Periyar E. V. Ramasamy,Dr.Fareedi, Bhante Bhadat, and Anand Kausalyayan attended. In his Presidential address he put forth several demands. He demanded remodeling of para military forces, division of bigger states like Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra and Bihar into two or more states. He advocated that Minorities should be treated as corporate entities and be given autonomy to conduct their affairs. With one voice it declared the aqhliyataoun ka Nara Hindustan hamara. "From the platform of this convention, held in Lucknow noted for its refined composite Hindustani culture. I call upon the oppressed minority’s f the great land to wake up and unite; I warn them that if they do not, they would be annihilated one by one, group by group and section by section. And declare that united they constitute the majority and have the natural right to play an effective role in guiding the destination of the land of their birth and I conclude by expressing on my own behalf and on behalf of this convention our profound devotion to our mother land Ahliyataouna ka nara Hindustan Hamara.In fact, this movement at Lucknow was a precursor to the Bahujan movement started by Sri Kanshi Ram.

    An Appeal to UNO

    He sought the UNO’s intervention to form separate country for untouchables, and appealed for a plebiscite to elucidate the desires of members of the Scheduled Caste in regards to remaining in Hinduism, and similarly in his book They Burn. In his book They Burn he says "The United Nations organisation and The Charter on Human Rights does provide some remedy for millions and millions of human beings. who are thus condemned to the inhuman and barbarous condition peculiar to the Untouchables of India numbering one hundred and sixty Millions. Article 13 (B) and 55 (C) of the United Nations Charter deserve study by all champions of the exploited and the downtrodden The possibility of invoking Article 36-2- of the Statue of The International Court of Justice needs to be studied by all friends of the oppressed" 

    The Mool Bharathi B. Shyam Sunder Memorial Society was formed after the death of Shyam Sunder. The society has published his books and assists research students in various universities.

    Books by B. Shyam Sunder

    Mool Bharathis

    1. They Burn: the 16,00,00,000 untouchables of India
    2. The four immediate needs of twelve crores suppresses human beings in India : resolutions passed unanimously
    3. Veda Mecum for Mool Bharatis
    4. Bhim Sena kya Chahati hai (Urdu)
    5. Problems of Scheduled Caste
    6. Harijans and General Elections
    7. Neo-Buddhist Claims as Scheduled Caste
    8. The Plight of Scheduled Caste in India Petition to Lok Sabha
    9. National Integration and Problems of Indian Minorities
    10. Danger Ahead for Minorities let us Unite and Face them
    11. Federation is a Must for Indian Minorities
    12. Problems of Indian Minorities

    On Bahujans

    1. Presidential Address Uttar Pradesh Minorities and Backward Classes Convention (English, Urdu and Hindi)
    2. Khutebe-e-Sadarat, Parbhani Presidential Address in (Urdu)
    3. Deeksha (Hindi, Urdu and English)
    4. Bhoodevataon ka Manifesto (Hindi, Kannada and Urdu)
    5. Educational conference at Hyderabad (Urdu)
    6. Zionist Plot to Dominate the World
    7. Today’s Muslims are Tomorrows Harijans
    8. Interview to Meherab Urdu Digest

    On Hinduism

    1. Bhudevataon ka Manifesto (Hindi and Kannada)
    2. UDHR Must be Honored in India
    3. The Menace of the Dragon

  • Badri Maharaj

    Badri Maharaj
    Badri Maharaj
    Badri Maharaj
    JanamBadri Datt
    Bamoli village, Badrinath, Uttarakhand, India
    NationalityFiji citizen
    Duusra naamBadri Datt
    CitizenFiji citizen
    Kon saal me kaam karis1916 - 1929
    Home townRakiraki
    Kaahe jaana jaae haeLegislative Council ke pahila Hindustani member
    Opponent(s)Manilal Doctor, Vashist Muni
    DharamHindu (Arya Samaji)
    Mai/BaapPitaji: Pandit Rashi Rasu
    AwardsDayanand Medal for Meritorious Service
    Badri Maharaj, Fiji ke Legislative Council ke pahila Hindustani sadasya banaa, jab uske 1917 me, Fiji ke Governor Hindustani log ke khatir Council me manonit karis. Fiji ke Hindustani logan isse khushi nai rahin aur wakiil, Manilal Doctor ke aapan leader maangat rahin. Uu 1920 aur 1921 ke strike ke virod karis rahaa aur ii nai maangat rahaa ki Hindustani log India laut jaae. Maharaj, Council ke bahas me bahut kamti hissa liis rahaa aur kuchh khaas visay, jaise ki girmit ke khatam kare waala prathao aur Hindustani ke sex ratio, sikchha aur ghar ke sudhare waala prasthao me kuchh nai bolis. Uske Council me thora kuchh yogdaan me hae, ii maang ki Kaiviti log ke rakam ek Indian Administration bhi suruu karaa jaawe jon ki panchayat ke rakam rahe. Uu chhota larrkan ke saadi ke virod karis aur Poll tax ke virod me uu 1923 me Council se resign kar diis. 1926 me sakar fir se Maharaj ke 1929 talak Council ke member banais. Uu sikchha me bahut yogdaan diis aur Fiji me Hindustani log khatir pahila school bhi banais rahaa. Maharaj, Fiji me Arya Samaj ke samarthan karat rahaa aur uske Dayanand Medal for Meritorious Service dewa gais rahaa.

      Fiji me girmit aur kisani

      Maharaj 1868 me Bamoli gaon, Badrinath, Uttarakhand, India me paida bhaes rahaa. Use pitaji, Pandit Rashi Rasu, ek jyotishi rahaa Uu Fiji 1889 me girmit me aais rahaa aur Melbourne Trust Company ke Penang Mill me, paanch shilling aur chhe penny ke talab, paanch aur aadha din ke khatir talab pe kaam kar lagaa. Tiin saal ke baad uu aapan girmit se paisa de ke chhutkara paae ke Company ke estate me kaam kare lagaa. Kaahe ki uu parrhe likhe jaanat rahaa, uske Company ke loharkhana (blacksmith) ke garage me equipment ke record rakkhe ke khatir kaam me lagawa gais. Uu hian pe loharkhana waala kaam bhi sikh ke Company ke loharkhana ke in-charge banaa.
      1900 me uu 4000 bigha jamiin lease me liis jisme se uu 500 bigha me kheti karis au baaki jamiin ke chaua charrae khatir rakhis. 1914 talak uske jamiin me 300 asaami log raha rahin. .
      Uu sab se pahila Fiji ke Hindustani rahaa jon ki Hindustani larrkan loagan khatir sikchha ke khatir kuch kare ke sochis aur 1898 me Fiji ke Hindustani logan khatir pahila school, Wairuku Indian School banais. Ii school me Ratu Sukuna bhi parrhis rahaa.

      Legislative Council ke member

      1916 me, jab sarkar ii faisla pe pahucha ki ek Hindustani ke Legislative Council me manonit kare ke chaahi, tab Badri Maharaj ke manonit karaa gais. Ii Hindustani logan ke pasand nai rhaha kahe ki uu logan mangat rahin ki Manilal Doctor ke manonit karaa jae kaaheki Manilal ek wakiil rahaa aur Maharaj ke ek unparr kisan socha jaawat rahaa. Fiji Times bhi ii salah diis ki chaahe Manilal nai to C. F. Andrews ke manonit karaa jae.
      Maharaj Council ke bahas me bahut kamti hissa liis aur aur kuchh khaas visay, jaise ki girmit ke khatam kare waala prathao aur Hindustani ke sex ratio, sikchha aur ghar ke sudhare waala prasthao me kuchh nai bolis.

      Council me yogdaan

      1918 me Badri Maharaj prasthao rakkhis ki Fiji me Hindustani logan khatir panchayat system suruu karaa jae. Uu Agent-General of Immigration ke lage ek chitthi me likkhis ki panchayat se Hindustani logan khatir nyaay sahaj hoe jai aur koi vivaad jaldi se sujh jaai. Agar jo koi bagal ke admii panchayat nai mangis tab case ke court ke lage lae jawa jae. Panchayat me me dunoo Hindu aur Muslim ke hoe ke chaahi jisse ke duuno dharam ke biich me bawaal nai hoe. Uu sarkar ke batais ki uu panchayat chune kare ke taeyar hae aur bolis ki isse Hindustani rahan sahan ke bachawa jaaae sake hae aur Hindustani logan khus rahi. Agent-General of Immigration jawab diis ki ii achchhaa khayal hae aur India aur duusra colony se pataa lagae ke batais ki aur koi jagha ii parbandh nai hae aur iske Fiji me suruu karnaa khatra se kamti nai hae aur uu time uske suruu kare khatir thiik nai hae.
      1919 me Legislative Council Marriage law ke badle ke bahas suruu karaa gais jisse ki Hindustani logan me dharmic saadi ke maanata dewa jaae. Badri Maharaj ek amendment rakkhis jisme uu legal marriage age ke uupar kare ke samarthan karis lekin larrka logan khatir legal age 16 aur larrki logan khatir 13 rakhe ke prasthao rakhis. Uu Legislative Council ke Hindu culture ke baare me samjhaes lekin Council uske baat nai sunis.

      Government ke samarthak

      Maharaj ke government "achchha character waala admii" maanat rahaa lekin uske lage Hindustani log me bahut kamti samarthan rahaa. Jab 1920 me Vashist Muni Fiji aais rahaa, aur Fiji ke western division me meeting karat rahaa, tab Maharaj uske baare me Government ke lage report bhejat rahaa.
      Maharaj, Indian Franchise Commission, jiske August 1920 me banawa gais rahaa Hindustani logan ke Council me representative select kare ke system khatir, ke khaali ek Hindustani sadasya rahaa. Badri Maharaj ek commissioner raha jab 31 January 1920 ke Government ek commission appoint karis Hindustani logan ke talab ke baare me jaankari le ke khatir.
      Badri Maharaj, 1920 me Central Division waala strike ke virod karis. Uu majdur logan ke batais ki uu logan ke kaam par laut jae ke chaahi aur Manilal ke baat nai sune ke chaahi. Nausori ke ek meeting me Maharaj majur log ke chetauni diis ki harrtaal kharab hae aur andolan kare waala logan ke baat nahi sune ke chaahi.

      Council se resign

      July 1923 me sarkar ek legislation Council me rakkhis jisme sab admii logan jon ki Kaiviti nai hae aur 18 se 60 ke umar ke biich me hae ke ek poll tax bhare ke parri. Maharaj iske virod karis aur aapan seat se resign kar dis.
      1926 me Young Men’s Indian Association sarkar se ek Indian member ke nominae kare ke maang karis aur sarkar fir se Maharaj ke nominate kar diis. Ii tike bhi sarkar Hindustani logan ke maang ke virod me kaam karis kaahe ki Hindustani logan Dr A. Deva Sagayam ke aapanmember maangat rahin

      Saint Bullah Sahib the Kunbi was the guru of Saint Bhikha Sahib+ the Brahmin
      Camripa, cobbler of Visnunagara, 1 of 84 Natha Mahasiddha devotees of Shiva

      Giani Ditt Singh Ji Founder of Singh Sabha Movement

    ·       Devara Dasimayya had several Brahmin disciples.

           Dhoyi Śudra saints were even the gurus of kings, as is the case of Dhoyi for      Bengali     King Lakshman Sen
    • Dirghatamas, son of the Dasi (maid)p. 102 Caste as a Form of Acculturation By Satyanarayana Ratha Mamata
    • Dharma Vyadha  
    • The Vedāntasūtras of Bādarāyaṇa: with the commentary of Baladeva Bādarāyaṇa, Śrīśa Chandra Vasu, Baladevavidyābhūṣaṇa

    • Dr. Mahendra Chandra Patni, a dalit leader and prominent scientist who has got the gold medal in LMP (the then MBBS) in 1923-24 batch from Berry-White School of Medicine, Dibrugarh, Assam, British India.
    • Dhombipawasherman of Saliputra, 1 of 84 Natha Mahasiddha devotees of Shiva
    • Dasari, a caste of Vaishnava mendicants in Andhra Pradesh, that are mainly from the Kanada- and Telugu-speaking communities :claim descent from either a wealthy Shudra devotee, or a Shudra named Banajiga (disciple of Vaishnava Ekanga Rangaswami) and a Kuruba woman P. 101-102, The Mysore Tribes and Castles by LKA Iyer
    • Devinder Singh Rahal-Justice of Peace From New Zeeland
    • Faguni Ram

      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
      Dr. Faguni Ram

      Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha)
      ConstituencyAurangabad, Bihar
      Personal details
      BornJanuary 2, 1945
      Gaya Bihar
      Died February 25, 2018 (aged 73)
      New Delhi
      Political partyIndian National Congress
      Spouse(s) Dr. Sushila Das
      Residence 11 Janpath (in the 90s)

      Faguni Ram was an Indian politician. He was a member of the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India representing Bihar as a member of the Indian National Congress for 3 terms. He was among the first scheduled caste person in state to hold the a Ph.D. degree. His wife Dr. Sushila Das is also one of the first scheduled caste woman of Bihar to hold a Ph.D. degree. They always stressed education as a means to self-development and the development of people they served. He served in Bihar State Administrative Services but left to become MLA from Aurangabad. He arose to became one of the youngest state ministers of country. He also authored several books on Geography.

      Early Life

      Born in a family with modest means in Majhiawan village in Gaya district, Dr. Ram became epitome of how hard work can overcome social and economic barriers. Son of a freedom fighter he worked tirelessly towards development of Bihar and symbolized public service for the people with a common touch and serving all communities together. As a social and political worker, he vigorously served for ameliorating the condition of the down trodden people and work towards removal of untouchability and illiteracy among the people who were below the poverty line. He worked tirelessly for Bhangi Mukti Morcha Programme, Improvement in the Slum areas, Protection of Environment and Transference of Technology to Villages, Harijan Sevak Sangh and Depressed Class League, Adult Education Programmes, and Implementation of Land Reforms.On the inspiration of Late Smt. Indira Gandhi, he travelled extensively for the developmental works of the people of India. He particularly emphasized education as a mean to self-development, overcoming social barriers and stigma, and upliftment of people they serve. He championed inclusive development where social welfare and developmental policies and programs are prioritized. Inclusive development and empowerment are aptly reflected in rich legacy of policies and infrastructural initiatives that he toiled tirelessly for more than four decades with a path full of empowerment, modern outlook and hope. Towards this he founded a number of schools and colleges in Bihar. He was honored with National Integration Award for the outstanding social works in the different parts of India.


      Dr. Ram earned his B.A. (Hons), M.A. and Ph.D. in Geography. He also did M.A. in Sanskrit. Before becoming active as a politician, he taught as a Professor at Anugrah Narayan. College Patna. Dr. Ram’s scholarly work focused on interwoven themes of geography and development. His writings include “Development of Irrigation and Its Impact on Agriculture” and coauthored Instant Encyclopedia of Geography (1-25 volumes). Number of his research papers, articles, speeches has been published in the accredited journals and magazines. During his teaching career, he successfully supervised a number of doctoral students.

      Political Positions Held

      Joint Secretary, All India Congress Committee, directly assisted late Honourable Shri Rajiv Gandhi, then Prime Minister of India and President of AICC (I). He was in charge of the Janata Darshan of late Honourable Shri Rajiv Gandhi. It made him immensely popular with diverse range of people. Vice President, Bihar Pradesh Congress Committee. Secretary, Bihar Pradesh Congress Committee. Delegates to the All India Congress Committee.

      Other Positions Held

      1966-72: Inspector, Department of Food, Civil Supply and Commerce, Government of Bihar (left this assignment on the direction of Most Honourable late Smt Indira Gandhiji 1972-77: Member Legislative Assembly (MLA), Bihar. 1973: Minister, Ministry of Excise, Government of Bihar, Patna, Bihar. February 1985(mid term): Elected as Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha from Bihar . 1986-92: Member, Parliamentary Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. April 1988: Elected as Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha from Bihar. 1988-89: Member, Committee on Papers Laid on the Table. April 2000: Elected as Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha from Bihar. May 2000 to February 2004: Member, Committee on Industry, Government of India. January 2001 onwards: Member, Consultative Committee for the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. August 2004 onwards: Member, Committee on Papers Laid on the Table. 

      Member, Committee on Rural Development.
      Member, Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and

      Scheduled Tribes. October 2004 onwards: Member, Consultative Committee for the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology.

      Awards and Recognitions

      National Integration Award for the year 1987-88, Citizen of India for the year 1992, several Colleges and Schools named after him in his home town and state. 

      Gopal Baba Walangkar

      Gopal Baba Walangkar, also known as Gopal Krishna, (ca. 1840-1900) is an early example of an activist working to release the untouchable people of India from their historic socio-economic oppression, and is generally considered to be the pioneer of that movement. He developed a racial theory to explain the oppression and also published the first journal targeted at the untouchable people.


      Gopal Baba Walangkar was born into a family of the untouchable Mahar caste[1] around 1840 at Ravdal, near Mahad in what is now Raigad district, Maharashtra. He was related to Ramabai, who in 1906 married the polymathic social reformer, B. R. Ambedkar. In 1886, after serving in the army, Walangkar settled at Dapoli and became influenced by another early social reformer, Jyotirao Phule, thus being a link between two of the most significant reform families of the period.
      Walangkar was appointed to the local taluk board of Mahad in 1895,[3] which displeased the members from the upper castes and caused considerable debate in newspapers.[4] He died at Ravdal in 1900.[2]


      The Aryan invasion theory, since discredited, was in vogue at this time. Walangkar extended Phule's version of this racial theory, that the untouchable people of India were the indigenous inhabitants and that the Brahmin people were descended from Aryans who had invaded the country. Walangkar claimed that "high-caste people from the south were 'Australian–Semitic non-Aryans' and African negroes, that Chitpavan Brahmans were 'Barbary Jews', and that the high-caste Marathas' forebears were 'Turks'".[1]
      In 1888, Walangkar began publishing the monthly journal titled Vital-Vidhvansak (Destroyer of Brahmanical or Ceremonial Pollution), which was the first to have the untouchable people as its target audience.[2] He also wrote articles for Marathi-language newspapers such as Sudharak and Deenbandhu, as well as composing couplets in Marathi that were intended to inspire the people.[5]
      Having read Hindu religious texts, Walangkar concluded that caste was contrived by the Aryan invaders to control the Anaryans (indigenous people).[5] In 1889, he published Vital Viduvansan (Annihilation of Ceremonial Pollution), which protested the position of untouchables in society and raised consciousness regarding what those people should expect.[2] He addressed this pamphlet, which was crafted as a collection of 26 questions,[5] to the elites of Maharashtrian society. T. N. Valunjkar says that Walangkar "can be regarded as the first intellectual rebel from the dalit community to have launched a scathing criticism of the caste system and the position of dalits in it."[3] Nonetheless, his criticism was intended to cause change through an appeal to those elites, rather than an opposition to them. It was an awareness-raising style, in the hope that the paternalist elements of society would take heed[6] but it also warned that the untouchables might leave India unless their situation improved. A further significant work, titled Hindu Dharma Darpan, appeared in 1894.[5]
      Walangkar also at once empowered the Mahars and diminished the influence of Brahmin priests by forming a group of Mahar astrologers to set the times for religious ceremonies, which was effectively the only service that Brahmins had been willing to perform for the caste.[7]
      Walangkar founded the Anarya Dosh-Parihar Mandali (Society for the Removal of Evils Among the Non-Aryans). Some sources say this took place in the same year that he left the army[2] but Anand Teltumbde gives 1890 as the date and suggests it was connected with an issue relating to military recruitment.[5] The Mahar were initially heavily recruited into British military units, but this process slowed after the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Their recruitment was halted under Lord Kitchener in the early 1890s. Before the rebellion, Mahar regiments made up one-sixth of the Bombay units of the British East India Company but thereafter they were pensioned off and gradually removed from military service.[8][9] Mahar recruitment reached its nadir in the early 1890s (sources differ as to exact year) when Kitchener halted the recruitment of untouchables in Maharashtra in favour of "martial races," such as the Marathas and other north-western communities.[10][11] The Mahar community attempted to confront this block with a petition circulated among the Mahar, Chamar, and Mang former soldiers—all Marathi-speaking untouchables—but the movement was unable to organise and submit their petition.[10] It was Walangkar, through the Anarya Dosh-Parihar Mandali, who attempted this petition.[1][3]
      Walangkar is generally considered to be the pioneer of the Dalit movement, despite the work of Harichand Thakur through his Matua organisation involving the Namasudra (Chandala) community in Bengal Presidency. Ambedkar himself believed Walangkar to be the progenitor.[
    • G. M. C. Balayogi

      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

      Ganti Mohana Chandra Balayogi

      12th Speaker of the Lok Sabha
      In office
      24 March 1998 – 3 March 2002
      DeputyP. M. Sayeed
      Preceded byPurno Agitok Sangma
      Succeeded byManohar Joshi
      Member of the Indian Parliament
      for Amalapuram
      In office
      Preceded by Kusuma Krishna Murthy
      Succeeded by K. S. R. Murthy
      In office
      Preceded by K. S. R. Murthy
      Succeeded byG.V. Harsha Kumar
      Personal details
      Born 1 October 1951
      Yedurulanka, Madras Presidency, India
      (now in Andhra Pradesh, India)
      Died 3 March 2002 (aged 50)
      Kaikalur, Andhra Pradesh, India
      Political partyTelugu Desam Party
      Spouse(s)Vijaya Kumari Ganti
      Ganti Mohana Chandra Balayogi (About this sound pronunciation ; 1 October 1951 – 3 March 2002) was an Indian lawyer and politician.
      Growing up in a small Village, Balayogi had to travel to Guttenadeevi village for his primary education. He received his Post Graduate in Kakinada and a law degree from Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. He was serving as the speaker of 12th Lok Sabha when he died in a helicopter crash.

      Early career

      Balayogi began practicing law in 1980 in Kakinada under the guidance of Gopalaswamy Shetty, and in 1985, was selected as a First Class Magistrate. He then resigned from this post and returned to the bar to resume legal practice. In 1986, he took over as the Vice-Chairman of the Cooperative Town Bank of Kakinada, and in 1987, was elected as the Chairman of the East Godavari Zilla Praja Parishad. He was the First Dalit speaker in Loksabha


      In 1991, Balayogi was elected to the 10th Lok Sabha lower house parliament under the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) ticket. He lost this seat in the 1996 general elections, but continued political work in his community and was soon elected to the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly in a by-election from the Mummidivaram Assembly constituency. Subsequently, he was appointed as the Minister of Higher Education in the Government of Andhra Pradesh. 

      In 1998, Balayogi was elected into parliament; he became the 12th Speaker of Lok Sabha (24 March 1998) and again for the 13th Lok Sabha (22 October 1999). As the Speaker, he chaired the Business Advisory Committee, Rules Committee, General Purposes Committee and Standing Committee of the Conference of Presiding Officers of Legislative Bodies in India, and he presided over the Indian Parliamentary Group, National Group of Inter-Parliamentary Union and India Branch of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association. Along with these duties, Balayogi headed many Indian Parliamentary Delegations to foreign countries, while hosting visiting countries as well.


      On 3 March 2002, Balayogi died in crash of a Bell 206 helicopter in Kaikalur, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh. He was aged 50. G.M.C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium was named in his memory.

    George Gilbert Swell

    George Gilbert Swell
    Lok Sabha Representative
    In office
    Succeeded byBiren Singh Engti
    ConstituencyAutonomous District
    Lok Sabha Representative
    In office
    Preceded byBajubon Kharlukhi
    Succeeded byPeter G. Marbaniang
    Lok Sabha Representative
    In office
    Preceded byPeter G. Marbaniang
    Succeeded byPaty Ripple Kyndiah
    Personal details
    BornAugust 5, 1923
    DiedJanuary 25, 1999
    Alma materScottish Church College
    University of Calcutta
    George Gilbert Swell (August 5, 1923 - January 25, 1999) was an Indian politician, a former Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha and its member from Shillong in Meghalaya.

    Early life

    He was born at Laitkynsew village near Cherrapunji in the present-day Meghalaya state. He completed his schooling at the Ramakrishana Mission School at Cherrapunji. After passing the Bachelor of arts examination from the Scottish Church College, Kolkata, he took his Master of Arts degree in English from the University of Calcutta in 1945. He married a Shillong beauty, Lajopthiaw (victorious conqueror) Lyngdoh, second daughter of Phrolibon Lyngdoh and Wellington Kearney. Soon after their first child, Lakyntiew (she who has uplifted us) was born, they moved to Ethiopia, part of a wave of teachers recruited to Ethiopia in the early nineteen fifties. They returned to Shillong after a couple of years, and G. G. Swell threw himself his new position as a professor at a local college. It wasn't long before he entered into the political world of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills. His contribution to the formation of the state of Meghalaya, breaking away from the parent state of Assam, is incontrevertible. He, with his wife's uncle, Brington B Lyngdoh, and Stanley Nichols Roy as well as other community leaders conducted a fierce campaign for the separate identity of their state that combined the peoples of Khasi and Janintia Hills and other tribes from the Garo Hills and others. To their credit, the campaign was bloodless, nonviolent and successful. It was not long before GG Swell moved into national politics, having earned recognition for his intellect and passion for leadership, and for his principled and ethical way of life.

    Political career

    He was elected to the Lok Sabha from the Autonomous Districts Lok Sabha constituency in 1962, 1967 and 1971 and from Shillong Lok Sabha constituency in 1984 and 1996. He was the Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha from 9 December, 1969 to 27 December, 1970 in 4th Lok Sabha and again 27 March, 1971 to 18 January, 1977. Swell served as India's ambassador to Norway and Burma. In 1992 he contested the Indian presidential election as a joint opposition candidate against Shankar Dayal Sharma but lost. He died on 25 January 1999.

    Gallela Prasad

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigation Jump to search
    His Excellency
    Gallela Prasad
    Bishop of Cuddapah
    Church Roman Catholic
    See Cuddapah
    Appointed 31 January 2008
    Predecessor D. M. Prakasam
    Ordination 1 March 1989
    by Matthew Cheriankunnel
    Consecration 1 March 2008
    by Marampudi Joji
    Personal details
    Born 7 April 1962
    Adoni, Andhra Pradesh
    Previous post Professor of Christian Doctrine, St. John's Regional Seminary, Kothavalasa
    Gallela Prasad (born 7 April 1962) is an Indian prelate of the Catholic Church who has served as the Bishop of the Cuddapah, Andhra Pradesh, since 2008.
    He is well versed in Latin as well as Telugu and English.


    Prasad was born the fourth and youngest child in a family of teachers in Adoni in Andhra Pradesh. Smt. Mariamma and Sri Jojappa were his parents. He went to school in his hometown and later attended St. Pius Minor Seminary in Kurnool[1][2]
    He studied philosophy at St. John's Regional Seminary, Kondadaba, Visakhapatnam,[1] and then theology at the St. John's Regional Seminary in Ramanthapur, Hyderabad.
    On 1 March 1989, Prasad was ordained a priest of the Catholic Diocese of Kurnool by Bishop Matthew Cheriankunnel.[1] After his ordination, Prasad served as a Youth Services Director of the diocese of Kurnool from 1989 to 1993[1] as well as a warden for St. Mary's Junior College, Kurnool. from 1989 to 1990.
    From 1990 to 1995, he was a parish priest in Koilakunta.[1][3] He also served as Spiritual Director of the Legion of Mary from 1993 to 1995.[1]
    From 1995 to 1999 Prasad studied in Rome at the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas Angelicum where he earned a Doctorate of Sacred Theology degree.[2] His thesis was entitled Christian Charity as Witnessed by Mother Teresa of Calcutta.[4] On returning to India in 1999, he was Pastor in St. John's Church, Uppaladadiya[3] till 2000.[1] From 2000 to 2004 he served as a pastor in the Diocese of San Angelo, Texas, U.S.[1]
    In 2004, he was made Spiritual Director and Professor of Christian Doctrine in the St. John's Regional Seminary (Philosophate) in Kothavalasa, Visakhapatnam.[1]
    Pope Benedict XVI appointed Prasad Bishop of Cuddapah on 31 January 2008.[2] He was consecrated on 1 March 2008 at the St. Mary's Old Cathedral Grounds, Mariapuram, Cuddapah,[5] by Marampudi Joji, Archbishop of Hyderabad, with Kagithapu Mariadas, Archbishop of Visakhapatnam and the D. M. Prakasam, Bishop of Nellore as co-consecrators. Almost all the Catholic Bishops of the Andhra region took part in the consecration. Among the ecumenical invitees was K. B. Yesuvaraprasad, the Church of South India's Bishop of Rayalaseema.[6] He chose as his episcopal motto Ego sum Pastor bonus or "I am the good shepherd".
    • Giani Ditt Singh Ji Founder of Singh Sabha Movement
    •  Goraksanath was guru and later husband of princess Karpatinatha
    • Jalandhara, Shudra, born into Shudra,Majumdar, p. 408 History of Ancient Bengal merchant family in Nagara Tatha (near modern Karachi, Sindh), Sindhi, mentioned as a Brahmana by a Rahula, guru of King Gopichand
     Jwala Prasad Kureel- MP of 6th Lok Sabha, Affiliated to Janata Party serving Ghatampur (UP) Lok Sabha Constituency

    J. Geeta Reddy

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    J. Geeta Reddy

    Minister for Major Industries, Sugar, Commerce and Export Promotion, Government of Andhra Pradesh
    In office
    September 2009 - 2014
    Personal details
    Born 1947 (age 70–71)
    Hyderabad State
    Political partyIndian National Congress
    Spouse(s) Dr. Ramachandra Reddy
    Children Meghana Reddy
    Occupation gynaecologist
    Dr. Jetti Geeta Reddy (born 1947) is an Indian politician of the Indian National Congress (INC) party. Since 2014, she has been a member of the Telangana Legislative Assembly, in which she represents Zahirabad constituency in Medak district. 

    Reddy has been a minister in the cabinets of various governments. She was also leader of the INC in the legislative assembly during the government of Konijeti Rosaiah.

    Early life

    Geeta Reddy is the daughter of Eshwari Bai, a former Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) and President of the Republican Party of India. She studied medicine at Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad and became a Member of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, London in 1989.


    Reddy worked as a gynaecologist. She lived in Australia from 1971 to 1977, in London from 1977 to 1980 and in Saudi Arabia from 1980 to 1982. She then returned to India.

    Political career

    Reddy and her husband, Ramachandra Reddy, established a medical practice in Saudi Arabia. In 1985, upon the request of Rajiv Gandhi, the couple returned to India so that Geeta could work on behalf of the Indian National Congress party. She contested elections for the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly in 1989 and became MLA for Gajwel in Medak district. She won that constituency again in 1999 and 2004.
    In the 2009 elections, Reddy was parachuted into the Zahirabad constituency, which had elected INC candidates in every election bar one since 1957. Converted to a seat reserved for candidates from the Scheduled Castes, the constituency had been held for a decade by the INC's Mohammed Fareeduddin, who commanded much local respect but was forced by this decision to contest the election elsewhere and lost. She won the seat and did so again in 2014, despite allegations that Fareeduddin had been encouraging his local supporters to vote for any party except the INC. On this occasion, the election was for a seat in the newly created Telangana Legislative Assembly that was created as part of the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh.
    Reddy was a minister in the  She was INC leader in the legislative assembly during the Rosaiah government.

    Member of Legislative Assembly

    Year Constituency Political Party
    1989 Gajwel INC
    2004 Gajwel INC
    2009 Zahirabad INC
    2014 Zahirabad INC

    Portfolios held

    • 1989-1994: Minister for Tourism, Culture, Social Welfare, Sports, Secondary Education and Protocol.
    • 1995-1998: General Secretary, Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC)
    • 1998-2000: Executive Member of PCC
    • 2000-2004: President, Andhra Pradesh Mahila Congress Committee.
    • 2004-2009: Minister for Tourism, Sugar and Major Industries commerce and Export promotion.
    • 2009–2010: Minister for Information and Public relations, Tourism, Culture, FDC, Archaeology, Museums & Archives, Cinematography.
    • 2010–2014: Minister for Major Industries, Sugar, Commerce and Export promotion
    Reddy was also for some time around 2013 in charge of the Home department in the Andhra Pradesh government whilst also holding the Major Industries portfolio. In the same year, the Telugu Desam Party had demanded that she be dismissed as a minister due to her being one of the co-accused named by the Central Bureau of Investigation in its work on a case relating to alleged illegal assets held by Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy. The matter was dropped, with one of her co-accused, Mopidevi Venkataramana Rao, claiming that the Chief Minister, Kiran Kumar Reddy, had intervened.
    In April 2016, Reddy was appointed as chairman of the Telangana Legislative Assembly's Public Accounts Committee.

    Personal life

    J. Geeta Reddy is married to Dr. Ramachandra Reddy. Her husband owns Geetha Multi Speciality Hospital Secunderabad, Eashwari Bai Memorial Center Hospital, Eashwari Bai School Of Nursing and Eashwari Bai College Of Nursing. She has a daughter.
    Around 1980, after Reddy's husband had suffered a stroke and was not responding well to conventional medicine, the couple visited Sathya Sai Baba. She has expressed admiration for him, noting that her husband's health began to improve soon after the meeting, and has been described as a devotee.


    • President of Andhra Pradesh Women's Cricket Association

    Social service

    • Vice President Indian Red Cross Society, Andhra Pradesh
    • Branch, Life Trustee, Indian Council of Child Welfare
    • Chairperson, Eashwari Bai Memorial Trust.
    • Former member of Central Social Welfare Board.
    • Former Senate member of Osmania University.


    • Mahila Shiromani
    • Unity award for National Integration Forum
    • 2008: Indira Gandhi Sadbhavana Award
    • 2008: Millennium Star Award
    • 2014: ALL Ladies League, Hyderabad Women of the Decade Achievers Award for Excellence in Public Administration
    • Jogendra Nath Mandal: Chosen by Jinnah, banished by bureaucracy

      Updated November 04, 2015
      Jogendra Nath Mandal has the distinction of representing the Muslim League as minister in the 1946 pre-partition political setup of India.
      Later, he presided over the historic session of the Constituent Assembly on 11th August 1947, where Mohammed Ali Jinnah was sworn in as the first Governor-General of Pakistan.
      Jinnah trusted Mandal – who belonged to the lowest tier of the Hindu religious hierarchy – the Untouchables or Dalits – for his vision and righteousness.
      Years earlier, Gandhi had tried to replace the word Dalit by ‘Harijans’ or the children of the Hindu god Hari. The euphemism was later considered condescending by the community in question.
      Dr B. R. Ambedkar, the principal architect of the constitution of India and himself a Dalit, had accused Gandhi of deceiving the Untouchables.
      He believed that Gandhi was using tactics to keep them tied to Hinduism. Later, Ambedkar and his 3,000 followers converted to Buddhism.
      Renowned historian Mubarak Ali says that long after Partition, the Untouchables chose to be called ‘Dalits’ or the oppressed.
      To this day, the social and financial conditions of the Dalits, in both India and Pakistan, have not changed much. However, these people – having been oppressed for centuries – are now fighting for their rights.
      Coming back to my topic, Jogendra Nath Mandal not only held important law positions before Partition, but also became the first Law and Labour Minister of Pakistan.
      In the newly formed country, Hindus had now become a minority. On 11th August 1947 when Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was to be sworn in as the first Governor General, he wanted Mandal, a Hindu member of the Assembly, to preside over the session.
      Jinnah’s decision reflected his desire to bring religious minorities into the mainstream.
      Ahmed Saleem, on page 104 of his book ‘Pakistan aur Aqliatien’ (Pakistan and Minorities), discusses this episode in history:
      The fact that one of the minority members was elected to preside over the session hints at the progressive attitude of the new state, and it augurs well for the future. Pakistan itself was brought into existence by the unrelenting efforts of a minority of the Indian Subcontinent.
      I would like to point out that people, from not only from Pakistan and India but all over the world, are taking notes of the business of the Constituent Assembly. The Muslims of the Subcontinent wanted a separate homeland for themselves. Now, the world wants to see whether they would treat their minorities generously.
      The Muslim League leaders, particularly Quaid-i-Azam, have assured minorities of not only justice and tolerance but also of generosity. The minorities, too, are duty-bound to honour their allegiance to the state and work responsibly for national building."
      After the 1946 elections, an interim government was setup under the British Raj. Both Congress and the Muslim League had to nominate their representatives to function as ministers in the government.
      Muslim League named Jogendra Nath Mandal, besides others.
      For a political party that championed the Muslim cause, it was quite unusual to nominate a scheduled caste Hindu as its minister Zahid Chaudhry writes on page 47 of ‘Pakistan Kee Siasi Tareekh’ (Pakistan’s political history); (vol. 2):
      Leave aside the fire that [Muslim] League’s decision to include an ‘Untouchable’ in the government drew from the Congress Leaders. A greater trouble was caused to the Labour government in London, which feared that an angry Congress would walk away from the government that was yet to be formed. Consequently, Lord Pethick-Lawrence wrote to [Governor-General] Lord Wavell, ‘We may encounter a situation in which Congress refuses to stay in the interim government, saying that an Untouchable cannot be a Muslim League representative.’
      On 15th October, Wavell sent the five nominations of the League to London for the King’s approval. Pethick-Lawrence replied to him, ‘I truly believe that the royal consent cannot be granted unless you declare these names to Nehru. There is a possibility that Congress will take issue with the nomination of an Untouchable, and withdraw from the government. At this stage, the King should not be dragged into this issue.’”
      In March 1949, Mandal supported the Objective Resolution – the same resolution that today continues to generate political debates in Pakistan where the progressives believe that it has been exploited to transform Jinnah’s ‘secular Pakistan’ into a ‘religious state’.
      He later helped the government counteract the political power of the Hindu minority when he successfully campaigned for a separate electorate for the Untouchables.
      In return he was booted out of office as government minister. It left him dejected. His situation can best be explained by a Sindhi proverb, “Jini laey moasi, sey kandi nah thia” (You have died for them, but they won’t bother to attend your funeral).
      Soon after Pakistan came into being, the manipulative bureaucracy of the country began to position itself to usurp power. Its first target was non-Muslim politicians and officials with any perceptible authority.
      To turf them out of the corridors of power, the bureaucracy underhandedly created doubts about their patriotism.
      It was a warning to the Hindus and other minorities – that their support for the government made no difference, and that they were simply no longer welcome in Pakistan.
      For all the pain he went through, little did Mandal know that soon he will have to leave the land he had chosen to call home.
      When a resolution was tabled in the Constituent Assembly to award the title of ‘Quaid-i-Azam’ or The Great Leader to Jinnah, almost all of the minority members opposed it, but Mandal threw his weight behind the resolution. On Jinnah’s death, he said,
      Fate has ruthlessly taken Quaid-i-Azam from us at a time when he was most needed.
      Not long after Jinnah passed away, Mandal migrated to India. What made him take that step? Ahmed Salim writes in his book:
      Pakistan’s first Law Minister and the leader of the ‘Untouchables’ Jogandra Nath Mandal had been a tried and tested supporter of the government. He was a hero for the oppressed.
      In 1940 after being elected to Calcutta Municipal Corporation, he proved particularly helpful to the Muslim population. He cooperated with the [Bengal] governments of A. K. Fazalul Haq and Khawaja Nazimuddin (1943-45) and served Muslim League (in 1946-47) when Quaid-i-Azam had to nominate five ministers for the interim government. Quaid-i-Azam wanted to nominate Mandal from Muslim League. By accepting Quaid-i-Azam’s offer, Mandal countered a similar move by Congress, which had nominated Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.
      After the 3rd June 1947 announcement, Sylhet District was to vote in a plebiscite to join either Pakistan or remain in Assam [the state that was to become part of India]. The Hindus and the Muslims of the district equalled each other in terms of population. However, there were a large number of Untouchables, whose vote could sway the poll to either side.
      Following the instructions from Quaid-i-Azam, Mr Mandal arrived in Sylhet to influence the opinion of the Untouchables; when he departed from Sylhet it had voted to join Pakistan.”
      After the Partition, the bureaucrats in Pakistan had started making inroads into politics. Those who questioned their policies, irrespective of religious or social background, were not tolerated. Thus began a campaign to undermine every righteous individual in politics.
      Mandal, too, fell prey to such ploys. Pir Ali Mohammed Rashidi states in his book Rodaad-i-Chaman (A Garden’s Tale):
      Late Chaudhry Mohammad Ali had spent a major portion of his life in the service of the British Raj when he arrived in Pakistan from Delhi. As Secretary-General of the Cabinet Secretariat, he quickly garnered fame as the ‘architect’ and leader of the Pakistani bureaucracy. He was still a cabinet secretary – even though in the years to come he was to be appointed Finance Secretary, Finance Minister, and Prime Minster – when one day it dawned on him that Mandal was not a genuine patriot. Such a deduction implied that Chaudhry Sahib had eyes more trained than that of Jinnah to evaluate a person’s character and faithfulness.
      Consequently, he tried to keep many cabinet documents away from the Law Minister. It was too much for Mandal. His pride was hurt. Hitherto, he had lived as a self reliant man, who knew his self-worth. Before becoming a minister, he had offered huge sacrifices and as a Hindu, swum against the tide to support our Quaid in the Pakistan Movement.
      How could he possibly pocket the insult from a cabinet secretary, who had taken it upon himself to judge a Hindu minister for his political character and loyalty to his country? Mandal quit as minister and went back to Calcutta to spend the rest of his life being taunted by Hindus.
      Mandal’s support for Muslim League, his sacrifices for Pakistan, and his love for Muslims cannot be discredited. His ill-treatment at the hands of a bureaucrat is a dark chapter in our history.
      In Pakistan, there still exist many Jogendras who have exhausted their energies in vain to prove that they are as patriotic as everyone else.
      Do we need another Jinnah to take cognisance of the services rendered by our minorities?

      The article was first published in November, 2015.
    • Kathina, said to be born from a sacrificial flameHodgson, p. 131 Essays on the language, literature, and religion of Nepal and Tibet
    •  Khushi Ram, Social worker in the Kumaun Region of Uttarakhand State
    • Karta Ram Maharaj, Rajasthani, meghawals (leather-weavers) the guru of members of his caste
    • Konkanapada (or Konkalipa) P. 27 Tamil Siddhas: a study from historical, socio-cultural, and... Shuddhananda A. Sarma , from Magadha
      • Sh.K S Badalia: B.Com, LLB (Delhi University.), 
      • Born on 15-02-1953 at Vill. Karola-District- Gurgaon (Haryana); General Manager Prathama Bank, AGM-Syndicate Bank, Great Fighter & Most popular SC&ST Employees Leader, Won a historical Supreme Court Judgment dated 10-08-1990 wherein reservation in promotions up to Highest level was upheld. Got recognition to SC&ST Employees Associations, Got properly & aggressively implemented reservations in direct recruitments and promotions in Banks & 0ther Departments/PSUs.
     Kanshi Ram, founder of Bahujan Samaj Party

    ये है बनारस का ‘डोमराज’ घराना, चिता की 

    लकड़ियों पर बनती है इनकी रसोई

    Image result for कलुआ डोम

    बनारस। चिता की लकड़ी पर सेंकी जाती हैं रोटियां, 350 परिवार के 5 हज़ार से अधिक सदस्‍य खातें हैं इस राजा के घर खाना। चौंक गये ना आप, भले ही ये बातें पढ़कर आपको अटपटी लगें, लेकिन यह सच्चाई है काशी के एक दूसरे राजा कहे जाने वाले ‘डोमराजा’ परिवार की।

     Image result for कलुआ डोम

    चिता की लकड़ियों पर खाना

    हम बात कर रहे हैं काशी के मणिकर्णिका घाट पर सदियों से राज करने वाले डोमराजा के परिवार की। काशी के ‘डोमराज’ परिवार में हजारों साल से चिता की लकड़ियों पर ही खाना पकाने और खाने की परंपरा रही है। न कोई शानो-शौकत और ना ही कोई राजपाट। मगर इस राजा के घर में आखिर क्यों बननी हैं चिता की लकड़ियों पर रसोई। टीम livevns ने मणिकर्णिका घाट जाकर खुद ‘डोमराज’ परिवार से बात की।

    तीनों वक्‍त के लिए चिता ही सहारा

    काशी में मोक्ष की प्राप्ति के लिए लोग मणिकर्णिका महाश्मशान पर आते हैं। कहते हैं यह विश्‍व का अकेला श्‍मशान घाट है जहां चिता की आग अनादिकाल से आज तक नहीं बुझी है। इसी चिता की लकड़ियों से काशी के महाश्मशान के मालिक डोमराज घराने के सदस्य सदियों से खाना पकाते आ रहे हैं।

    मौजूदा डोम राज जगदीश चौधरी ने बताया कि हमारा 5000 लोगों का बड़ा परिवार है। सभी घर में तीनों टाइम चूल्हे की आग के लिए जलती हुई चिताओं से जलती हुई लकड़ियां जाती हैं। उसी पर हम खाना बनाते हैं और खातें हैं। भगवान् की कृपा से हमारे घर में सभी निरोग हैं।

    कैसे बने महाश्मशान के डोम

    मणिकर्णिका मह्श्मशान पर राजा का अस्तित्व कहां से आया यह जानने के लिए हमने वहां मौजूद लोगों से इस बारे में जाना। इस वक़्त के मौजूदा डोमराज जगदीश चौधरी ने बताया कि अनादिकाल में जब काशी का नाम आनन्दवन हुआ करता था उस समय भगवान् शंकर माता पार्वती के साथ यहां भ्रमण के लिए आये थे और मणिकर्णिका घाट पर स्थित कुंड को उन्होंने अपनी जटाओं से भरा था। जिसके बाद माता पार्वती ने इसमें स्नान किया था।

    स्नान के समय माता पार्वती का कुंडल इसमें गिर गया था। जिसे हमारे पूर्वज कल्लू महराज ने उठा लिया था।
     भगवान् शंकर के क्रोधित होने के बावजूद कल्‍लू ने कुंडल के बारे में नहीं बताया तो उन्होंने उसे और उसकी आने वाली सम्पूर्ण नस्लों को चंडाल होने का श्राप दिया। तब से हम शमशान वासी हो गये और हमारे ही हाथों से चिताओं को अग्नि मिलती रही। यह बातें काशी के इतिहास और पुराणों में भी इंगित है।

    और ऐसे बन गये ‘डोमराजा’

    काशी हिन्दू विश्वद्यालय के इतिहास विभाग के सहायक प्रोफेसर डॉ राजीव कुमार श्रीवास्तव के अनुसार पुरानी मान्‍यता है कि सतयुग में भारत के प्रतापी चक्रवर्ती सम्राट सत्‍यवादी महाराजा हरिश्चंद्र को विपत्‍ति के समय डोम परिवार के पहले वंशज कल्‍लू डोम ने खरीद लिया था। जिसके बाद एक महाराज को खरीदने के कारण कल्‍लू डोम को भी महाराज की उपाधी दी गई। इसके बाद से ही उनके वंशजों को ‘डोमराज’ घराना कहा जाने लगा।

    बकौल प्रोफेसर श्रीवास्तव, ”राजा हरिशचंद्र ने कल्लू डोम के यहां नौकरी की थी।

    जिसके यहां स्वयं राजा ने नौकरी की हो तो उसकी उपाधि खुद ब खुद महाराजा की हो जाती है। राजा हरिश्चंद्र जब सत्ता दान कर राजनितिक करण की वजह से नौकरी के लिए भटक रहे थे उस वक्त काशी में उनकी मुलाकात कल्लू डोम से हुई। तब कल्लू डोम ने अपने यहां राजा हरिश्चंद्र को नौकरी पर रखा। तब से कल्लू डोम के परिवार को उस समय के राजा की उपाधि मिल गई जो आज तक चली आ रही हैं।

    काशी में हैं दो-दो राजा

    तब से लेकर काशी में दो राजा हुए एक तो काशीनरेश जो राज्य की राजनीति देखते थे। वहीं दूसरे थे डोमराजा जिनके अधीन महाश्मशान है। मान्यता यह है कि राजा तो आपको राजनीती करण से मुक्ति दे सकता है लेकिन महाशमशान आपको प्रत्येक व्यसन से मुक्ति प्रदान करता हैं। पहले के समय में जितनी भी राज परिवार थे सब में बदलाव आया लेकिन सिर्फ एक कल्लू डोम का राज परिवार ऐसा हैं जो अभी तक वैसे ही कायम है, जिसने सदियों से लेकर आज तक अपनी परंपरा का त्‍याग नहीं किया। आज भी डोम राजा के परिवार की महिलाएं घरों से बिना घूंघट के बाहर नहीं निकलती हैं।

    Dom Raja: untold story of the untouchable

     keeper of Varanasi's sacred flame

    Sanjay Austa     

    Sanjit the Yamraj of Varanasi.
    Rising from the shores of the Ganga, a long and narrow, almost vertical pan-stained stone steps take you up to the residence of the most famous undertaker  this side of the Atlantic.  He is the lord of Varanasi’s famed cremation ghats. His name is Sanjit but he is known by his honorific Dom Raja.

    You are prepared to meet a billionaire because legends, (perpetuated mostly by journalists) have it that Dom Rajas make it big burning the dead and have luxury villas and cars across India. But at the head of the steps you stare only at a large hovel.

    Deep in its bowels sits a short swarthy man presiding over half a dozen children, all idling shirtless in the morning sun. The man is almost half burnt. His bare chest is charred white and his left hand burnt so badly that it’s twisted upon itself at the wrist. “I am looking for Dom Raja,” I falter. “I am he,” he says blankly, wiping the sweat from his forehead with his crippled hand.

    Dom Raja in his ‘Palace’, Varanasi
    What a sad paradox you think, for a man in charge of burning the dead to roast himself alive like that at the job.

    “Oh this,” he says, reading your thoughts and pointing to his chest and hand. “This is because of a cylinder blast at a wedding  six years ago.” There in the sun with his scars and with no vestiges of his rumored riches, he looks decrepit and pitiful.

    It’s a big climb-down from the days of Kallu; his ancestor and the first Dom Raja who, according to Indian mythology, had kept the vow-abiding King Harishchandra as an apprentice.

    Sanjit may not have inherited Kallu’s pelf but he has inherited his indelible cast mark. The undertakers are lowest in India’s pecking order. They are untouchables to be kept at a safe distance.

    In the bazaar if I have to drink water I cannot touch the glass. They pour it down to me. The locals don’t allow me in their homes nor come to my place,” he says. To top it all, he is not allowed into the holy temples in,
    he says. To top it all, he is not allowed into the holy temples in Varanasi, including the most sacred Vishwanath temple.

    The Doms pray to Kallu Dom before starting work every day, Varanasi.

    Ironically, however, the Dom Rajas are keepers of the sacred flame revered by all Hindus. No matchstick is used at the ghats. Everyone must use the sacred fire that has been burning for centuries in Dom Raja’s hearth. The fire and the burning at Varanasi’s ghats, as the Hindu belief goes, liberates one from the everlasting cycle of life and death.
    Dom Raja is the leader of a two-tier hierarchy of Doms -- all of whom are given duties as per the roster.  The Dom Raja not only presides over any disputes at the ghats but he gets the maximum number of duties.
    It’s not an easy job, Sanjit reminds you.  The stench of bodies, some having been kept in mortuaries for days and opened up for postmortems, is unbearable.  To drown out the putrid odour, Sanjit drinks copious amounts of local whisky. He claims to drink over eight bottles (each 250mls) every day. He says,
    I’ve already had two since the morning. All Doms need to drink. The job is such. There is so much smell. What to do?
    The two burning ghats at Varanasi, the Raja Harishchandra  Ghat and the holier Manikarnika Ghat swarm with Doms. They begin their funeral duties by offering a prayer to Kallu Dom. The Doms build up the funeral pyre methodically. To make sure the body keeps burning, they poke it with long poles from time to time.
    The poor cannot afford to buy enough wood and their dead often remain half burnt. But nothing goes to waste at the ghats. The feral dogs exhume the leftovers.

    Cremations at Manakarnika Ghats, Varanasi

    The ashes are cast unceremoniously into the Ganges where another set of Doms neck-deep in the charcoal black water sift for any  valuables that can’t be taken off the dead -- like gold teeth or firmly embossed rings.
    Sanjit is a far cry from the days when Doms held complete sway of the ghats. Some years ago, there were protests against the Doms who were accused of extortion. As a result, the Doms today can only charge for the sacred fire and cannot pester the pilgrims for extra donations.
    Sanjit reminisces about the days when his brother, the then Dom Raja Rajit, held complete authority in the cremation grounds. He leads you inside a room where arranged against the walls are crude body building equipments. The Doms were known for their physical prowess and every Naag Panchami (snake worship festival) they make a public show of it, lifting impossibly heavy stone wheels and doing various acrobatics.
    “We get strength from Lord Hanuman,” he says. But suddenly conscious of his fragile half-burnt frame he says, “I could lift these weights before this happened.”
    Sanjit has no children so he is training his five-year-old nephew to become the next Dom. Lifting and swinging heavy weights is where the training begins. For now, the tiny Dom-in-waiting goes to school like every other child in Varanasi.

    Five year old Dom-in-waiting, Varanasi
    The ashes being sifted for any valuables in the Ganga, Varanasi
    Sanjay Austa is a Journalist and photographer who divides his time between New Delhi and Himachal. For most of the year he is on the road traveling and writing about people, art and culture and places.

    Lahori Ram Bali

    Republican Party Of India, Publisher of B. R. Ambedkar’s Books and Editor In Chief Bheem Patrika, Jalandhar

    Loknayak Chaudhary Bhala Ram Mathur-

    Ex M.L.A(HARYANA) &Famous Social Worker,Termed as ,”LOKNAYAK”
     Sardar Lakhbir Singh First Sikh Mayor Of Luton


    Madurai Veeran

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Jump to navigation Jump to search
    Madurai Veeran
    Protection and Justice
    Statue of Madurai Veeran at the Sri Maha Muneeswarar Temple, Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur
    Affiliation Born to one of army man origin
    Weapon Sword / Aruvaal
    Mount White Horse
    Region Madurai, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, the Caribbean, Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, Srilanka
    Consort Bommi and Vellaiyammal
    Madurai Veeran (Tamil: மதுரை வீரன், lit. 'Warrior of Madurai', also known as Veeran) is a Tamil folk deity popular in southern Tamil Nadu, India. His name was derived as a result of his association with the city of Madurai as a protector of the city. His worship is also popular amongst the Tamil diaspora.


    The folklore is that Madurai was troubled by bandits and the pandyan king ordered Veeran to resist. Veeran then met Vellaiyammal, a royal danseuse, who was attracted to him because of his looks and skill in various arts. She asked him to teach her the Natya Shastra (tenets of dancing).
    Pandya king, who was himself attracted to Vellaiyammal, did not appreciate this development and viewed this as an affair. Some of his generals, who hated the closeness of Veeran to the king, used the opportunity to inform pandyan king that the delay in suppressing the robbers was deliberate as Veeran was conniving with the robbers themselves. Furious, pandyan king ordered a traitor's death for Veeran, who was taken to the gallows and had his limbs chopped off. Hearing of this, Bommi and Vellaiyammal attend the gallows to see the severed limbs and chastise pandyan king for his injustice.
    The legend says that Veeran is brought back to life by the virtues of both these women and is vindicated by the presence of gods. Veeran, thereafter retires to a cave beneath what is now Meenakshiamman Temple.
    A shrine was later erected at the south gate of Meenakshiamman Temple by Pandyan king. The story persists through the singing of songs and street theatre.
    • Marampudi Joji

      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
      His Excellency
      Marampudi Joji
      Archbishop of Hyderabad
      Church Christian
      See Roman Catholic Church
      In office 30 April 2000 – 27 August 2010
      Predecessor S. Arulappa
      Successor Thumma Bala
      Ordination 14 December 1971
      Consecration 30 April 2000
      Personal details
      Born 7 October 1942
      Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh
      Died 27 August 2010 (aged 67)
      Bishop's House, Hyderabad
      Previous post Bishop of Vijayawada  
      Marampudi Joji (7 October 1942 – 27 August 2010) was the third Archbishop of Hyderabad. He was born in Bhimavaram and died at the Bishop's House, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. Latin, Telugu, and English were the languages known to the Archbishop.

      Early years & education

      Joji was educated at the Lutheran Boarding School in Peddapuram near Samalkot which is managed by the Priests of the Andhra Evangelical Lutheran Church (AELC).

      Ordination & Pastorship

      Joji was ordained as a priest on 14 December 1971 in the diocese of Vijayawada. Joji was privileged to have received Blessed Mother Teresa when she went to Vijayawada to initiate the work of the Missionaries of Charity.


      Diocese of Khammam

      On 21 December 1991, he was appointed as the Bishop of Khammam and consecrated on 19 March 1992. He served until 8 November 1996 when he was transferred to the Diocese of Vijayawada.

      Diocese of Vijayawada

      Bishop Joji became the Bishop of Vijayawada on 8 November 1996. However, he took charge of the diocese only on 19 January 1997.

      Archbishop of Hyderabad

      On 29 January 2000, he was appointed as the Archbishop of Hyderabad. He was installed by Archbishop Giorgio Zur in the presence of his predecessor Archbishop S. Arulappa and of Bishop Joseph S. Thumma on 30 April 2000.
      Joji inaugurated the Hyderabad session of the scholarly Church History Association of India incorporating Church Historians of the Pentecostal, Protestant, Orthodox, and Catholic traditions.
      Archbishop Joji was known for his able administration. He seemed to have headed the Diocese of Vijayawada's Social Service Society before being elevated to the Bishopric of Khammam.
    • Shri Mahendra Nile, Political Leader, SC/ST Educationalist, Chairman of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Memorial College of Law, Dhule and Schools for the Depressed Class
    • Mahila, Kalyapala (liquor-seller) P. 37 The Ṣaṭsāhasra saṃhitā: chapters 1-5 By J. A. Schoterman from Kundapura in Orissa
        Dr. Mahendra Chandra Patni, a dalit leader and prominent scientist who has got the gold medal in LMP (the then MBBS) in 1923-24 batch from Berry-White School of Medicine, Dibrugarh, Assam, British India.               
      M.E.Loganathan, Municipal Commissioner, Government of Tamil Nadu.
      Mata Prasad-former chief secretary UP, former chairman UPSC, awarded padma shri in 2012
    • Dr.M.Velusamy   Dr.M.Velusamy (1973) is well known Social Science Scholar from Tamil Nadu. First Dalit Scholar Who has awarded his PhD at Madras Institute of Development Studies (MIDS), Chennai. His thesis entitled on Indian Constitution and Dalit Welfare : A Study of Tamil Nadu, 1950-2005. Published books on topic related to Dalits Periyar Dravidian Politics in Tamil Nadu.
       Namdeo Dhasal-famous poet, awarded padma shri in 1999

       Prof. Nibaran Chandra Laskar, MP, Indian Parliament, was a dalit leader in Bengal and Assam.

      • Sri Nisargadatta
      • Sri Nisargadatta was born on April 17, 1897, at break of dawn, the full moon in the month of Chaitra, to a devout Hindu couple Shivrampant Kambli and Parvatibai, in Bombay. The day was also the birthday of Lord Hanuman, hence the boy was named 'Maruti', after Lord Hanuman himself.Maruti Shivrampant Kambli was brought up in Kandalgaon, a small village in the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra, where he grew up amidst his family of six siblings, two brothers and four sisters, and deeply religious parents.His father, Shivrampant, worked as a domestic servant in Mumbai and later became a petty farmer in Kandalgaon.
        In 1915, after his father died, he moved to Bombay to support his family back home, following his elder brother. Initially he worked as a junior clerk at an office but quickly he opened a small goods store, mainly selling bidis – leaf-rolled cigarettes, and soon owned a string of eight retail shops.
        In 1924 he married Sumatibai and they had three daughters and a son.


        In 1933, he was introduced to his guru, Sri Siddharameshwar Maharaj, the head of the Inchegiri branch of the Navnath Sampradaya, by his friend Yashwantrao Baagkar. His guru told him, "You are not what you take yourself to be...".He then gave Nisargadatta simple instructions which he followed verbatim, as he himself recounted later:
        "My Guru ordered me to attend to the sense 'I am' and to give attention to nothing else. I just obeyed. I did not follow any particular course of breathing, or meditation, or study of scriptures. Whatever happened, I would turn away my attention from it and remain with the sense 'I am'. It may look too simple, even crude. My only reason for doing it was that my Guru told me so. Yet it worked!" 
        Following his guru's instructions to concentrate on the feeling "I Am", he utilized all his spare time looking at himself in silence, and remained in that state for the coming years, practising meditation and singing devotional bhajans.
        After an association that lasted hardly two and a half years, Sri Siddharameshwar Maharaj died on November 9, 1936, though by that time he had done his task. Maruti had reached self-awareness. Soon he adopted a new name, "Nisargadatta" meaning "naturally given" ("nis-arga" literally means "without parts," suggesting establishment in the unfragmented, seamless, solid Awareness He was also appointed as the spiritual head of the Inchegeri branch of Navnath Sampradaya, the 'Nine Masters’ tradition, a place he retained through his life.
        In 1937, he left Mumbai and travelled across India.Through realising the shortcomings of a totally unworldly life and the greater spiritual fruitfulness of dispassionate action, he eventually returned to his family in Mumbai in 1938. It was there that he spent the rest of his life.

         Later years

        Between 1942-1948 he suffered two personal losses, first the death of his wife, Sumatibai, followed by the death of his daughter. He started taking disciples in 1951, only after a personal revelation from his guru, Sri Siddharameshwar Maharaj After he retired from his shop in 1966, Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj continued to receive and teach visitors in his home, giving discourses twice a day, until his death on September 8, 1981 at the age of 84, of throat cancer 

       Style of Teaching
      • According to Sri Nisargadatta the purpose of spirituality is to know who you are, a viewpoint he expounded in the talks he gave at his humble flat in Khetwadi, Mumbai, where a mezzanine room was created for him to receive disciples and visitors. This room was also used for daily chantings, bhajans (devotional songs), meditation sessions, and discourses.
        He talked about the 'direct way' of knowing the Final Reality, in which one becomes aware of one's original nature through mental discrimination, a method which is common to the teachers of the Navnath Sampradaya. This mental discrimination or the Bird's way ('Vihangam Marg') was also presented by Nisargadatta's co-disciple, Sri Ranjit Maharaj; wherein Self-Knowledge is gained just as a bird flying in the sky goes easily from branch to branch, instead of slowly crawling its way up the tree like an ant, as in the 'Pipilika Marg'. Here the disciple reaches straight to truth, without wasting time in long drawn out practices that would take him to the 'fruit' no doubt, only slowly. He proposed to use one's mental faculty to break from the unreal to the real, and the mind's false identification with the ego, simply by listening to and constantly thinking over what the master has said, and knowing that "You are already That".
        The common teaching style of teaching of the Inchgiri Sampradaya masters (beginning with Shri Bhauseheb Maharaj) to Indian devotees was for the Master to select a passage from a traditional text on Advaita Vedanta, most commonly Dasbodh of Saint Shri Samarth Ramdas (as well as the "Yoga Vasishtha", "Saachara" of Shri Shankaracharya, and the "Ecknati Bhagwat" of Saint Ecknath), and to expound upon the meaning and import of that selected passage. Nisargadatta Maharaj and Ranjit Maharaj both deviated from this formal format by giving informal discourses for the benefit of western devotees who did not have access to Dasbodh or the other texts, and who were not familiar with Indian traditions and customs.
        Many of Nisargadatta Maharaj's talks were recorded, and these recordings form the basis of I Am That and all of his other books. His words are free from cultural and religious trappings, and the knowledge he expounds is stripped bare of all that is unnecessary.
        Summed up in the words of Advaita scholar and a disciple, Dr. Robert Powell, "Like the Zen masters of old, Nisargadatta's style is abrupt, provocative, and immensely profound -- cutting to the core and wasting little effort on inessentials. His terse but potent sayings are known for their ability to trigger shifts in consciousness, just by hearing, or even reading them."


        A copy of Nisargadatta's "I Am That" in Hindi.
        Sri Nisargadatta's teachings are grounded in the Advaita Vedanta interpretation of the Advaita idea Tat Tvam Asi, literally "That Thou Art", (Tat = "Divinity", Tvam = "You", Asi = "are") meaning You are (actually) Divinity (who thinks otherwise). He also had a strong devotional zeal towards his own guru, and suggested the path of devotion, Bhakti yoga, to some of his visitors, as he believed the path of knowledge, Jnana yoga was not for everyone.
        According to Sri Nisargadatta, our true nature is perpetually free peaceful awareness, in Hinduism referred to as Brahman. Awareness is the source of, but different from, the personal, individual consciousness, which is related to the body. The mind and memory are responsible for association with a particular body; awareness exists prior to both mind and memory. It is only the idea that we are the body that keeps us from living what he calls our "original essence", the True Self, in Hinduism referred to as Atman.
        He describes this essence as pure, free, and unaffected by anything that occurs. He likens it to a silent witness that watches through the body's senses, yet is not moved, either to happiness or sadness, based on what it sees.
        For Nisargadatta, the Self is not one super-entity which knows independently, regardless of things; there is no such super-entity, no Creator with infinite intellect. God does not exist independently from creation. What does exist is the "total acting" (or functioning) of the Ultimate or Absolute Reality along the infinite varying forms in manifestation. This Absolute Reality is identical to the Self.
        Nisargadatta's teachings also focus on our notion of causality as being misinterpreted. He understood that the interconnectedness of varying forces in the universe is so vast and innumerable that the notion of causality, as presently understood, is wasted. The endless factors required for anything to happen means that, at most, one can say everything creates everything; even the choices we make are predetermined by our genetic code, upbringing, mental strivings and limitations, our ethical and philosophical ideals, etc., all of which are uniquely combined to each person and recontextualized accordingly.
        This leads to the radical notion that there is no such thing as a "doer". According to him and other teachers of Vedanta, since our true nature or identity is not the mind, is not the body, but the witness of the mind and body, we, as pure awareness, do nothing. The mind and body act of their own accord, and we are the witness of them, though the mind often believes it is the doer. This false idea (that the mind is the self and responsible for actions) is what keeps us from recognizing our Self. Nisargadatta cautions:
        '"The life force [prana] and the mind are operating [of their own accord], but the mind will tempt you to believe that it is "you". Therefore understand always that you are the timeless spaceless witness. And even if the mind tells you that you are the one who is acting, don't believe the mind. [...] The apparatus [mind, body] which is functioning has come upon your original essence, but you are not that apparatus." - The Ultimate Medicine, (pp.54 - 70)
        Among his most known disciples are Sailor Bob Adamson, Stephen Wolinsky, Jean Dunn, Alexander Smit, Robert Powell, Timothy Conway, and Ramesh Balsekar.

         Quotes of Nisargadatta Maharaj

        • "All you can teach is understanding. The rest comes on its own.".
        • "Truth is not a reward for good behaviour, nor a prize for passing some tests. It cannot be brought about. It is the primary, the unborn, the ancient source of all that is. You are eligible because you are. You need not merit truth. It is your own. Just stop running away by running after. Stand still, be quiet. - Interview with Sri Nisargdatta Maharaj

        • "There is only life, there is nobody who lives a life." - I Am That pp. 43"My advice to you is very simple – just remember yourself, ‘I am’, it is enough to heal your mind and take you beyond, just have some trust. I don’t mislead you. Why should I? Do I want anything from you? I wish you well – such is my nature. Why should I mislead you? Common sense too will tell you that to fulfill a desire you must keep your mind on it. If you want to know your true nature, you must have yourself in mind all the time, until the secret of your being stands revealed." - I Am That
        • "A quiet mind is all you need. All else will happen rightly, once your mind is quiet. As the sun on rising makes the world active, so does self-awareness effect changes in the mind. In the light of calm and steady self-awareness inner energies wake up and work miracles without effort on your part."
        • "There is nothing to practice. To know yourself, be yourself. To be yourself, stop imagining yourself to be this or that. Just be. Let your true nature emerge. Don't disturb your mind with seeking."
        • "When I see I am nothing, that is wisdom. When I see I am everything, that is love. My life is a movement between these two."
        • "The search for Reality is the most dangerous of all undertakings, for it destroys the world in which you live."

        • Nandanar

        • Nandanar (Tamilநந்தனார் or திருநாளைப் போவார் நாயனார்Thirunalai Povar Nayanar) was a Nayanar saint born in South India who became a great devotee of Lord Shiva.
          Nandanar was born in a village called Adhanur(ஆதனூர்)in a poor family. He was born at the cruel time where untouchability was being practised, as he belonged to Paraiyar community, which was considered as an untouchable Avarna. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar devoted his book 'THE UNTOUCHABLES WHO WERE THEY AND WHY THEY BECAME UNTOUCHABLES?' to saint Nandanar.A Tamil movie by the name Nandanar depicting the story of saint Nandanar was directed by Ellis Dungan.


          He worked as a Naatamaikar (நாட்டாமை) under a Brahmin who owned around 240 acres (0.97 km2) of land (40 வேலி நிலம்). He had the love of the Brahmin who believed that Nandanar had a midas touch and that he is very loyal and sincere in his duty. But nothing was explicitly shown by the landlord towards the poor Nandan who served him devotedly.
          Though Nandanar's deity was Karuppanasami, the protector lord of villages, he was a great devotee of Lord Shiva. He visits the Thirupangur Shiva Temple where the Nandi (bull) hides the Lord from His vision. Untouchability and caste-curse being very dominant at that time, the poor Nandanar could not enter the temple to have darshan. But without losing hope, Nandanar prays and the Nandi moves aside, letting Him have the darshan of the Lord. He sings the glory of the Great God (Mahadeva) and returns, only to lose his job since the Brahmin was told that Nandan went to the temple ignoring the work that was pending.
          While on His way back, He hears that the Lord who dwells also in Chidambaram must be seen at least once in a lifetime. Thus, the desire to visit Chidambaram grew in Nandanar to a great extent that he started pestering the Brahmin to grant him permission to visit Chidambaram at least once. Nandanar is named Thiru Naalai Povar (திரு நாளைப் போவார்) since he tells everyone that he will be going to Chidambaram tomorrow (naalai).
          The Brahmin refuses to grant him permission and also ridicules Him of His desire to see the Lord of Chidambaram in spite of being born in a so called low-caste. But upon Nandanar's constant requests, he agrees but in one condition. It is that Nandanar can visit Chidambaram after all the 240 acres (0.97 km2) of land is cultivated and harvested.
          Nandanar knew that it is a task next to impossibility. He cried to Lord Shiva in despair and Lord Shiva orders his Ganas to do all the work in a single night. The Brahmin gets astonished with the devotion of Nandanar, falls down in His feet and requests him to pardon him for his ignorance. Nandanar happily sets forth to Chidambaram and there too, he faces the same problem of being a low-caste born. He sits there in the entrance of the city, filled with anguish to see the Lord.
          Lord Shiva appears in the dream of the 3000 saints of Thillai and instructs them to receive Nandanar with due respect.

        • Pandaram, composed of Kallars, Pillai, Udyars, Vellalars, and other Shudra castes that act as temple priests and sanyasis, usually worshipers of Shiva and Vishnu, also referred to as Satani P. 184, A manual of the Nellore District in the Presidency of Madras, Volume 4 edited by John Alexander Corrie Boswell

        • Poshm-Wanloo
        • Pambatti was the guru of Brahmin Sri Paramahaṅsa,

        • Saint Potuluri Swami

          • Ravulo, a title for Kurumo temple priests in Ganjam (Orissa) who work together with Shudra temple-servants Malis (flower providers) and Munis P. 247, Castes and tribes of Southern India, Volume 1, by Edgar Thurston, K. Rangachari :in temples were Brahmins are priests, the Ravulo officiates as a temple servant (e.g., ceremonies of blowing the conch)
            Ram Lakha Former Mayor of Coventry

          • Rajak Var-Pradanam, Chanda (washerman), first disciple of Shripad Shri Vallabha avatar
          • Ramananda Raya  Guru for Oriya King Prataparudradeva

            Late Shri Ram Ratan Ram— Member of Parliament (1984–1989)

          Sena Nhavi was the guru of the Raja of Bandhogarh  

        • Sajan Kasai, butcher 
          • Sankardeva P. 172, Hindu culture and caste system in India, by Sunder Lal Sagar , from Assam, Vaishnava devotee of Krishna

          • Sehila, from Kashmir P. 37 
          • The Ṣaṭsāhasra saṃhitā: chapters 1-5 By J. A. Schoterman , a devotee of Shiva

          • Shaeed Baba Sangat Singh Ji 
          • -Martyr in the battle of  chamakaur sahib 

          • Dr.Suraj Bhan Banswal 01-10-1928- 06-08-2006, MA,LLB; former Revenue Minister-Haryana, Union Agriculture Minister, Dy Speaker Lok Sabha, Governor of UP & HP, Chairman- National Commission for SCs, Vice President/General Secretary-BJP.

          Thirukachi Nambi
          1. Ramanujar gave some acharier . That acharier one was Thirukachi Nambi . And Alavandar's secret junior was Thirukachi Nambi.

            Thirukachi Nambi was born on sowmya year and tamil month was masi, star was mrigashirsham. Gajaendradhasar was another name of Thirukachi Nambi. He born on pooviurnthvalli. His parents name was vaishyakulathle veeraraga and kamalai. Thirukachi Nambi grace from Thirumizhawalar, so Nambi's father gave nickname for him. That nickname was Pererulalerdhasar. He called by some names are Thirukachi, Kanchimuni, Kanchipoornar. He serviced to Kanchivaradharaja perumal. Nambi got six words from Devaperumal and gave to Sri Ramanujar. Nambi create a eight sloks in name of Devaraja astagam dhuthi and give to people.
        •    Thol. Thirumavalavan, Member of Parliament, The founder president of Viduthalai Chiruthaikal Katchi, Tamil Nadu
        • Tantipa, weaver P. 65 Tattvabodha: essays from the lecture series of the National mission for manuscripts, Volume 3 by Kalyan Kumar Chakravarty, National Mission for Manuscripts (India) from Sravasti, 1 of 84 Natha Mahasiddha devotees of Shiva
        • Thachudaya Kaimal, a caste of former Shudra temple-priests in Kudalmanikkam who were concecrated to become a Brahmin, and are individually nomiated ruler of Travancore P. 454, Gazetteer of South India By W. Francis

        • Late Ustad Bismillah Khan-shenai maestro, bharatna awardee
        • Vidur P. 153 The Vedāntasūtras of Bādarāyaṇa: with the commentary of Baladeva Bādarāyaṇa, Śrīśa Chandra Vasu, Baladevavidyābhūṣaṇa

        • ·         Shibu Soren, Ex Chief Minister of Jharkhand state in India



          ·         Lala Ram Ken, Member of Parliament (7th and 8th), India


          ·         E. Ponnuswamy, former M.O.S. Petroleum India.

          ·         M.E.Loganathan, Municipal Commissioner, Government of Tamil Nadu.

          ·         Damodar Raja Narasimha - Deputy Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh


          ·         K. S. R. Murthy IAS, Former MP, Lok Sabha


          ·        Ram Lakha Former Mayor of Coventry

          ·         Sardar Lakhbir Singh First Sikh Mayor Of Luton


          ·     Dr. Baldev Singh Sher First Dalit (Ravidasia/Ramdasia Sikh) Medical Graduate from Glasgow in 1910 and son of Giani Ditt Singh Ji



          ·         Late Shri Ram Ratan Ram— Member of Parliament (1984–1989)


          ·         Jwala Prasad Kureel- MP of 6th Lok Sabha, Affiliated to Janata Party serving Ghatampur (UP) Lok Sabha Constituency



          ·         Munshi Hari Prasad Tamta, Dalit Leader from Kumaon


        • ·   


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