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Host Aamir Khan on the 10th episode of 'Satyamev  Jayate' brought out the ugliness of untouchability and casteism still prevalent in an Independent India.

Heart wrenching was the story of Dr Kaushal Pawar who suffered many humiliations as a child simply because she was the 'other', fringing on the borders of society. As a dalit child growing up, Kaushal was constantly made to be aware of the fact that she was different.

In the school that she studied at, dalit children were made to wear blue clothes, a way to distinguish and brand them. But Kaushal triumphed over this injustice, where at one point she even thought of quitting the prestigious JNU institute in Delhi. But with her father's constant support, Kaushal is now a lecturer at Delhi University where she teaches Sanskrit.

Kaushal Panwar

Host Aamir Khan on the 10th episode of 'Satyamev  Jayate' brought out the ugliness of untouchability and casteism still prevalent in an Independent India.
Heart wrenching was the story of Dr Kaushal Pawar who suffered many humiliations as a child simply because she was the 'other', fringing on the borders of society. As a dalit child growing up, Kaushal was constantly made to be aware of the fact that she was different.

In the school that she studied at, dalit children were made to wear blue clothes, a way to distinguish and brand them. But Kaushal triumphed over this injustice, where at one point she even thought of quitting the prestigious JNU institute in Delhi. But with her father's constant support, Kaushal is now a lecturer at Delhi University where she teaches Sanskrit.

Dr Kaushal born and brought up in one of the villages of Haryana, Dr Kaushal Panwar teaches Sanskrit at Delhi University. Her life is one of the most remarkable testimonies of human grit and determination towards achieving one’s goal despite insurmountable odds.Read an interview -
Kindly tell us about your family back ground.
I belong to Balmiki community in Rajour village from district Kaithal (Haryana). My father who died in 2001 was a landless labourer. I have two elder brothers. All my family members worked at jat landlord’s fields. I also used to work in the field along with my family and had also worked as manual labourer in road constructions.
My elder brother could not clear class Xth and joined Punjab police as a sepoy but due to some reasons he left the job. Today he is unemployed. I am the only one from my district Kaithal, from Balmiki community, who has reached to this level. Otherwise our community is still mostly engaged in scavenging and manual labour. 
What has been your educational background?
I studied in my village school and completed my 10+2 from there itself. However for my graduation (B.A.), I had to take admission at college that was 60 Km away from my home. I had to travel daily to be able to attend the classes. Then I joined Kurukshetra University for my Masters and later Rohtak University for M.Phil.
However the turning point came when I got an opportunity to join Sanskrit department at Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi for my PhD. In 2009, I was awarded doctorate for my thesis on ‘Shudras in Dharam Shashtras’. Now I am an Assistant Professor and teach Sanskrit in of the colleges at Delhi University.  
Yours is truly a remarkable journey. What have been your motivations that drove you to excel in studies?  
I must say without any hesitation that my father was my biggest motivator. Second most important was my family background. Poverty, drinking habits of family’s male members, helplessness on caste-discrimination – these were things around which I grew up. I always felt great discomfort and after a point I got fed up and tried to focus solely on my education.
I had seen my father being abused on caste-lines and suffering and yet not able to counter that. In fact, my father’s helplessness motivated me to look critically at our lives and not to accept that as our ‘fate’.
My father played a great role in educating me. Here I would like to share an incident that happened with my father. He had to go somewhere by bus. At bus stand, he was unsure of the bus that was about to ply. He asked someone to confirm if that was the right bus. The person replied very rudely, “Can’t you see what is written on the bus?”
My father was an illiterate and felt humiliated. He said very calmly to him, “Why would I have to ask you if I was literate?” But then my father decided that he would educate all his children at whatever cost so that they don’t have to face any such humiliations. My father never allowed me to do household work. My mother was also very cooperative but remained worried about my fate after my marriage (laughs).
People would say so many things like why I was not marrying etc. But I never bothered. I never looked back. Whatever I could do I did for my education.
All along my studies I had to work to earn for my studies as well as for our family. You might not believe that during my graduation days I used to work as one of the labourers for constructing road that passed from the college where I was a student (smiles).
My father expired while I was doing my Masters and he never allowed anyone to inform me about his sickness. He was not even aware of what is PhD but always told me to achieve the highest possible degree and made me to promise about not leaving education under any circumstances. No one can ever fill the vacuum that I felt after his death.
Why did you choose Sanskrit as a subject?
This is because of a promise that I made to myself when I was a child. After completing VIth Std, I opted Sanskrit as one of my subject. But when I went for the first Sanskrit class the teacher refused to teach me and told me to go and pick garbage for living instead of learning Sanskrit.
When I persisted, he slapped me and sent me to sit at the last row. I cried and went back but somewhere I got the determination that day that I would study Sanskrit and reach at the top. I sincerely want to thank that teacher now as because his casteism and sexism became my motivation.
For most of the Dalit and Adivasi students getting admission in premier educational institutions is a dream. You did your PhD from JNU. How did you reach here?
After completing my Mphil from Rohtak University I wanted to do PhD from there itself and decided to work on the topic ‘Shudras in Vedas’. However the faculties there forced me to change my topic and make it ‘Shudras in Literature’. I agreed reluctantly but just on the last date of registration, I was refused admission.
Later I came to know that my seat was given to a Brahmin woman who also taught in the same department. I felt completely betrayed by my own teachers. I could not do anything and came back home.
In my university days I was very active and used to participate in lots of meetings and seminars. In one such meetings that was organised on ‘the socio-economic condition of Dalits’ in Kaithal, I got the opportunity to meet two faculty members from JNU namely Dr Malakar and Dr. Phool Badan who came as speakers there.
During the interaction I told them about how I was denied PhD seat at Rohtak University. Both of them advised me to join JNU for my PhD. But I was very unsure. I never thought that I could ever get to JNU. However both of them motivated me and gave confidence.
Dr Phool Badan even helped me to fill the admission form. Without them, I could not even have thought of JNU leave alone applying. My example shows how important it is for our students to have Dalit faculties in the campuses.
Now since you are settled how do you want to contribute more towards the empowerment of our community?
I am not able to contribute as much as I should but still I am trying my level best. Right now I am into writing and working on promoting Dalit literature among people so that they get to read it and get inspired to fight against caste exploitation. I am part of the group that organises small meetings, street theatre, seminars and tries to mobilise youth and students on the issue of caste in Haryana.
Like on 12th April we celebrated Jotiba Phule’s birthday by enacting a play on Guru Ravidas where we clearly showed that he was not merely a religious person but was a great revolutionary from our community. I am also aware of my responsibility being a teacher and we run a placement cell for our students.    
What are your policy recommendations for higher authorities for the welfare of Dalit and Adivasi students?
Some policies are already there. But the problem is their faulty implementation. We can achieve so much if we are able to force the authorities to implement these in spirit. So I feel our students themselves have to reach to political arena where policies are framed and are implemented. There is definitely need of many more policies to promote Dalit and Adivasi girls’ education. Their representation in higher education is almost nil.
Many of our students who come from very humble background are sometimes not able to cope up with the campus environment. One of the major factors is the identity crisis. What you have to say on this?
I must say if there was any identity crisis with me I could never have reached to this level. I never hide my identity and was confident about it right from my school times. I did menial jobs at the homes of many of my class mates like cleaning animal dung etc and then I used to sit with them in the same class. They used to call me chuhri (slang for scavengers) in the school. In fact it was my father who never let me have any identity crisis. Since my childhood my father taught me not to worry on such issues as no work is big or small.
The same goes with all our students. They should feel proud that they have come from community of people who are the most hard working and their being in higher education is a great achievement not only for them but for the entire community.
What are your other suggestions for our Dalit and Adivasi students who want to pursue higher education?
What else I can say other than to work doubly hard! As a Dalit and Adivasi students we have to cross so many barriers - class, caste and for women students - gender too. Most of the ‘upper’ caste students have only to work hard for studies. But we have to work much harder to be able to excel in studies and simultaneously fight against social and economic handicaps due to our background.
Other students don’t have to prove anything to anyone but we have lot to prove not only for ourselves but also for the sake of our community.
I teach Sanskrit and being a Dalit woman I know that people are very judgemental and easily point a finger if I don’t teach properly. I have seen people whispering against me and I always answer them through my work. In a very short time my three books have been published and I am working on the fourth one. We must always move ahead and not let others drag us behind.
What are your suggestions for Dalit students groups like Insight?
I really thank Insight from my heart. This is really a very innovative initiative which will go long way to benefit our students. I know this group from my JNU days. My only suggestion for groups like Insight is to always ensure equal representation in terms of its reach.
Most of our students are from very humble background and lack information. They are also not much willing to come out. Insight has the responsibility to reach to such students. Then only we can say that Insight is a real role model for all of us.

Mata Prasad

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mata Prasad
mata prasad ias
Personal details
Born Uttar Pradesh, India
Occupation Retired IAS Officer
Awards Padma Bhushan
Mata Prasad is a retired Indian Administrative Service officer. He was one of the first people from the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to become an IAS officer. He is a former chairman of the Union Public Service Commission of India. He served as the chief secretary of the state of Uttar Pradesh from June 1995 to October 1996, thus becoming the first Scheduled Caste officer to head the state bureaucracy. The Government of India awarded him the third highest civilian honour of the Padma Bhushan, in 2012, for his contributions to civil service.


Born in a scheduled caste family in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, Mata Prasad secured his master's degree in first class from Allahabad University and started his career as an assistant professor in October 1960 at the department of economics of the university. He resigned from the academic post when he was selected to the Indian Administrative Service in 1962 and served the civil service for over 35 years till his superannuation as the secretary of Water Resources of the Government of India. In between he held several positions such as District Collector of the districts of Almora, Etah, Lakhimpur and Bareilly as well as the Divisional Commissioner of Agra district. Subsequently, he served as the Managing Director of the Cement Corporation of Uttar Pradesh before returning to revenue department posts as the secretary to the Government of Uttar Pradesh and headed various departments including Public Enterprises, Administrative Reforms, Planning, Home, Jail, Home Guards, Civil Defence, Political Pensions and Official Language. Moving to the Union Government as a Joint Secretary at the Ministry of Human Resource Development, he headed the Department of Youth Affairs and served as a Joint Secretary, Additional Secretary and later, as a Secretary at the Ministry of Welfare, in charge of the Department of Personnel Training.
It was during his tenure as the Secretary, he made news by becoming the subject of a power struggle between Sitaram Kesari, the then Minister of Welfare who wanted Prasad to stay at his ministry, and Mulayam Singh Yadav, chief minister of Uttar Pradesh during that time, who invited Prasad to head the state bureaucracy. Prasad, eventually, decided to accept the latter post and became the first dalit chief secretary of the state, starting his stint in June 1995 during Mayawati's first incumbency as the state chief minister, holding the post till October 1996. His tenancy as the chief secretary or his relationship with Mayawati were not reported to have been smooth He returned to central government service in 1996 as the secretary at the Ministry of Water Resources and retired from civil service in February 1999, after getting a one-year extension of service. It was reported that he was a candidate to become a cabinet secretary, supposedly the first dalit to get to the rank, but his candidature was overlooked. However, he was appointed as a member of the Union Public Service Commission on 23 April 1998 and, after a stint of five years, he became the chairman of the agency on 8 September 2003. He retired from the position on 4 January 2005, succeeded by S. R. Hashim. He is associated with Sitapur Shiksha Sansthan, a Lucknow-based educational organization, as a member of its Board of Advisors. The Government of India included him in the Republic Day Honors list for the civilian award of the Padma Bhushan in 2012

Dr.Ronki Ram
Name Ronki Ram
Designation Reader and Chairperson
Institution: Department of Political Science
Panjab University
Chandigarh - 160 014, India.
Phones: (+91-172)-2541819
Cell:(+91) 9872861290
Date of Birth 2 April 1960
Sex Male
Marital Status Married
Nationality Indian
Languages known English, Punjabi (Mother tongue) and Hindi.
Academic Qualifications Ph.D. in International Studies
-Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 1992
M. Phil.
-Panjab University, Chandigarh, 1985
M.A. in Political Science
-Panjab University, Chandigarh, 1982
Advanced International Programme (Diploma) in Conflict Resolution
-Uppsala University, Sweden 1993.
Areas of Specialisation International Relations Theory, Indian Political Thought, and Dalit Politics (special focus on Punjab).
Visits Abroad Sweden, Estonia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Canada, U.K., and Pakistan
Member - Professional/Advisory/Editorial Boards
Member of the Board of Management of Jan Shikshan Sansthan, Mohali, sponsored by Ministry of HRD, (Department of Elementary Education and Literacy), Govt. of India, New Delhi. 
Member of the advisory Board of Human Rights Law Networking, Chandigarh.
Member of Board of Finance, 2005-06, Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Member of Organizing Committee of 10th World Punjabi Conference, Chandigarh, May 28-30, 2004. 
Life Member of North West Indian Sociological Association (NWISA).
Member of Editorial Board of the Panjab University Research Journal (Arts).

Reader in Political Science, P.U., Chandigarh from June 12, 2004 continuing.
Lecturer in Political Science, P.U. Chandigarh from 25 March 1998. Sr. lecturer w.e.f 25th March 1999. 
Lecturer in Gandhian Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, from June 12, 1995 to March 25, 1998. 
Lecturer in Political Science, Goa University, Goa from Feb. 22, 1995 to June 10, 1995
Research Associate, SIS, CIPOD, JNU, New Delhi, July 21, 1992 to May 31,1995. 
Senior Research Assistant, SIS, CIPOD, JNU, New Delhi, Jan. 20, 1992 to June 19, 1992.
Research Investigator, Punjab State Institute of Public Administration, Chandigarh, Nov. 4, 1985 to June 3, 1986.

Papers Published
"Social Exclusion, Resistance and Deras: Exploring the Myth of Casteless Sikh Society in Punjab", Economic and Political Weekly, Vol.42, No.40, October 6-12, 2007, pp.4066-74.
"Capital versus Labour: Globalisation, Marginalised and Crisis of Governance", Man & Development, Vol. XXIX, No. 2, June 2007, pp. 5-28 [included in Parliamentary Documentation Vol. 33, No.15, August 1-15, 2007]. 
"Untouchability in India with a Difference: Ad Dharm, Dalit Assertion and Caste Conflicts in Punjab", Asian Survey, (Berkeley) Vol.XLIV, No.6, November-December 2004 pp.895-912 [abstracted in Centre de Documentation Regards, Religion Compass Online, CSA Illumina]. Also included in the course POLS 298.3 Turmoil and Change: Politics in Modern India, Dept. of Political Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Canada, Summer Study/ Travel Program 2006. 
"Untouchability, Dalit Consciousness, and the Ad Dharm movement in Punjab", Contributions to Indian Sociology (sage) [n. s.], Vol.38, No.3, September-December 2004, pp.323-349 [one of "The 50 Most-Frequently Read Articles in Contributions to Indian Sociology during June -September 2007]. 
"The Dalit Sikhs", Dalit International Newsletter (Waterford USA) Vol. 9, No.3 October 2004.
"Limits of Untouchability, Dalit Assertion and Caste Violence in Punjab", in Harish K. Puri, ed., Dalits in Regional Context (Jaipur: Rawat, 2004), pp. 132-189. 
"Punjabi Dalit Parivas: Chetna Ate Sangharsh" (Punjabi Dalit Diaspora: Consciousness and Struggle), South-Asian Review (Prince George, B.C.), September 2006, pp. 22-25 & 29 [also serialized in Amritsar Times (California), August 2-8, August 9-15, and August 16-22, 2006; Nisot, October-December, 2006 (Canada)].
"Vishvikaran Noo Pachhere Mulkan Vich Samjhan Da Masla" (Understanding Globalisation in Under-developed Countries), in Bhim Inder Singh, ed., Vishvikaran: Vishleshan Ate Vivechan [Globalisation: Description and Analysis] (Jalandhar: Kuknus, 2006), pp. 62-69. 
"Ajoke Punjab wich Dalit Sathiti ate Chetna: Rajnitak Mulankan" (Dalit Position and Consciousness in Contemporary Punjab: Political Analysis), in Dhanwant Kaur and Jaswinder Kaur Maangat [eds.], Samkali Punjabi Samaj [Contemporary Punjabi Society], (Patiala: Punjabi University Publication Bureau, 2006), pp. 51-55. 
"Afro-Asian Dialogue: Contesting Globalisation in the Periphery", in Gopal Singh and Ramesh K. Chauhan (ed.), South Asia Today, (New Delhi: Anamika: 2005). 
"Punjabi Quam, Dalit Mukti Ate Shaktikaran" (Punjabi Nationality, Dalit Emancipation and Empowerment), South Asian Review (Prince George, B.C.) May 2005, pp. 7-12 [also published in Bhim Inder Singh, ed. Dalit Chintan: Marxi Pripekh (Marxist Perspective of Dalit Thought), (Jalandhar: Kukness Prakashan: 2005), pp. 50-63]. 
"Spiritual Regeneration, Guru Ravidass and Dera Sach Khand Ballan", Begumpura Souvenir 2004 (Jalandhar: Dera Sach Khand Ballan, 2004), pp. 117-122 [also carried in two installments in Begumpura Shaher (Jalandhar), No. 7, June 14, 2004, p. 10 and No. 8, June 21, 2004, pp. 6-7]. 
"Role of Ad Dharmis: Chamar Protest in Punjab is linked to Talhan Caste Violence". Dalit Voice, Vol. 23, No. 4, February 16-29, 2004, pp. 11-12 [also carried in two installments in Begumpura Shaher, No. 48, March 29, 2004, p. 9 and No. 49, April 5, 2004, p. 9]. 
"From the Anarchy To Anarchy: State And Governance Problematique", The Indian Journal of Political Science, Vol. 62, No. 4, December 2001, pp. 520-531. 
"From Servitude To Assertion: Ambedkar's Subaltern Approach To Nationalism and Dalit Liberation", Social Sciences Research Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2001, pp. 146-170 [also available in and in abridged version at]. 
"Power v/s Dialogue: Gandhian Dialectic and Conflict Resolution", Social Sciences Research Journal, vol. 7, Nos. 1 & 2, 1999, pp. 103-123. 
"What does Gandhi mean to the Youth?" Journal of Peace and Gandhian Studies, Vol. I, No. 2, January-March 1996, pp.75-78.

Citations in Journals/Books
"Social Exclusion, Resistance and Deras: Exploring the Myth of Casteless Sikh Society in Punjab", Economic and Political Weekly, Vol.42, No.40, October 6-12, 2007, pp.4066-74 [Cited in Seminar 581, January 2008, p. 54]. 
"A Conflict of New Assertions", Tehelka, Vol. 4, Issue 27, July 8-14, 2007 [Cited in EPW, Vol.42, No.40, October 6-12, 2007, p.4065]. 
"Untouchability in India with a Difference: Ad Dharm, Dalit Assertion and Caste Conflicts in Punjab", Asian Survey, (Berkeley) Vol.XLIV, No.6, November-December 2004 pp.895-912 [cited in EPW, Vol. XLI, No. 24, June 17, 2006, p. 2479]. 
"Untouchability, Dalit Consciousness, and the Ad Dharm movement in Punjab", Contributions to Indian Sociology (sage) [n. s.], Vol.38, No.3, September-December 2004, pp.323-349. [Cited in EPW, October 27, 2007, p.21;\Gurpreet%20Bal.htm (October 19. 2007), also one of the 50 Most-Frequently Read Articles in Contributions to Indian Sociology continuously for the months of June -September 2007]. 
"The Dalit Sikhs", Dalit International Newsletter (Waterford USA) Vol. 9, No.3 October 2004 [cited in (October 19, 2007). 
"Limits of Untouchability, Dalit Assertion and Caste Violence in Punjab", in Harish K. Puri, ed., Dalits in Regional Context (Jaipur: Rawat, 2004), pp. 132-189 [cited in Global Networks (Blackwell) Vol. 7, No. 3, July 2007, p. 331]. 
Paper presented on Dalit Assertion and Social Conflicts in Punjab, February 8-9, 2006, at Seminar on Politics in North-West India: Emerging Trends and Changing Patterns, organized by Department of correspondence Courses, Punjabi University, Patiala [cited in Diviner - A Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 2, Feb-July 2007, pp.128 & 134]. 
"Making Sense of Caste Violence in Talhan: A View from Within", presented at Regional Seminar on Media and Communal Harmony in Multi-Cultural Society, organized by IDC, Chandigarh in association with Press Institute of India, New Delhi, Communication Management Foundation, New Delhi and Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, New Delhi, September 27-28, 2003 [cited in John C.B. Webster, "The Dalit Sikhs: A History", in Tony Ballantyne (ed), Textures of the Sikh Past (New Delhi: OUP, 2007), p. 148]. 
Paper presented on Reading Caste with Ambedkar, at Weekly Seminar, of the Dept. of Sociology, Panjab University, Chandigarh January 23, 2002 [cited in Indian Social Science Review, Vol. 7, No. 2, July-December 2005, p.117]. 
Paper presented on Untouchability and the question of Dalit Identity: A Critique of Ad Dharam Movement at National Seminar on Liberalistion, Dalits and the State, organized by the Department of Sociology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, May 3-4, 2001 [cited in EPW Vol. 37, No. 3, August 3-9, 2002, p. 3245].

Papers Presented at Seminars/Conferences/Workshop
"Punjabi Quam dae Jati ate Jamati Masley" presented at 3rd World Punjabi Conference, organized by South Asian Review (Prince George), Desh Bhagat Yaadgar Hall, Jalandhar, Punjab, February 15-18, 2007. 
"Punjabi Dalit Parivas: Chetna Ate Sangharsh" presented at 22nd international Punjabi Development Conference, organized by the Department of Punjabi Languages, Punjabi University, Patiala, February 1-3, 2006. 
"Contemporary Society and Political Analysis" presented at 21st International Punjabi Development Conference, organized by The Department of Punjabi Languages, Punjabi University, Patiala, March 10-12, 2005. 
"Burden of Past and Vision of Equality: Political Sociology of Jat-Dalit Conflicts" presented at International Conference on Punjab Peasantry in Turmoil, organized by Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Punjabi University, Patiala, January 27-28, 2005 [also available at] 
"Punjabi Nation and Dalit Emancipation" (Punjabi), presented at Second World Punjabi Conference, organized by the South Asian Review and Sahit Sabha, Prince George, Canada, June 28-July 1, 2003. 
"Contextualising Ad Dharm Movement (Punjab): Dalit Consciousness, Social Justice and Cultural Transformation", presented at International Dalit Conference, organized by Association for International Dalit Conference Inc., Vancouver, Canada, May 16-18, 2003. 
"Agenda for Conflict Resolution: Theoretical Dimensions", paper presented at International Seminar on Violence in India: Prospect and Prognosis organized by Institute for Development and Communication, Chandigarh, January 18-20, 1998. 
"Domestic Challenges to World Peace: Crumbling Borders between Domestic and International Politics", paper presented at International Seminar on Geo-Politics of Peace, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi, January 16-18, 1988.
"Punjab Vich Dalit Chetna de Sroot" [Sources of Dalit Consciousness in Punjab], presented at seminar on Dalit Chetna in Punjab, organized by Dalit Chetna Manch Punjab Regd., Mohali, January 20, 2008. 
"Self Versus Other: Morality in Public Life", presented at national seminar on Morality and Public Life, organized by Department of Philosophy, Panjab University, Chandigarh, January, 17-18, 2008 (on 18th January, also Chaired the fifth session the same day). 
"Right to Information Act 2005 and Good Governance", presented at seminar on Right to Information, organized by The Political Science Department of S.G.G.S. Khalsa College, Mahilpur, January 11, 2008. 
"Understanding Dalit Assertion in Punjab", presented at seminar on Ikyvi Saadi Vich Parvesh Kar Raeha Punjab: Samaj de Saravpakhi Vikas de Sandarab Vich, organized by Punjab Basha Academy and Punjab Academy of Social Sciences, Literature and Culture, Jalandhar, November 24-25, 2007. 
"Understanding Dalit Assertion in North India", presented at seminar on Samkalin Bharatiya Sahitya Mein Samajik Nayaya Ki Avadharana: Vishesh Sandarbh Dalit Sahitya, organised by IIAS, Shimla, November 14-16, 2007 (also Chaired the Sixth Session: Poetry, Fiction: Realism, Rebellion and Interrogation). 
"Status of Human Rights of Dalits in Punjab", presented at Workshop-cum-consultancy on Dalit Rights, organised by Human Rights Law Networking Chandigarh, October 28,2007. 
"Shaheed-e-Azam "Bhagat Singh and the Question of Untouchability", presented at seminar on Bhagat Singh and his Legends, organised by the World Punjabi Centre, Punjabi University Patiala, October 22-23, 2007. 
"Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and Social Justice", presented at seminar dedicated to the Birth Anniversary of Dr. Ambedkar, organized by Dr. Ambedkar Chetna Society, Banga, April 29, 2007. 
"Globalisation, Dalits and Labour", presented at seminar on Labourer, Labour and Globalisation, organized by Dalit Chetna Manch Punjab (Regd), April 28, 2007. 
"Social Exclusion and Dalits in Punjab", presented at National seminar on Social Exclusion, State and Globalisation, organized by Ambedkar Centre, Panjab University, Chandigarh, March 29-30, 2007. 
"Human Rights and Dalit Consciousness in Punjab", presented at UGC sponsored National seminar on Human Rights and Duties Education, organized by Khalsa College Amritsar, March 23, 2007. 
"Situating Subordination in Regions within a Region: Dilemmas of Dalit Solidarity in East Punjab" presented at National seminar on Regions within Regions: Rethinking State Politics in India, organized by Dept. of Political Science, Panjab University, February 26-27, 2007. 
"Contesting Globalisation in the Periphery", presented at seminar on Globalisation, Social Institutions and Values, organized by Dev Samaj College for Women, Chandigarh, February 3, 2007. 
"Patterns of Dalit Population in Punjab", presented at National seminar on Population, Environment and Development in the Northwestern India, organized by the Dept. of Geography, Panjab University, Chandigarh, February 1- 2, 2007. 
"Identity Formation Among the Dalits of Punjab: Some Critical Reflections", presented at UGC sponsored National seminar on Participatory Democracy: New Context, New Challenges - Inclusion and Exclusion, organised by Dept. of Correspondence Studies, PU, Chandigarh, January 23-24, 2007. 
"Ad Dharm Movement and Dalit Consciousness in Punjab", presented at a National seminar on India Since the 1990s and Social Science Research, organised by ICSSR (North-Western Regional Center), PU, Chandigarh, January 18-19, 2007. 
"Human Rights: Dalit Consciousness and Caste Conflicts in Punjab", presented at UGC sponsored National seminar on Status of Human Rights in Punjab, organised by Lajpat Rai DAV College Jagraon, November 30 -December 1, 2006. 
"Human Rights: Dalit Consciousness and Caste Conflicts in Punjab", presented at a UGC sponsored National seminar on Evolution of the Concept of Human Rights and Emerging Dimension of Human Rights, organised by Shri Guru Gobind Singh College, Chandigarh, November 29-30, 2006 (presented on 29th November, 2006). 
"World Punjabi Conferences and Indo-Pak Cooperation", presented at UGC sponsored seminar on Conflicts and Cooperation in South-Asia, organised by R.R.M.K. Arya Mahila Mahavidyala, Pathankot, November 25-26, 2006 (presented on 25th November, 2006). 
"Critically Analyzing Human Rights: Trends and Dimensions", presented at UGC Sponsored National Seminar on Human Rights, organized by SDSPM College for Women, Rayya (Amritsar), October 28,2006. 
"Spiritual Regeneration, Dalit Consciousness and Dera Sach Khand Ballan", presented at Seminar on Pirs, Sants and Babas of Punjab: Their Role in Social, Religious and Political Spheres, organized by RSD College, Ferozepur City, March 4, 2006. 
"Human Rights, Civil Society and Democracy", presented at Seminar on Is Terrorism a Threat to Indian Democracy? organized by Department of Political Science, Guru Nank College, Muktsar, February 21-22, 2006. 
"Contesting the 'Essential': Relocating Dalits in India's Globality" presented at National Seminar on India's Globality: Politics of Resistance, Recovery, Relocation and Reinvention, organized by Department of Political Science, Panjab University, Chandigarh (UGC Special Assistance Program), February 9-10, 2006. 
"Dalit Assertion and Social Conflicts in Punjab" presented at Seminar on Politics in North-West India: Emerging Trends and Changing Patterns, organized by Department of correspondence Courses, Punjabi University, Patiala, February 8-9, 2006 (present on February 8, 2006) [cited in Diviner - A Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 2, Feb-July 2007, pp.128 & 134]. 
"Dalit Identity Formation in Punjab: Cultural Transformation, Spiritual regeneration and Political Assertion" presented at Seminar on Dalit Identity with Special reference to Punjab, organized by Govt. college for Women, Ludhiana on January 18, 2006. 
"Punjabi Sahit Sabhayachar Paripekh", presented at Seminar on Vishav Vatavaran: Sambhal Ate Chunotiyan, organized by Samvedna, Chandigarh, December 16, 2005. 
"Dalit Consciousness and Challenges of Democracy in India", presented at National Seminar on Democracy and Civil Society: Salient Issues for North Western India, organized by Dept. of Philosophy, Panjab University, Chandigarh, September 19-20, 2005. 
"Dalit Manukh Da Bavikh Ate Jota Vitkara" presented at Seminar organized by Dalit Chetna Manch Punjab at Bakarpur, Mohali, May 8, 2005. 
"Understanding Globalization in the Periphery", presented at National Seminar on Globalization: Prospects and Challenges for India, organized by Kamla Nehru College for Women, Phagwara, Feb. 19, 2005. 
"Myths, Worship and Syncretic Religion - A Study of Perceptions in Doaba Punjab, presented at the Weekly Research Seminar, organizedd by Department of Sociology, P. U. Chandigarh, February 2,2005 
"Sri Guru Granth Sahib and Dalit Consciousness", presented at Seminar on The Role of Sikhs ad Dalits in the Future of South-Asian Sub-Continent, organized by Department of Philosophy and Sikh Student Federation, January 19, 2005. 
"Critically Analyzing Regionalism in the Context of Globalization", presented at National Seminar on Regionalism - A threat to Indian Nation-state (in the context of North-western States), organized by Department of Political Science, Guru Nanak Girls College, Ludhiana, November 29-30, 2004 (presented on 30 November). 
"Social Transformation and Empowerment of Dalits and Women at the Grass-root" presented at Workshop on The Empowerment of Dalits and Women through Reservation in Panchayati Raj Institution of North-west India, organized by Ambedkar Center, Department of Sociology, P. U. Chandigarh, November 29-30, 2004 (presented on 29 November). 
"Understanding Social Injustice in India", presented at Seminar on Justice to Weaker Section of the Society, organized by Chandigarh People's Welfare Forum and Punjab and Haryana High Court Advocates' Committee on Judicial Accountability, Chandigarh, November 6, 2004. 
"Dalit Consciousness and Literature in Punjab", presented at National Seminar on Creativity and The State in Contemporary India, organized by IIAS, Shimla at India International Center, New Delhi, April 25-26, 2004. 
"Dalit Assertion and Caste Conflicts in Punjab", presented at Workshop on Dalit Assertion and Emerging Politics in Punjab and Haryana, organized by Ambedkar Center and Department of Sociology, P.U., Chandigarh, March 19, 2004. 
"Dalit Consciousness in Punjab: Spiritual Regeneration, Guru Ravidass and Dera Sach Khand Ballan", presented at National Seminar on State Politics: Analysing the Emerging Trends, Organized by Department of Political Science, P.U., Chandigarh, March 17-18, 2004. 
"Human Rights in Punjab with Special Reference to the Dalits", presented at National Seminar on Human Rights Today: India's Quest for A New Moral Bedrock, organized by Department of philosophy, P.U., Chandigarh, February 19-20, 2004. 
"Expanding Individual in Shrinking Familial Space: Dilemmas of Family in Contemporary India", presented at National Seminar on Family in Contemporary India: Changes and Challenges, organized by Department of Sociology, P.U., Chandigarh, February 12-14, 2004. 
"Higher Education And the Downtrodden: Emancipation V/S Employment" presented at Seminar on Quality of Higher Education in India: The Challenge of Change, organized by Panjab University, Chandigarh, November 18-19, 2003. 
"Dalit Sikhs and Dalit Consciousness in Punjab"' presented at the Weekly Research Seminar, organized by Department of Sociology, Chandigarh, November 5, 2003 
"Making Sense of Caste Violence in Talhan: A View from Within", presented at Regional Seminar on Media and Communal Harmony in Multi-Cultural Society, organized by IDC, Chandigarh in association with Press Institute of India, New Delhi, Communication Management Foundation, New Delhi and Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, New Delhi, September 27-28, 2003 [cited in John C.B. Webster, "The Dalit Sikhs: A History", in Tony Ballantyne (ed), Textures of the Sikh Past (New Delhi: OUP), p. 148]. 
"Globalization And Marginals: From Market to Governance", presented at National Seminar on Globalization and The Underprivileged: Perceptions, Fears and Consequences, organized by Department of Sociology, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut, February 8-9, 2003. 
"Capital V/S Labour: Globalisation or 'Workers of the World Unite' ", presented at Seminar on Globalisation and Political Economy of North-West India, organized by Department of Political Science, SGGS College, Chandigarh, December 6-7, 2002. 
"Reading Caste with Ambedkar", presented at Weekly Research Seminar, organized by Dept. of Sociology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, January 23, 2002 [cited in Indian Social Science Review, Vol. 7, No. 2, July-December 2005, p.117]. 
"Untouchability and the question of Dalit Identity: A Critique of Ad Dharam Movement", presented at National Seminar on Liberalistion, Dalits and the State, organized by the Department of Sociology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, May 3-4, 2001 [cited in EPW Vol. 37, No. 3, August 3-9, 2002, p. 3245]. 
"Indian Renaissance, Dalit Consciousness and Politics of Situational Response", paper presented at Seminar on Dalit Consciousness and Social Change in Punjab, sponsored by Department of Welfare of SCs and BCs, Punjab, organized by School of Punjabi Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, Nov. 29-30, 1999. 
"Region-Religion Problematique" Paper Presented at National Seminar on Dynamics of Regional Politics in the States of North-West India, organized by the Deptt. of Political Science, Panjab University, Chandigarh on March 26-27,1998. 
Urbanization, Urban Youth Conflicts and Conflict Resolution", Paper presented at National Symposium on Youth in Urban Areas, organized by IDC, Chandigarh, February 3-5, 1997. 
"Conflict Prevention and Resolution: Prospects for Peace" (co-authored), paper presented at Deptt. of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University, Sweden, May 21, 1993.

Participation in Seminars/Conferences/Workshops
International Seminar on Bhagat Singh and his Times, organised by Indian Council of Historical Research in collaboration with the Institute of Punjab Studies, Chandigarh, September 27-29. 2007. 
International Conference on Exploring the Possibilities of Cooperation in Global Context, organised by World Punjabi Centre, Punjabi University, Patiala, December 26-28, 2006. 
23rd International Punjabi Development Conference, organised by Dept. of Development of Punjabi Language, Punjabi University, Patiala, December 14-16, 2006. 
International Conference on Contribution of Different Faiths and Communities for World Peace, organized by Christian Institute for Religious Studies, Baring Union Christian College, Batala, September 20, 2006. 
International Seminar on NGOs and Women's Empowerment: Indian and Canadian Experiences, organized by Canadian Study Center and ICSSR, North-West Regional Center, Panjab University, Chandigarh, February 23-24, 2006. 
International Consultation on Identifying Peace Issues for Research in South Asia organized by Institute for Development and Communication, Chandigarh, December 5-7, 2005. 
International Seminar on Creative Forms of Punjabi Culture, organized by Punjabi Academy, Delhi and DCC, P. U. Chandigarh, February 28-March 1, 2005. 
World Punjabi Conference, 2004, organized by Punjabi University, Patiala, December 1-3, 2004. 
Tenth World Punjabi Conference, Chandigarh, May 28-30, 2004, (Panelist in the panel discussion on Economic Cooperation, between the two Punjab: A Burning issue). 
World Punjabi Conference, organized by World Punjabi Congress Committee, Lahore, January 29-31, 2004. 
International seminar on Mid-West and Central Asia, organized by P.U., and IIAS, Shimla at Chandigarh, January 21-23, 2004. 
International Seminar On the Life, Teachings and Philosophy of Sri Guru Ravidas Ji, organized by Sri Guru Ravidas Foundation, India, Panjab University, Chandigarh, August 16, 2003. 
International Seminar on Science, Technology and Society, organized by Department of History, Panjab University, Chandigarh, January 29-31, 2003. 
Roundtable on Power Cycle Theory: War and Peace in South Asia, organized by Indian Institute of Advanced Studies, Shimla, November 19-20, 2002. 
International Conference on Rethinking Boundaries: Geopolitics, Identities and Sustainability, organized by Center for the Study of Geopolitics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, February 21-26, 2000. 
International Seminar on Political Landscapes on the Threshold of 21st Century and Emerging Patterns, organized by I.G.U. Commission on the World Political Map at Panjab University, Chandigarh, on December 13-15, 1999. 
International Seminar on Globalizations and India organized by SIS, JNU, New Delhi, January 14-17, 1999. 
International Round Table Conference on India and Hungary: Perspectives on the Changing World Order, Center for Russian, Central Asian and East European Studies, SIS, JNU, New Delhi, November 17-18, 1998.
National seminar on The Other Side of Politics: People's Movements in India, organised by Dept. of Political Science, Panjab University Chandigarh, March 14-14, 2008 (chaired a session on March14). 
National seminar on Indian Ideas of Freedom, organized by Dept. of Political Science (UGC Special Assistance Programme) Panjab University Chandigarh & ICSSR Northwest Regional Centre, February 21-23, 2008. 
National seminar on Person, Consciousness and Culture, organized by Department of Philosophy, Panjab University, Chandigarh, February 6-8, 2008. 
National seminar on Ideological and Cultural Significance of Guru Nanak Bani in the Present Scenario, organized by Guru Nanak Sikh Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh in collaboration with Harayana Punjabi Sahit Academy & ICSSR, Chandigarh, December 6, 2007. 
U.G.C. sponsored seminar on Consciousness, Culture and Creativity: Indian and Western Perspectives, organized by Department of Philosophy, Panjab University Chandigarh, December 4-5, 2007. 
Regional Workshop on Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005, organized by Women's Resource and Advocacy Centre, Chandigarh, November 22-23, 2007. 
Roundtable Discussion on Agrarian Crisis and Food Security of India, organized by IDC, Chandigarh, November 17, 2007. 
National seminar on The Contribution of the Udasis to Sikh History, organised by Gobind Sadan Institute for Advanced Studies in Comparative Religions, New Delhi, September 21, 2007. 
National seminar on Science and Spirituality in the Indian Context, organized by Dept. of Philosophy, Panjab University, Chandigarh, August 9-10, 2007. 
Seminar on India Envisioned by Ambedkar, organized by Ambedkar Social Justice Forum India (Regd), Chandigarh, March 24, 2007. 
National Seminar on Moral Goodness and Human Nature, organized by Dept. of Philosophy, Panjab University, Chandigarh, March 14-15, 2007. 
National seminar on Ideological & Cultural Perspective of Guru Arjan's Bani, organized by Guru Nanak Sikh Studies, Panjab University, in collaboration with Punjabi Akademy, Delhi & ICSSR Northwestern Regional Centre Chandigarh, March 8-9, 2007. 
National Seminar on Foundations of Social Life in India: Cultural, Aesthetic and Religious, organised by Department of Philosophy, P.U., Chandigarh, December 6-8, 2006. 
Seminar on Impact of Globalization on the Landless Dalit Workers, organized by Punjab Khet Majdoor Union, Dehati Majdoor Sabha, Punjab and Pendo Majdoor Union (Mashal), on October 25, 2006. 
Seminar on Why Babasaheb Embraced Buddhism, organised by Dr. Ambedkar Study Circle (Regd.), Chandigarh, October 14, 2006. 
National seminar on The Life, Teaching and Philosophy of Shri Guru Ravidass Ji, organised by Shri Guru Ravidass Sabha (Regd.), PGI, Chandigarh, September 15, 2006. 
Seminar on The present Economic Condition of Punjab and The Future of Dalits, organized by Dalit Chetna Manch, Punjab (Regd.) at Mohali, April 28, 2006. 
Seminar on Values from Different Perspectives, organized by Department of Philosophy, Panjab University, Chandigarh, March 27-28, 2006 (participated on March 27th, 2006). 
Seminar on Life and Philosophy of Baba Saheb B. R. Ambedkar, organisd by Dr. Ambedkar Chetna Society, Banga, April 16, 2006. 
National Seminar on Technology and Society - Issues and Interface with Special Reference to India, organized by department of Sociology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, March 16-17, 2006. 
Workshop on Economic and Social Backwardness Among Sikhs, organized by Indian Social Institute and National Commission for Religious and Linguistic Minorities, New Delhi, February 17, 2006. 
Workshop on Dissemination on Punjab Human Development Report 2004, organized by Panjab University, Chandigarh, February 17-18, 2006 (participated on February 18, 2006). 
Seminar on The Role of Sufis in the Making of Medieval Punjab, organized by Dept. of History, Panjab University, Chandigarh, December 13-14, 2005. 
Conference on Samkali Sarokar: Samajik Sabhyacharak, Bhasha Ate Samaj-Vigyan Prasang Vich (Punjabi), organized by Punjab Academy of Social Sciences, Literature and Culture at Jalandhar, November 26-27, 2005. 
National Seminar on Life and Works of Maharishi Valmiki, organized by Panjab University, Chandigarh, October 13-15, 2005. 
National Seminar on Social transformation in North-Western India during the Twentieth Century, organized by Institute of Punjab Studies, Chandigarh, September 7-9, 2005. 
National Seminar on 400 year of Sri Guru Granth Sahib organized by Guru Nanak Sikh Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh in collaboration with Indian Council of Philosophical Research, New Delhi, August 22-23, 2005. (Participated on August 22, 2005). 
Social Scientists Meet on Emerging Problems of Social Sciences in the Context of Globalization organized by ICSSR (North - Western Regional Center), Chandigarh, July 26, 2005. 
Workshop on Measurement of Social Variables: Towards Standardization organized by Deptt. of Sociology and IASSI, New Delhi at Chandigarh, May 5-6, 2005. 
Workshop on Politics of Discourses on Secularism and Communalism: Implications for Research in History, organized by IDC, Chandigarh, April 21, 2005. 
Seminar on Dr. B.R. Ambedkar's Philosophy and Dalit Liberation in India, organized by Deptt. of Sociology (Ambedkar Center) March 28, 2005. 
National Seminar on Politics of Globalization, Identity and Development, organized by UGC Special Assistance Programme, Deptt. of Political Science P.U., Chandigarh, March 23-24, 2005. 
Seminar on Comprehensive Security, organized by Delhi Policy Group and Panjab University, March 9, 2005. 
Seminar on The Role of Economy and Education in Social Equality in the Twenty-first Century, organized by the office of District Welfare Officer, Patiala, March 5, 2005. 
National Seminar on The Future of Rural Development in North-west India, organized by Department of Sociology, P. U. Chandigarh, February 24-25, 2005. 
A Seminar on Violence against Women in the State of Punjab, organized by Center for Women's Studies and Development, P.U., Chandigarh, Feb. 7, 2005. 
Seminar on Indo-Pak Relations, organized by Department of Political Science, Guru Nanak College for Girls, Muktsar, January 22. 2005. 
Regional Workshop on Autonomy of Higher Education Institutions, organized by Central Advisory Board of Education at P. U. Chandigarh, January 20-21, 2005. 
Seminar on Issues in Inter-Disciplinary Research: Special Context; Literature and Social Sciences, organized by ICSSR Chandigarh and Department of Hindi, P. U. Chandigarh, January 14-15, 2005. 
National Consultation on Police and Community Interface: Problematics and Remedies, organized by IDC, Chandigarh, December 12-13, 2004. 
Seminar on Dalits' Future, organized by Vigilant Brotherhood (International), December 4, 2004. 
National Seminar on 400th Prakash Utsav of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, organized by Shri Guru Gobind Singh College, Chandigarh, November 6-7, 2004, (participated on 7th November). 
Seminar on Narrative Patterns of Contemporary Punjabi Novel, organized by Department of Evening, P. U. Chandigarh and International Center for Punjabi Studies at Chandigarh, October 31, 2004. 
Workshop on Social Empowerment through Information Technology organized by IDC Chandigarh, AMIC-India and Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, New Delhi, at Chandigarh, September 22-23, 2004. 
Seminar on 400 years of Shri Guru Granth Sahib, organized by P. U. and ICSSR Chandigarh, September 21,2004. 
National Seminar on Sri Aurobindo's Vision of the Future of Humanity, organized by Sri Aurobindo Society, Chandigarh, Panjab University, Chandigarh, and IIAS, Shimla, at Chandigarh, September 18-19, 2004. 
Seminar on Coalition Governments and Activities of Political Parties, organized by Punjab Academy of Social Sciences, Literature and Culture and Punjabi Bhasha Academy, Jalandhar at Chandigarh, April 18, 2004. 
Seminar on Rural Development, organized by Punjab Development Society and ICSSR North-Western Regional Center, P.U., Chandigarh, March 27-28, 2004. 
Seminar on Corruption and Quality of Governance, organized by Department of Public Administration, P.U., Chandigarh, March 13, 2004. 
Workshop on Impact of Special Component Plan on the Scheduled Castes in the State of Punjab-Measures for Effective Implementation, organized by Department of Sociology, P.U., Chandigarh and Department of Social Welfare, Govt. of Punjab, January 28-29, 2004. 
Workshop on Youth for Democracy, organized by Ambedkar Center, P.U., Chandigarh in collaboration with Indian Social Institute, New Delhi and Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, New Delhi, October 30-31, 2003. 
Regional Seminar on Participatory Research and Agenda for Social Transformation, organized by PRIA, Haryana and Center for Women's Studies and Development, P.U., Chandigarh, August 29-30, 2003. 
Seminar on Human Rights Awareness and Enforcement, organized by IGP, Ambala, Haryana, July 26, 2003. 
Symposium on The People of OBC Are Not Enemies, But Are Brothers of SC/ST and Minority Communities, organized by BAMCEF, Chandigarh, April 19, 2003. 
Colloquium on Role of Youth In Building Bridges of Amity And Social Harmony, Organized by Gandhi Smriti and Darshan Smriti, New Delhi and Yuvsatta, Chandigarh, April 13, 2003. 
Seminar on Marxwadi Sahit Aalochna Ate Samkali Sarokar, organized by Panjabi Sahitya Academy, Ludhiana, February 22-23, 2003. 
Seminar on Rethinking Women: Culture, Literature and Media, organized by MCM DAV College for Women, Chandigarh, February 15, 2003. 
Seminar on Dynamics of India's Security in the North Western Region: Challenges and Responses, organized by Center for Defense and National Security Studies, Panjab University, February 13-14, 2003. 
Symposium on Power, Violence and Society, organized by Punjab Academy of Social Sciences, Literature and Culture, and Punjabi Bhasha Academy, Jalandhar in collaboration with Indian Academy of Social Sciences, Allahabad, December 1, 2002 
Seminar on Imperialist Globalization and Indian Response, organized by All India Peace and Solidarity Organization, Chandigarh, November 16, 2002. 
Seminar on Punjab Di Kisani Da Sankat (Crisis of Punjab Peasantry), organized by Punjab Academy of Social Sciences, Literature and Culture, Jalandhar, October 19-20, 2002. 
National Seminar on Science, Society, Values and Consciousness, organized by Panjab University, Chandigarh and Center for Studies in Civilizations, New Delhi, May 27-28, 2002.
National Seminar on Democracy, Development and Discontent In South Asia, organized by Department of Political Science, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla on May 13-15, 2002.
Seminar on Life and Philosophy of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, organized by Ambedkar Institute, Mohali, April 29, 2002. 
Seminar on History, Literature and Society: Treatment of Social Problems in Punjabi Fiction During the Twentieth Century, organized by Institute of Punjab Studies and Sheikh Baba Farid Chair, Panjab University, Chandigarh, April 19-21, 2002. 
Panel discussion on the Life, Mission and Works of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, organized by Department of Laws, Panjab University, Chandigarh, March 30, 2002. 
National Seminar on Rethinking Indian Foreign Policy, organized by Department of Political Science and Center for the Study of Geopolitics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, March 26, 2002. 
Seminar on Freedom From Socio-Cultural And economic Injustice, Organized by Department of political Science, Panjab University, Chandigarh, February 26-27, 2002. 
Seminar on Rethinking Indian Federalism with Special Reference to North-Western Region, organized by Department of Political Science, Panjab University, Chandigarh, January 28, 2002. 
Bhopal Conference on Charting A New Course For Dalits For The 21st Century, organized by Madhya Pradesh Government, Bhopal, January 12-13, 2002. 
Seminar on Punjab Wich Dalit Varg Di Sathiti, organized by Shergill Memorial College, Mukandpur (Nawanshahr), October 12, 2001. 
Workshop on Female Foeticide/Infanticide, organized by Center for Women Studies and Development, Panjab University, August 29-30, 2001. 
Seminar on Regional Dialogue on Dimensions of Violence: Culture, Society and State, organized by Department of Sociology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, April 11-12, 2001. 
Colloquium on Women & Peace, Organized by The British Council and Center for Women's Studies and Development, University of Delhi, March 17-19, 2001. 
Seminar on Autonomy Debate in Comparative Perspective: J & K and Punjab, Organized by Department of Political Science, Panjab University, Chandigarh, March 12, 2001. 
Regional Workshop on Gender and Law Enforcement, sponsored by National 
Commission for Women, organized by Center for Women Studies and Development, Panjab University, on February 23-24, 2001. 
Seminar on Prevention and Detention of Corruption, Organized by State Vigilance Bureau, Haryana, December 18, 2000. 
Seminar on Autonomy: A Shift in Federal Equations - New Parameters, Organized by Govt. College for Women, Ludhiana, November 25, 2000. 
National Seminar on Social Transformation of Indian Society: Post-Independence Era, Organized by Department of Sociology, P. U. Chandigarh, March 9-11, 2000. 
National Seminar on Economic Development and Social Transformation in Northwest India, organized by Department of Sociology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, February 11-13, 1999. 
National Conference on Globalisation and National Security, organized by Department of Defense and Strategic Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala, February 3-5, 1999. 
National Seminar on Dalit and Backward Castes Mobilization in Contemporary North India, organized by Department of Political Science, P.U. Chandigarh, December 4-5, 1998. 
Consultation Workshop on Police Reforms and Human Rights, IDC, Chandigarh, November 5, 1998. 
National Seminar on Culture, History and Time, Deptt. of Philosophy, P.U. Chandigarh, October 10-11, 1998. 
Workshop on Militancy affected by Children in Punjab, organized by Institute for Development and Communication, Chandigarh, May 16,1998. 
National Seminar on Elimination of Inequality with Reference to Caste System in India, Deptt. of Philosophy, P.U. Chandigarh, March 9 -10, 1998. 
National Seminar on Culture and Development, Department of Sociology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, February 26-28, 1998. 
Seminar on Urban Governance in Punjab Institute of Social Sciences, New Delhi, (organized in Chandigarh) November 21-22, 1997. 
Workshop on Inter-State Migrant Labour Deptt. of Sociology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, on September 26-28, 1997. 
National Seminar on Modes of Conflict Resolution and Gandhian Thought, Department of Philosophy, University of Delhi, February 5-7,1997. 
National Seminar on Gandhi in India Today, Deptt. of Gandhian Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, October 1-3, 1996. 
National Seminar on M.N. Roy and the National Idea organized by National Integration Chair, Punjabi University, Patiala, September 16-17, 1996. 
Seminar on Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and Weaker Sections organized by the Department of Political Science, Panjab University, Chandigarh, June 21, 1996. 
IPSA Regional Conference on Democratization in Asia, Deptt. of Political Science, Panjab University, Chandigarh, January 28-31, 1996. 
National Youth Colloquium on Gandhi organized by Gandhi Samriti and Darshan Samiti, New Delhi, December 15-17, 1995. 
Seminar on Relevance of Mahatma Gandhi's Ideas Today, Deptt. of Political Science, Kurukshetra University, November 3-4, 1995. 
National Workshop on Women Development and Gender Justice organized by Institute of Development and Communication, Chandigarh, September 25-27, 1995. 
Thematic Approaches in International Relations, organized by School of International Studies, JNU and Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage, November 28 to December 10, 1988. 
National Seminar on Dalit and Backward Castes Mobilization in Contemporary North India, organized by Department of Political Science, P.U. Chandigarh, December 4-5, 1998. 
Annual Extension Lectures on Major Issues in Contemporary International Relations, School of International Studies, JNU, 1987.

 Honours and Awards
Chief guest at the seminar on Bharat Ratan Baba Sahib Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Dalits and Globalisation, organized by Gramin Shikshan Vikas Sanghthan (GSVS) & National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights (NCDHR0, December 9, 2007. 
Honoured at 7th X-Mas celebrations, by National Christian League, Panjab University, Chandigarh, December 7, 2007. 
Bharatiya Dalit Sahitya Akademi conferred Bharat Rattan Dr. Ambedkar State Award at its 5th State Conference of Dalit Writers, Mansa (Punjab), 16 September 2007. 
Dr. Ambedkar Fellowship Sanman 2004 presented at 20th National Dalit Sahitkar Sammelan organized by Bhartiya Dalit Sahit Academy, Delhi, 10-11 Dec. 2004. 
Chief Guest Honour at "Birthday Celebration of Babasaheb Ambedkar" organized by Ambedkar Mission Society, Sarmastpur, Jalandhar, 17 April 2004. 
Dr. Ambedkar Award (for outstanding and dedicated services to Dr. Ambedkar Mission) presented at International Dalit Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, and 16-18 May 2003 by Association for International Dalit Conference. 
Distinguished Guest honour at Birthday celebration of Baba Saheb Ambedkar, organized by Ambedkar Mission Society, Punjab (Regd.), Jalandhar, 14 April 2003.

Umakant, Ph.D
Independent Researcher and Human Rights Advocate
New Delhi

Dr. Bankim Chandra Mandal
Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Faculty of Arts
Indian Politics, Dalit Politics and Dalit Human Rights
(033) 2557 1028/3028/7161 (Ext. 331); 9903945236 (M)
E.B. Campus, Rabindra Bharati University, 56A, B.T. Road, Kolkata – 700050.
Dr Bankim Chandra Mandal, Associate Professor and former Head Department of Political Science, Faculty of Arts, Rabindra Bharati University, teaches Political Science. He is a Director of Dr B. R. Ambedkar Studies Centre and Director (Acting), Rabindra Bharati University Computer Centre and Employment Oriented Guidance Programme, Rabindra Bharati University. Around twenty articles have been published in different journals like Voice of Dalit, Socialist Perspectives, Indian Journal of Social Sciences, West Bengal political Science Review, Rabindra Bharati Journal of Political Science, Rabindra Bharati Patrika etc. His published books are Protective Discrimination Policy : In Search of Equality, Tulanmulak Shason Byabostha O Rajniti (in Bengali) (Comparative Governments and Politics), Ambedkar's Quest for Just Society and Unfinished Works (Monograph), Electoral Reforms in India : Problems and Prospects (Monograph), Awaiting publication ~Rabindrasahitye Bratyabhavna : Samya O Nayer Sandhane (in Bengali), Dalits in Tagore Literature : In Search of Equality and Justice.
He is a member of the Editorial board, Rabindra Bharati Journal of Political Science and edited Rabindra Bharati Journal of Political Science, Volume 8, 2007. He visited China as a member of Five members Delegation Team, Rabindra Bharati University, July 2009. He gave talks at China Radio International in 2009. He presented a paper at Yunnan University, Kunming, China on 16.07.09.
Dr. Narendra Jadhav

Dr. Narendra Jadhav is presently serving as Member, Planning Commission, Government of India in the rank and status of Minister of State. 

Planning Commission is apex body for formulation and appraisal of the Five Year Plans chaired by the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh with Shri. Montek Singh Ahluwalia as the Deputy Chairman. Dr. Narendra Jadhav took over as a Member, Planning Commission on June 16, 2009 and was sworn in by the Prime Minister on July 27, 2009. 

As a Member, Planning Commission, Dr. Jadhav’s sectoral responsibilities include Education, Labour, Employment and Skill Building, Sports & Youth Affairs, and Social Justice & Empowerment. In addition, Dr. Jadhav looks after the States of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, and Goa besides Union Territories of Diu- Daman & Dadra Nagar Haveli.
Dr Narendra Jadhav has also been appointed as a Member, National Advisory Council (NAC), chaired by Smt. Sonia Gandhi, with effect from May 31, 2010. Dr. Narendra Jadhav previously worked as the Vice Chancellor for University of Pune which is the largest traditional university in the world with around 6,50,000 students. Dr. Narendra Jadhav served the Reserve Bank of India for 31 years, and took voluntary retirement as the Chief Economist (Executive Director) of the RBI.

He also served as Economic Advisor to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), as well as in Ethiopia and recently in Afghanistan. 
Dr. Narendra Jadhav has contributed 14 books and more than 100 research papers in national and international journals. Dr. Jadhav’s family biography titled “Untouchables” has been published in 15 languages including English, French, Spanish, Korean and Thai, and has sold around 4,00,000 copies. His latest contributions are two books in Marathi on Ravindranath Tagore – one is an anthology of Gurudev’s poems translated into Marathi and the other one (being released) is on Gurudev’s life and times.

Bhalchandra Mungekar

 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bhalchandra Mungekar
Former nominated MP of the Rajya Sabha
In office
22 March 2010 to 21 March 2016
Preceded byDara Singh, BJP
Personal details
Born2 March 1946 (age 72)
Deogad, Sindhudurg district
Political partyIndian National Congress
Spouse(s)Leena Bhalchandra Mungekar
Bhalchandra Laxman Mungekar (born 2 March 1946) is an Indian economist, educationist, social worker and Rajya Sabha member. He specialises in agricultural economics and is an expert on B. R. Ambedkar.

Early life

Mungekar was born in Munge village, in the Konkan region of Maharashtra.


He has been Vice-Chancellor of the Mumbai University and has served in the Planning Commission, the Agricultural Price Commission of India. Mungekar has also been the Chairman and President of Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Simla.

Personal life

He is an Ambedkarite and Babasaheb Ambedkar is an influence in his life. Mungekar is a Buddhist

Dr.S.C. Vats

A physician and a clinician of repute. An educationist and a great philanthropist. He is an initiated disciple of Ramakrishna Order and tries to practice the precepts as preached by Swami Vivekananda to serve "God" in Man, not withstanding his caste, creed ,religion and region.
He is a former member of the Delhi Legislative Assembly. As a legislator his contribution towards the development of his constituency has been immense which can be viewed by clicking on his achievements. He has chaired Governing body of half a dozen of Delhi University Colleges with distinction. He now heads the governing body of VIPS, a niche educational institute called Vivekananda Institute of Professional Studies ( imparting education in the field of Law, Journalism and Information Technology. He is the Chairman of Governing Body of Keshav Mahavidhyala, a Delhi University College. A modernist, yet an orthodox and above all a moralist and a person who stands by values even today, when these values face the grimmest challenge of our times.
  • The Best Legislator Award for the year 2006 conferred by Hon'ble Speaker of 'Lok Sabha' Sh. Somnath Chatterjee

  • Member of Legislative Assembly, Shakur Basti 1998-2008

  • Member of Delhi Metropolitan Council 1983-1989
SC Vats joined BJP on January 1, 2015 citing an ‘ideological vacuum’ in Congress. With his impressive track record and proven devotion towards the Shakurbasti contituency, he is looking forward to continue the great work he has done in the past.
N.G.Uke: Remembering
A True Humanist
By V.B. Rawat & N.G.Uke
10 November, 2006

Mr N.G.Uke, a great Ambedkarite, a friend and guide died on November 4th, 2006 at his Vasant Kunj residence at the age of 82. Uke Saheb, as I would fondly call him was among the rare breed of Ambedkarite who saw Baba Saheb and was selected by him as a scholar though he had already got the same. 

As an admirer of Mr Uke for his forthright views and because his open support for atheism, I knew NG Uke was a treasurer who had with him a number of incidents and things and that is why I kept on calling him for an interview. ' You are always welcome', Uke Saheb told me. Last month on October 7 th, I was able to record a conversation with him to keep his memoirs. I know many such Ambedkarite who are treasure of great source are on the wane and I decided to interview them and record conversation to keep their memories safe. 

I have rarely found person of strong secular commitment such as N G Uke. Even in his conversation, he hated words like 'fortunate, unfortunate, Mahatma, noble soul, gods' etc. He would say that by using these words we are ultimately trapped into the religious moulding justifying the oppression and exploitation. 

Uke Saheb send reply to some of my questions on mails. A freewheeling interview with him was recorded which I would be able to produce after some time. As a tribute to Uke Saheb, I am sending this interview to our friends. He was the first person to use term ' Ambedkar Samaj' and rather than saying ' I am a Buddhist' which he was. Till his last, Uke Saheb remained a sharp mind, concerned about the condition of his community, which he always thought would lead India to 21 st Century.

I salute to his memory.

Excerpts of his conversation with me

VB: Uke Saheb, how did you come in touch with Dr Ambedkar.

NGU: My first meeting with Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was in July 1942 at Nagpur
during the Depressed Classes Conferences held on 18,19,20 July 1942. During these conferences were attended by about 75,000 Scheduled Castes persons, including 25,000 women. The three Conferences were: 1. All India Depressed Classes Conference, 2. All India Depressed Classes Women's Conference, 3. Samata Sainik Dal Conference. 

During these Conferences we the Scheduled Castes student established All India Scheduled Castes Students Federation (SCSF). I was one of the Joint Secretaries of the SCSF. At that time I was studying in Inter Science at the College of Science Nagpur. We met Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar and sought his advice and guidance for working of our SCSF. He was very happy and we had a very useful discussion. 

Since Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was being appointed as the Labour Member of the Executive Council of H.E. the Viceroy and the Governor General, he could not function as the full time President of the All India Depressed Classes Conferences. In his place Rao Bahadur N. Shivraj, MLA (Central) was appointed as the president of the Conference. 

My second meeting with Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was at his residence 22 Prithviraj road at Delhi. I had gone to Delhi for an interview before the selection board for the selection of scholars to be sent abroad for higher studies. I was selected by the board for higher studies in Engineering in London. Rai Saheb GT Meshram who was the Estate Officer Govt. of India took me to 22, Prithviraj road to meet Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar. As soon as I was introduced to Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, he immediately said " Mr. Uke Congratulations since we have selected you for higher studies in UK, under the Scheduled Castes Students Scholarship. We had a selection in Simla". I thanked Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar for my selection in the SC Scholarship. But I told Babasaheb that I have also been selected today by the Govt. of India under general scholarship for study in UK for Engineering. Babasaheb was very happy that I was selected in General Scholarship, thus saving one scholarship of Scheduled Caste. 

My next meetings with Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar were in London 4 times, on 26 th Oct. 29th Oct. 2nd Nov. and 9th Nov.1946. During this period he had met important personalities from London including Clement Attlee Prime Minister of UK, and Mr. Winston Churchill. On 2 nd Nov. 1946 we invited him to visit our place at 4, Downside Crescent. He blessed us by visiting our place and sitting for a group photo which included number of SC Scholars including Mr. Khobragade studying for Bar.

The next time when I met Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was when I was called from London to return to India, for selection for a post in Defence. The Public Service Commission selected me for this post. I met Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar along with Raisaheb GT Meshram after my selection. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar had a liking for me and suggested to Mr. Meshram that he should propose my marriage with his daughter Kamal. Meshram family and Babasaheb Ambedkar were very close to each other. Whenever Babasaheb used to go to Nagpur he used to stay with Meshram family. Kamal used to know Babasaheb from her childhood of about 6 years since 1935. Our marriage took place on May 8 th,1949 at 4 Lodhi Estate, the residence of Mr. Meshram. Our marriage certificate was signed by 3 Cabinet Ministers of Govt. of India, 1 Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar , 2. Dr. John Matthai, and 3. Dr. Kakasaheb Gadgil.

VB: What was your personality about ? Did you face discrimination during your childhood? How supportive were your parents. 

NGU: You desired to know whether I was docile or strong person and whether I suffered from discrimination. In my childhood I was very strong. I normally used to score very high position in my class. The Brahmins did not like my status in the class and they closed the school after I passed class 3 of the primary school. For the 4th class I had to go to near by village about 2 miles from our village. I cleared class 4 th from that school with top record. I had told my father that he should help me financially up to 8th class including the middle school in English at Bramhpuri about 10 miles from my village. I passed the 8 th class with high % and was allotted Govt. Scholarship from 9th class onwards. I secured the high school admission in Patwardhan high school at Nagpur. My further studies were at the College of Science at Nagpur. Later I won the Govt. of India Scholarship for higher studies in London. 

VB : What impression did you get from Baba Saheb. What do his followers need to do to take forward his mission?

NGU: When we met Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar in London during 1946 he advised us that our people should be better than their best. Some of us definitely tried to come to the expectation of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar embraced Buddhism on 14th of October 1956 along with 5 lacks of people at Nagpur. His mission was to make whole of India as a Buddhist Country. How ever he expired within 53 days of his embracing Buddhism. 

His followers were not of the required capacity for the mission of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar with same vigor and achievements. They have been working in different groups and are not united. 

Ambedkarites must join together under one platform. I had met Dalai Lama in Ashoka Hotel a few years ago and I had suggested to him that he should take up the mission of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar of converting India into a Prabuddha Bharat. For my suggestion he became very happy and embraced me very warmly. In order to convert India into Prabuddha Bharat on the advice of Buddha and Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, it is necessary to workout a rational program. 

There are various factions in Buddhism. We must consolidate all the Buddhists of the world. For that matter we will have to spell out the Buddhism as has been prescribed by Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar. 

VB: A number of people are redefining Ambedkar's conversion. Some says that he wanted to embrace Islam while others suggest that he was in fact for Christianity. There is a Sikh angle also. To strengthen their point, they say that Ambedkar buckled under the pressure of the upper caste Hindu leadership? For me it is difficult to digest as Ambedkar remained a man of conviction and character all his life and it would have been difficult for him to accept anything as final word or Gods word. As a staunch Ambedkarite how do you respond to such questions? 

NGU: It is wrong. He never wanted to become Muslim or Sikh or Christian. Neither did he want to remain as a Hindu. He wanted to become Buddhist and he had declared in 1935 that though he was a born a Hindu, which was not in, his hand but he would not die as a Hindu. When he was in his matriculation, he was given a book on Buddhism. Baba Saheb had been reading about Buddhism for a very long time. Nizam offered him a lot of money. Others also offered him but he was not worried about money. He was worried about India. To make India a Prabuddha Bharat, an enlightned India and no religion can do that. He believed in Buddha but never in those rituals. He redefined Buddhism. Scriptures and Gods cannot help India at all. 

VB: Reservation issue has again rocked the country. While the current row has been actually against the OBC reservation in government services but it seems that in this entire scheme of things, it is the Dalits who have become target of the upper caste contempt. The Dalits are fighting the battle for OBCs while the latter are not visible anywhere, only to be found hitting at them in the villages. Now questions are being raised about creamy layer as well as different Dalit identities. As an Ambedkarite how to you resolve this crisis? 

NGU: As per as the reservation for Scheduled Castes is concerned people refused to understand the Constitutional provisions regarding SCST reservation. The Constitution is very clear. Constitution provides for reservations for the Scheduled Castes. These reservations are Universal. However the Govt. have excluded a large number of Jobs from the reservations, which goes against the spirit of the Constitution. 

There is also a view that a creamy layer from Scheduled Castes must be taken away from Scheduled Castes. This view is totally wrong The Creamy layer is the cream of the society. The Cream, which consists of the intellect of the Scheduled Castes are the people who guide and lead the Scheduled Castes. Nobody can deprive the Scheduled Castes of their intellectual leaders. All the rulers namely The President, The Prime Minister and the other leaders come from Creamy layer and govern. The Scheduled Castes cannot be divided as very rightly ruled by the Supreme Court. 

As far as the reservations for Scheduled Castes are concerned no Non-SC is affected and they have nothing to do with reservations. 

VB : You are a rare breed of Ambedkarite who are proclaimed atheists. Why?

NGU: Scheduled Castes cannot gain anything from Gods and their work. The only way out is to prove that our society, our system is better than theirs. We believe that superstitions, rituals ultimately exploit human being. 

VB: What do you think of economic globalisation. I mean many new Dalit scholars have complimented capitalism and often condemn Marx and his vision. What is an Ambedkarite vision of India. 

NGU: Privatisation is a threat to our soverignity. Land should be nationalized and redistributed among our people. Why should we allow the national resources to the private companies to suck our blood. Privatisation is nothing but taking away people's resources and we must oppose it. 

Once you privatize things, our people lose jobs in the government sector. Private companies are not going to follow that. The government must bring out a law to protect the interest of the Scheduled Castes. 

Baba Saheb was a revolutionary and so was Marx though Baba Saheb differed with his violence theory yet in no way was Baba Saheb anti Marx. We may have differences with Marxist theoreticians in India yet Marx and his philosophy are for the benefits of the common man. 

VB: What are the activities of Ambedkar Samaj. What does it aims at?

NGU: We have started Ambedkar Samaj to bring all Ambedkarites on one platform to fulfill the mission of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar not only to convert India as a Prabuddha Bharat but we have to transform the whole world as a Scientific Humanity without any differences. The Ambedkarites must lead to take the world forward as one humanity.

आंखन देखी : जब जगदेव बाबू ने कहा – सौ में नब्बे भाग हमारा है

वह जगदेव प्रसाद ही थे जिन्होंने शोषित दल बनाकर बिहार में पिछड़ों और दलितों की राजनीति को सवर्णों की राजनीति के समानांतर खड़ा कर दिया। हालांकि वे खुद मुख्यमंत्री नहीं बन सके लेकिन उनके कारण ही बी.पी. मंडल, दारोगा प्रसाद राय, कर्पूरी ठाकुर, भोला पासवान शास्त्री आदि सत्ता के शीर्ष पर बैठ सके। लेकिन जगदेव बाबू का संघर्ष अभी अधूरा है। बता रहे हैं शोषित समाज दल के राष्ट्रीय अध्यक्ष रघुनीराम शास्त्री :

शहीद जगदेव प्रसाद (2 फरवरी 1922 – 5 सितंबर 1974) और बी. पी. मंडल (25 अगस्त 1918 – 13 अप्रैल 1982) का राजनीतिक संघर्ष

जब बाल गंगाधर तिलक ने कहा कि ‘गड़ेरिया, नाई, धोबी, बढ़ई, लोहार, कोईरी, कुर्मी, मल्लाह, तेली, चमार आदि संसद में आकर क्या तेल पेरेंगे, हल जोतेंगे, कपड़ा धोयेंगे, जूता बनायेंगे? इनकी संसद में क्या जरूरत है?’ इस हिकारतपूर्ण कथन के विरोध में तभी से देश के दलित-पिछड़ों में एक उभार आरम्भ हुआ और इसकी परिणति के रूप में किसी व्यक्ति का नाम सामने आता है, तो वे हैं शहीद जगदेव प्रसाद। शहीद जगदेव प्रसाद ने देश  की धन-धरती, नौकरी, व्यापार से लेकर शासन-प्रशासन में जनसंख्या के अनुपात में हिस्सेदारी के लिए शंखनाद किया, तो बी.पी. मंडल ने पिछड़ा वर्ग आयोग के अध्यक्ष की हैसियत से सिफारिश करके उक्त स्थानों में कानूनी प्रक्रिया को मूर्त रूप प्रदान किया। जगदेव प्रसाद ने इसकी शुरूआत 60-65 के दशक में कर दी थी। जब पिछड़ों-दलितों के हक-हकूक की बात करना लोहे के चने चबाने जैसा था। यह एक युगांतकारी आन्दोलन था।

उक्त महापुरुषों के संघर्ष की चर्चा एक छोटी सी कहानी से करना चाहता हूँ। अब्राहम लिंकन बचपन में जानवर चरा रहे थे। उन्होंने देखा कि नीग्रो की बहू-बेटियों के साथ वहाँ का शासक, जमीन्दार, जार, कुलांक, पूंजीपति अपनी हवस की पूर्ति करता है और उससे जो बच्चे जन्म लेते हैं उसे सरेआम बाजारों में टमाटर की तरह बेच देता है। यह दृश्य लिंकन की छाती पर हथौड़े की भाँति वार करता है। जानवर चराने के क्रम में वह शपथ लेता है, प्रतिज्ञा करता है, कसमें खाता है कि ‘अगर मैं इस धरती पर जिन्दा रहा तो एक दिन अमेरिका की धरती से दास प्रथा (गुलामी) को नेस्तनाबूद कर ही दम लूँगा।’ अमेरिका की राजनीति करवट लेती है, व्यवस्था बदलती है और एक दिन वही जानवर चराने वाला लिंकन अमेरिका के राष्ट्रपति पद पर पहुँच जाता है। जैसे ही राष्ट्रपति पद का शपथ लेता है, वैसे ही वह 40 लाख नीग्रो लोगों को गुलामी से मुक्ति की घोषणा करता है । मतलब जो निरादर और दरिद्रता की चोट से चोटिल है, निरादर और दरिद्रता से मुक्ति की मुक्कमिल लड़ाई वही लड़ सकता है।

‘अनकर माल झलकौआ, छिन लिया तो हो गया कौआ’
जब सवर्णों ने बी.पी. मंडल के पिता को भोजन के पांत से उठा दिया

जगदेव प्रसाद का जन्म 2 फरवरी, 1922 को एक साधारण परिवार में होता है, जबकि बी.पी. मंडल का जन्म एक जमींदार घराने में 25 अगस्त, 1918 को होता है। जगदेव प्रसाद जहाँ अपनी पढ़ाई भूखे पेट करते हैं, वहीं बी.पी. मंडल सारी सुख-सुविधाओं से युक्त। मंडल जी के जीवन से संबंधित एक संस्मरण यहाँ पेश करना प्रासंगिक होगा। इलाके में जमींदारों की महती सभा थी, जिसमें भाग लेने मंडल जी के साथ इनके पिता रासबिहारी मंडल गये थे। सभा बाद भोजन की बारी आयी और सभी जमींदार भोजन के लिये पाँत में बैठ गये, रासबिहारी मंडल भी अपने पुत्र के साथ उसी पाँत में जब बैठते हैं, तो सवर्ण जमींदारों में इस स्थिति से भूकंप आ जाता है और पिछड़े जमींदार रासबिहारी मंडल को उस पंक्ति से यह कहकर उठा दिया जाता है कि आप सवर्ण जमींदारों की पंक्ति में बैठने के हकदार नहीं हैं। तब उन्हें पिछड़े (शूद्र) का अहसास होता है और बिना खाना खाये विद्रोह कर वहाँ से चल देते हैं। इस सामाजिक अपमान का गहरा असर उस नन्हे बालक बी.पी. मंडल पर पड़ता है, यही वजह है कि बड़े भू-स्वामी खानदान में पैदा लेने के बावजूद पिछड़ों के लिए उनके सामाजिक विषमता का अध्ययन किया और उनके विकास के लिए हिस्सेदारी की सिफारिशें की।

अमर शहीद जगदेव प्रसाद और बी.पी. मंडल

जगदेव प्रसाद और बी.पी. मंडल के पूर्व डाॅ. राममनोहर लोहिया ने समाजवादी आन्दोलन की शुरुआत की और 60 व 40 का नारा बुलंद किया।

संसोपा ने बाँधी गाँठ, पिछड़ा पावे सौ में साठ।
राज-काज का साठ प्रतिशत, पिछड़ा वर्ग के हाथ में हो।
उंच जाति जब राज चलावे, देश की रक्षा कैसे हो।
उंची जाति की क्या पहचान, अच्छा खाये करे ना काम।
नीच जाति की क्या पहचान, करे काम पर सहे अपमान।

उक्त नारों से प्रभावित होकर जगदेव प्रसाद ने सोशलिस्ट पार्टी का झंडा अपने हाथ में थाम लिया। आरा (भोजपुर) की एक सभा में जगदेव प्रसाद ने डाॅ. लोहिया से कहा कि ‘लोहिया जी मेरी डायरी में आप लिख दें कि जिनकी बहू-बेटियां खेत-खलिहानों में काम नहीं करती, वह समाजवादी नहीं हो सकता।’

लोहिया की राजनीति से जगदेव बाबू का मोहभंग

डाॅ. लोहिया की समाजवादी दर्शन के अनुसार 60 प्रतिशत पिछड़ा और चालीस प्रतिशत ‘उछड़ा’ की गिनती में आता था। जिन्दगी के हर दौड़ में पिछड़ों का साठ प्रतिशत और उछड़ों का चालीस प्रतिशत हिस्सा था। दलित, आदिवासी, अल्पसंख्यक और तमाम पिछड़ी जातियां पिछड़े वर्ग में शामिल थीं, तो सवर्ण (ब्राह्मण, भूमिहार, राजपूत, कायस्थ) उछड़े वर्ग में शामिल थे। लेकिन यह एक दुःखद आश्चर्य था कि उंची जाति की महिलाएँ भी पिछड़े वर्ग में शामिल थीं और उन्हें साठ प्रतिशत हिस्से में शुमार किया गया था, जबकि उंची जाति के पुरुष मात्र चालीस प्रतिशत हिस्से के हकदार थे। यही था समाजवाद का मुख्य दर्शन। जितना समाजवाद का दार्शनिक क्षेत्र में घालमेल था उतना ही व्यवहारिक रूप में भी घालमेल। समाजवाद का यह दार्शनिक सत्य व्यवहारिक रूप में सत्य नहीं उतरा। डाॅ. लोहिया ने एक मजे की बात कही थी कि उंची जाति के लोगों को आर्थिक क्षेत्र में सम्पन्नता और सामाजिक क्षेत्र में सम्मान प्राप्त है। इसलिए वे खाद का काम करें। यानी वे चुनाव नहीं लड़ें और मंत्रिमंडल में भी शामिल न हों। लेकिन डाॅ. लोहिया का यह विचार धरा का धरा रह गया और समान्ती ताकतें साँप की तरह कुंडली मारकर पार्टी पर बैठ गई ।

डॉ. राम मनोहर लोहिया

1967 में विधानसभा और लोकसभा का चुनाव एक साथ हुआ। बिहार विधानसभा के टिकट पर चालीस प्रतिशत के कोटे में बसावन सिंह (भूमिहार) विधानसभा के सदस्य बन गये, तो उनकी पत्नी कमला सिन्हा साठ प्रतिशत के कोटे में विधान परिषद् की सदस्य चुन ली गईं। इसी तरह से लोकसभा के चुनाव में अर्जुन सिंह भदौरिया (राजपूत) चालीस प्रतिशत के कोटे में लोकसभा के सदस्य बने, तो उनकी पत्नी सरला भदौरिया साठ प्रतिशत के कोटे में राज्यसभा की सदस्या चुन ली गईं। पति-पत्नी सौ प्रतिशत पर काबिज हो गये। इसी तरह से पिछड़ों के हिस्से में हकमारी हुई। 1967 में भारत के नौ राज्यों में  गैरकांग्रेसी (संविद) सरकारें बनी। बिहार में भी मिलीजुली सरकार बनी, जिसमें सोशलिस्ट, जनसंघ, भारतीय क्रांति दल(भाक्रांद) आदि शामिल थे। 69 सदस्य सोशलिस्ट के थे और 19 भाक्रांद के। परन्तु भाक्रांद के महामाया प्रसाद सिन्हा को मुख्यमंत्री बनाया गया । मंत्रिमंडल में साठ प्रतिशत मंत्राी उंची जाति के और चालीस प्रतिशत मंत्राी पिछड़ी जाति के बने। यहाँ भी 60-40 के सिद्धांत की हत्या हुई। इस मुद्दे पर जब विवाद हुआ तो यह तय हुआ कि उछड़ों का एक मंत्री हटा दिया जाय और पिछड़ों का एक मंत्री बढ़ा दिया जाय। तब ‘लिख लोढ़ा पढ़ पत्थर’(अनपढ़) रामानन्द तिवारी पुलिस मंत्री को हटाकर पिछड़ों का एक मंत्री बढ़ा दिया जाय। इस पर कर्पूरी ठाकुर जी ने स्वयं मंत्रिमंडल से त्यागपत्र देने की ध्मकी दे डाली। प्रथम ग्रासे मच्छिकापातः। बड़ी मुश्किल से सोशलिस्टों की सरकार बनी थी, उस पर भी ग्रहण आ गया।

बिहार के भूतपूर्व मुख्यमंत्री जननायक कर्पूरी ठाकुर, भोला पासवान शास्त्री
संविद सरकार प्रगतिशील सरकार मानी जा रही थी, परन्तु इस सरकार में दलित, आदिवासी और मुसलमान के बीच से कोई भी मंत्री नहीं बनाया गया था। उक्त स्थिति के खिलाफ जगदेव प्रसाद का विद्रोही मन विद्रोह कर बैठा। इस मुद्दे पर जगदेव बाबू डाॅ. लोहिया से बात करने दिल्ली गये, परन्तु उनके सचिव उर्मिलानन्द झा ने मिलने से रोक दिया।

शोषित दल का गठन

जगदेव प्रसाद 1967 में संसोपा के टिकट पर कुर्था विधानसभा से 17,000 मतों से कांग्रेसी उम्मीदवार सुखदेव प्रसाद वर्मा को हराकर विधनसभा पहुंचे थे। समाजवादी पाटी के 60-40 की नीतियों की हत्या के खिलापफ 25 अगस्त, 1967 को पटना के अंजुमन इस्लामिया हाॅल में देश के तमाम दलित, पिछड़े, समाजवादियों का एक राष्ट्रीय सम्मेलन प्रखर समाजवादी शिवपूजन शास्त्राी की अध्यक्षता में जगदेव बाबू ने आयोजित की और उसी सभा में उन्होंने सामंती राजनीति के खिलाफ घोषणा की कि ‘उंची जाति वालों ने हमारे बाप-दादों से राजनीतिक हरवाही(खेत जोतवाना) करवायी है, मैं उनकी राजनीतिक हरवाही करने के लिए पैदा नहीं लिया हूँ। मैं तमाम नब्बे प्रतिशत दलित, आदिवासी, मुसलमान और पिछड़े लोगों को एक मंच पर खड़ा करूंगा और उनके बीच से नेतृत्व पैदा कर दिल्ली की गद्दी पर बैठाउंगा, जो धरती-दौलत, नौकरी-टोपरी, बिजनेस-व्यापार, कल-कारखना, शासन-प्रशासन में जनसंख्या के अनुपात में हिस्सेदारी की गारंटी का बंटवारा स्वयं करेंगे, जिसे दुनिया की कोई भी ताकत रोक नहीं सकती।’ इस लड़ाई का शंखनाद करते हुए उन्होंने यह भी कहा कि ‘आज मैं एक क्रांतिकारी पार्टी की नींव डाल रहा हूँ, जिसमें आने और जाने वालों की कमी नहीं होगी। हमारी लड़ाई सौ साल की होगी । इस लड़ाई में पहली पीढ़ी के लोग मारे जायेंगे, दूसरी पीढ़ी के जेल जायेंगे और तीसरी पीढ़ी के लोग राज करेंगे । जीत अंततोगत्वा हमारी होकर रहेगी।’ इसे उन्होंने स्पष्ट करते हुए कहा कि भारत की सभी राजनीतिक पार्टियों पर उंची जाति का नेतृत्व है। दलित-पिछड़ों के तथाकथित नेता उन सवर्ण प्रधान दलों में गुलामी का काम करते हैं, बनिहारी करते हैं। अंतर केवल इतना ही है कि गाँव का मजदूर एक सेर अनाज पर जमींदार की हरवाही करता है और दलित-पिछड़ों के नेता एक कार और एक बंगला पर पटना-दिल्ली में उंची जाति की हरवाही करते हैं। दल की नीति-निर्धारण में इनकी कोई भूमिका नहीं होती। ऐसे सवर्ण प्रधान दलों के नेता, दलितों-पिछड़ों के मतों से चुनाव जीतकर जब कानूनघरों ;विधानसभा, लोकसभा में जाते हैं तो कानून अपने वर्ग हित में बनाते हैं, इसीलिए दलितों-पिछड़ों का विकास यहाँ अवरूद्ध है ।

जगदेव प्रसाद की स्मृति में भारत सरकार द्वारा जारी डाक टिकट

जगदेव प्रसाद ने कहा कि भारत का समाज दो भागों में बंटा है – शोषक और शोषित। शोषक उंची जाति के तमाम लोग हैं और शोषित दलित, आदिवासी, मुसलमान और तमाम पिछड़े वर्ग के लोग। 10 प्रतिशत शोषक है और नब्बे प्रतिशत शोषित। 10 प्रतिशत शोषक बनाम 90 प्रतिशत शोषित की लड़ाई इस देश में समाजवाद और कम्युनिज्म की असली लड़ाई है और यही असली वर्ग संघर्ष है। दुनिया में जितनी लड़ाईयां हुई हैं वह शोषक और शोषित के बीच हुई हैं। 10 प्रतिशत उंची जाति सम्पन्न और सम्मानित है तो 90 प्रतिशत शोषित विपन्न और अपमानित। भारत में वर्ण ही वर्ग बन गया है। इसलिए जबतक वर्ण टूटेगा नहीं, तबतक वर्ग नहीं बन सकता और बिना वर्ग बने, वर्ग संघर्ष नहीं हो सकता। यहां 10 वर्ष का ब्राह्मण उंच है और सौ वर्ष का दलित-पिछड़ा नीच है। यहां की पूजित हिन्दू पोथी फतवा देती है।

‘पूजिये विप्र शील गुण हीना, शूद्र न गुणगन ज्ञान प्रवीणा।’

इसी हुंकार के साथ ‘शोषित दल’ नामक राजनीतिक दल का गठन किया और 90 प्रतिशत लोगों को एकता के सूत्र में बांधने का संघर्ष छेड़ दिया और नारा दिया – 

सौ में नब्बे शोषित है, नब्बे भाग हमारा है।
धन-धरती और राज-पाट में, नब्बे भाग हमारा है।
दस का शासन नब्बे पर, नहीं चलेगा, नहीं चलेगा।
दो बातें हैं मोटी-मोटी, हमें चाहिए इज्जत-रोटी।
साम्यवाद और पूंजीवाद, दोनों से दुनिया बर्बाद।
मिटे गरीबी और अमीरी, मिटे चाकरी और मजबूरी।
समता बिना समाज नहीं, बिन समाज जनराज नहीं।

कुर्था, बिहार के एक गांव में एक दीवार पर लिखे गये जगदेव प्रसाद के नारे

उन्होंने साम्यवादी दलों को भी ललकारा और कहा कि इन दलों पर भी सवर्णों और सामंतों का कब्जा है। सर्वहारा की लड़ाई लड़ने वाला सर्वहारा का दुश्मन ही सर्वहारा की लड़ाई का नेतृत्व कर रहा है। इसे स्पष्ट करते हुए उन्होंने कहा कि जिस तरह मांस की रखवाली कुत्ता नहीं कर सकता, उसी तरह गरीब की भलाई अमीर नहीं कर सकता। जबतक भारत में सामाजिक और सांस्कृतिक बदलाव नहीं होगा, तबतक राजनीतिक और आर्थिक बदलाव नहीं हो सकता।

जब जगदेव बाबू ने महामाया प्रसाद सिंह को दी सरकार गिराने की चुनौती

1967 में बिहार में अकाल पड़ गया और जगदेव बाबू ने मुख्यमंत्री महामाया प्रसाद सिन्हा से गरीबों की जान बचाने के लिए मुफ्त में अनाज मुहैया कराने का प्रस्ताव रखा। इसपर उन्होंने इन्कार कर दिया तब जगदेव प्रसाद ने सिंह गर्जना की – 

‘एक महीने के अन्दर में, तोड़ूं महामाया सरकार,
गर ना तोडूं महामाया को, तो फिर जीने को धिक्कार।’

जगदेव बाबू ने तमाम दलित-पिछड़े विधायकों की एक बैठक बुलाकर महामाया सरकार को दलित-पिछड़ों का दुश्मन करार दिया, जिस पर सारे विधायक सहमत हुए और ठीक एक महीने के अन्दर महामाया सरकार गिर गयी। काँग्रेस ने बाहर से समर्थन दिया। अब सवाल था कि मुख्यमंत्री कौन बने ? जब यह स्थिति स्पष्ट हुई कि जगदेव प्रसाद के नेतृत्व में नई सरकार बनने जा रही है तो दूसरे-दूसरे दलों के 36 विधयक रातोंरात ‘शोषित दल’ में शामिल हो गये। बी.पी. मंडल को मुख्यमंत्री बनाने पर सहमति हुई। परन्तु उन दिनों मंडल जी सांसद थे और काँग्रेस से त्यागपत्र देकर सोशलिस्ट पार्टी में शामिल हो गये थे। बी.पी. मंडल को मुख्यमंत्री का शपथ लेने में तीन दिन की तकनीकी अड़चन थी।

बिहार के भूतपूर्व मुख्यमंत्री महामाया प्रसाद सिन्हा

इस तीन दिन के लिए ऐसे नेता को मुख्यमंत्री बनना था, जो तीन दिन के बाद त्यागपत्र दे दे, ताकि बी.पी. मंडल शपथ ले सकें। इस सरकार गठन के मुख्य सूत्रधार जगदेव बाबू थे। जगदेव बाबू को मुख्यमंत्री बनाने की राय बन गई, पर रामलखन सिंह यादव को यह रास नहीं आया। तब सतीश प्रसाद सिंह को मुख्यमंत्री बनाया गया और तब जगदेव बाबू ने बी.पी. मंडल को सोशलिस्ट पार्टी से त्यागपत्र दिलवाकर ‘शोषित दल’ में शामिल कराकर विधान परिषद् का मेम्बर बनाया और तब 1 फरवरी, 1968 को बी.पी. मंडल ने मुख्यमंत्री पद की शपथ ली। जगदेव बाबू द्वितीय स्थान पर नदी घाटी, बिजली, सिंचाई मंत्री बनाये गये। सतीश प्रसाद सिंह ने 29 जनवरी, 1968 को मुख्यमंत्री पद की शपथ ली थी। भारतीय इतिहास में पहली बार पिछड़े वर्ग के मुख्यमंत्री सतीश प्रसाद सिंह और बी.पी. मंडल को बनाने का सारा श्रेय शोषित इन्कलाब के लेनिन जगदेव प्रसाद को जाता है। सदन में 319 विधायकों में 148 के मुकाबले 165 मतों से मंडल जी ने विश्वास प्राप्त किया। पांच विधायकों ने मतदान में हिस्सा नहीं लिया।

मंत्री बनते ही चलाया पद हड़पो अभियान

शोषित दल की सरकार बनते ही जगदेव बाबू ने ‘पद हड़पो अभियान’ चलाकर दलित-पिछड़े अधिकारियों को पदोन्नति देकर उंची कुर्सी पर बैठाया। इसी क्रम में आर.एस. मंडल को मुख्य सचिव, आर. लाल को आईजी, और जेड.एस. हक खान को बिजली विभाग का चेयरमैन बनाकर सवर्णों को अपनी ताकत का एहसास कराया। 45 दिन की सरकार में गरीबों के लिए मुफ्त विलायती दूध, दलिया और रोटी की नदियाँ स्कूलों में बहने लगी। यह था जगदेव बाबू का गरीबों के प्रति ममत्व। पांच वर्षों तक लगातार उंची जाति के लिए मुख्यमंत्री की कुर्सी सपना हो गयी। दारोगा प्रसाद राय, भोला पासवान शास्त्राी, कर्पूरी ठाकुर ने मुख्यमंत्री की कुर्सी को सुशोभित किया। इसी दरम्यान जगदेव बाबू ने पाँच एकड़ वाले छोटे किसानों की मालगुजारी माफ की। उक्त सभी पिछड़े व गरीबों के पक्ष में किए गये काम से सवर्णों की छाती पर साँप लोटने लगा। विनोदानन्द झा ने 12 विधायकों का एक गुट बनाकर समर्थन वापस ले लिया जिससे 18 मार्च, 1968 को ‘शोषित दल’ की सरकार गिर गयी। बी.पी. मंडल पुनः कांग्रेस में चले गये। पुनः जगदेव बाबू ने ‘हिन्दुस्तानी शोषित दल’ का गठन करके अपना आन्दोलन जारी रखा।

‘नदी नर्मदा जब-जल गरजे, औ गंगा की गरजे धार ।
जगदेव गरजे जब भारत में, भय से काँपे ला भूमिहार ।
डोले सिंहासन तब इन्दिरा के, भइया दिल्ली के दरबार ।
बेटा जाग गइल शोषित का, अब लेगा अपना अध्किार ।
बिन अधिकार लिये न छोड़ी, चाहे बहे खून की धार ।’
रामस्वरूप वर्मा के साथ मिलकर बनाया शोषित समाज दल

जगदेव बाबू ने पार्टी का विस्तार किया और 7 अगस्त, 1972 को पटना के विधायक क्लब में विश्व के महान मानववादी विचारक, अर्जक संघ के संस्थापक और उत्तर प्रदेश के पूर्व वित्त मंत्राी महामानव रामस्वरूप वर्मा और शोषित क्रान्ति के महान अग्रदूत शहीद जगदेव प्रसाद के संयुक्त नेतृत्व में कई दलों को मिलाकर ‘शोषित समाज दल’ नामक राजनीतिक दल का गठन हुआ, जिसमें समाज दल, शोषित  दल, रिपब्लिकन पार्टी, सेवा दल, समता दल आदि का विलय हुआ, जिसके राष्ट्रीय अध्यक्ष रामस्वरूप वर्मा और महामंत्राी जगदेव प्रसाद बनाये गये । 5 सितम्बर से 11 सितम्बर, 1974 तक बिहार के सभी प्रखंडों पर इन्दिरा शाही के खिलाफ सात सूत्री मांगों को लेकर जेल भरो अभियान (सत्याग्रह) छेड़ा गया, जिसकी मुख्य माँगें थी
  1. 6 से 14 वर्ष के लड़के-लड़कियों के लिए अनिवार्य, एक समान, राष्ट्रीयकृत, मुफ्त और मानववादी शिक्षा लागू की जाय
  2. सभी नागरिकों को फोटो वाला पहचान पत्र जारी करके मतदान अनिवार्य किया जाय।
  3. देश के सभी पुस्तकालयों में डाॅ. आंबेडकर साहित्य अनिवार्य रूप से अविलंब लागू किया जाय।
  4. तमाम दलित भूमिहीनों को इंसानी बस्ती में बसाकर व रोजगार की गारंटी देकर निरादर व दरिद्रता का नाश किया जाय।
  5. जनसंख्या के अनुपात में आरक्षण लागू किया जाय।
  6. सात वर्षों के अन्दर सभी असिंचित भूमि की सिंचाई की गारंटी की जाय और खेती व कारखाने से उत्पादित वस्तुओं की कीमत में समानुपात कायम किया जाय।
  7. मजदूरी अधिनियम तथा बटाईदारी बिल लागू किया जाय।
बिहार के सभी नेताओं को अपने-अपने प्रखंडों पर जिम्मेवारी सौंपी गई, जिसमें इस लेख के लेखक को को दाउदनगर में नेतृत्व दिया गया। जगदेव बाबू ने कुर्था प्रखंड की जिम्मेवारी स्वयं ली। सवर्णों ने इसी बीच हत्या की साजिश रचकर शासन-प्रशासन को प्रभावित करके उंची जाति के पुलिस पदाधिकारियों को कुर्था में स्थापित करवाया। 5 सितम्बर, 1974 को काँग्रेसी हुकूमत की गोली से जगदेव बाबू की निर्मम हत्या कर दी गयी। उनके साथ दलित छात्र लक्ष्मण चौधरी भी शहीद हो गये।

जगदेव बाबू के बताये रास्ते पर चल रहा शोषित समाज दल  

उच्च वर्णीय और उच्च वर्गीय नेतृत्व को नकार कर निम्न वर्णीय और निम्न वर्गीय नेतृत्व का सृजन करने के लिए शोषित समाज दल आज भी संघर्षरत है। इस संघर्ष को मंजिल तक पहुँचाने में गोपाल मेहता, प्रह्लाद मेहता, लक्ष्मण मेहता (औरंगाबाद), डाॅ. मस्तराम देहाती (बरेली), भगवान दीन (बस्ती), द्वारिका प्रसाद (झारखंड) आदि ने अपनी कुर्बानी दी है। भारत के सभी दलों के दलित-पिछड़े नेता सवर्णों के नेतृत्व में दलितों-पिछड़ों के विकास की लड़ाई लड़ना चाहते हैं जो विज्ञान और दर्शन के विपरीत है। दलितों-पिछड़ों की सही लड़ाई शोषित समाज दल निश्चित नीति, सिद्धांत और कार्यक्रमों के द्वारा मजबूती से लड़ रहा है और बाबा साहेब डाॅ. आंबेडकर, जोती राव फुले, रामास्वामी नायकर, रामस्वरूप वर्मा, ललई सिंह यादव, शहीद जगदेव प्रसाद आदि के सपनों को साकार करने के लिए प्रतिबद्ध है।

आज भी जारी है नब्बे फीसदी वालों का शोषण

बाबा साहेब डाॅ. अांबेडकर ने संविधान की धारा 15, 15(4), 16, 16(4), 340 आदि में दलितों-पिछड़ों के चतुर्मुखी विकास के लिए अधिकार दिया, जिसके तहत पंडित काका कालेलकर की अध्यक्षता में एक आयोग का गठन 1953 में हुआ, परन्तु इसे ठंढे बस्ते में डाल दिया गया, जबकि 1955 में ही पंडित कालेलकर ने अपनी रिपोर्ट पेश की थी। 1977 में जब आपातकाल के बाद जनता पार्टी की सरकार बनी, इसके पूर्व कालेलकर की रिपोर्ट लागू करने का वादा चुनाव में किया गया था। सरकार बनने पर जब इसपर चर्चा हुई तो प्रधनमंत्री मोरारजी देसाई ने इसे 40 वर्ष पुराना बताकर लागू करने से इन्कार कर दिया। 1955 में गुलजारी लाल नंदा और मोरारजी देसाई ने इसे रद्दी की टोकरी में फेंकने लायक बताया था। बड़ी जद्दोजहद के बाद 1 जनवरी, 1979 को पिछड़ा वर्ग आयोग गठित किया गया, जिसके अध्यक्ष बी.पी. मंडल बनाये गये। उन्होंने राष्ट्रीय स्तर का दौरा करके दलितों-पिछड़ों की सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक, आर्थिक, राजनीतिक और शैक्षणिक स्थिति का जायजा लिया और अपनी रिपोर्ट दिसम्बर, 1980 में पेश कर दी, जिसमें 52 प्रतिशत आबादी वाले पिछड़ों को 27 प्रतिशत आरक्षण की सिफारिश की, जिसे बी.पी. सिंह की सरकार ने अगस्त, 1990 में लागू करने की घोषणा कर दी। घोषणा होते ही देश के सवर्णों ने धरती को माथे पर उठाकर हिंसक आन्दोलन प्रारम्भ कर दिया, जिसमें अरबों-खरबों की संपत्ति की हानि हुई। इसके बावजूद 16 नवम्बर, 1992 को सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने सरकार की घोषणा की स्वीकृति प्रदान कर दी।

तत्कालीन राष्ट्रपति ज्ञानी जैल सिंह को रिपोर्ट सौंपते बी.पी. मंडल

आज यह विचारणीय प्रश्न है कि 52 प्रतिशत आबादी को 27 प्रतिशत आरक्षण ही क्यों ? किसी को भूख लगी है और उसे चाय पिलाकर छोड़ दिया जाय तो उसका स्वास्थ्य कितना मजबूत होगा ? इसके पूर्व पंडित कालेलकर की रिपोर्ट में शिक्षा, मेडिकल, इंजीनियरिंग आदि में 70 प्रतिशत आरक्षण की सिफारिश थी। शोषित समाज दल ने हिसाब लगाया था कि दलित-पिछड़े अभ्यर्थी प्रतियोगिता में 20 प्रतिशत कम-से-कम स्थान प्राप्त करेंगे। इस तरह 90 प्रतिशत आबादी को नब्बे प्रतिशत हिस्सा प्राप्त हो जायेगा। तत्कालीन सवर्ण प्रधान सरकार ने इसीलिए इसे लागू नहीं किया था। बी.पी. मंडल की रिपोर्ट के हिसाब से 22.5 दलित और 27 पिछड़ों के आरक्षण मिलाकर कुल 49.5 होता है, जो न्याय नहीं कहा जा सकता है। इसके बाद भी वी.पी. सिंह और नरसिम्हा राव में एक गोपनीय मशविरा के बाद क्रीमीलेयर लगाकर दलितों-पिछड़ों के विकास को अवरूद्ध करने की नापाक साजिश हुई। दलित, पिछड़ों के तथाकथित नेता इस साजिश से अंजान होकर वी.पी. सिंह की जय-जयकार कर रहे हैं, जो घोर चिन्ता का सवाल है। शहीद जगदेव प्रसाद ने स्पष्ट कहा था कि नब्बे प्रतिशत शोषितों की आबादी है और सभी महकमों में नब्बे प्रतिशत हिस्सा चाहिए, यही सही सामाजिक न्याय है और अगर इससे कम मिलता है तो यह घोर अन्याय है।

यह चिंतनीय सवाल है कि दलितों की प्रोन्नति में आरक्षण को लेकर पिछड़े वर्गों में काफी आक्रोश है। सचमुच में यह सवर्णों की साजिश है, जिसे पिछड़े वर्ग के बुद्धिजीवी नजरअंदाज कर रहे हैं और इसका असली फायदा सवर्ण उठा रहे हैं। यही वजह है कि जनसंख्या के अनुपात में आरक्षण की लड़ाई बाधित हो रही है। शहीद जगदेव प्रसाद ने तमाम दलित-पिछड़े, अल्पसंख्यकों को मूल्यों की राजनीति के आधार पर एक मंच पर एकजुट करके जनसंख्या के अनुपात में सभी वर्गों की हिस्सेदारी की गांरटी करना चाहते थे। इसी मुद्दे पर उनकी निर्मम हत्या की गई।

जगदेव प्रसाद का अटल सत्य

आजकल जगदेव बाबू की जयंती और शहादत दिवस का धूम मच गया है। उनके गले में तो माला पहनाया जा रहा है और विचारों पर ताला लगाया जा रहा है। उनक गले में माला पहनाने वाले लोग उनके विचारों से या तो वाकिफ नहीं हैं, या जातीय भावना से प्रेरित होकर उनका नाम लेकर विचारों के साथ घात कर रहे हैं, जो घोर निंदनीय है। जो भाजपा, काँग्रेस, राजद, लोजपा, सपा बसपा आदि के लोग हैं वे जगदेव बाबू का नाम तो लेते हैं, परन्तु अपने-अपने दल के आकाओं के नियंत्रण में रहकर ही काम करते हैं। ऐसा करके जगदेव बाबू के विचारों को वे भ्रमित कर रहे हैं। शोषित समाज दल कठिन कुर्बानी देकर संघर्ष कर रहा है और जगदेव बाबू के सिद्धांतों, नीतियों का यही सही वाहक है। जगदेव बाबू के विचारों से अगर कोई सहमत है, तो उन्हें शोषित समाज दल को मजबूती प्रदान करना चाहिए। यही उनके प्रति सच्ची श्रद्धांजलि है। जो जगदेव बाबू के विचारों के वाहक हैं, उनसे विनम्र निवेदन है कि उनकी नीतियों, सिद्धांतों, कार्यक्रमों को जन-जन तक पहुँचावें। अपनी आने वाली पीढ़ी को इतना शिक्षित और प्रशिक्षित कर दें कि आनेवाला वह शोषकों की छाती पर लाती देकर अपना हिस्सा प्राप्त कर ले। इसे दुनिया की कोई भी ताकत रोक नहीं सकती। जगदेव बाबू की लड़ाई तभी सफल होगी, जब उनके अनुयायी दस प्रतिशत सवर्णों, सामन्तों, पूँजीपतियों, साम्प्रदायियों से अपना संबंध विच्छेद कर लें, तभी जगदेव बाबू के गले में माला डालने के असली हकदार हो सकते हैं, वरना आनेवाली पीढ़ी उन्हेें निश्चित रूप में थूकेगी। संघमुक्त भारत बनाने की लड़ाई संघ की मलाई खाकर ही लोग लड़ना चाहते हैं, जो भारी धोखा है। इनसे सावधान रहने की जरूरत है।
शहीद जगदेव प्रसाद का अटल सत्य आज भी प्रासंगिक है –
‘जब तक जियब नाहीं चली, केहू के जमींदारी।
हम ना करब राजनीति में, शोषक के बनिहारी।।’
(कॉपी संपादन : एफपी डेस्क)

(Prof) Dr. Faguni Ram 

Member of Parliament for Three Terms and a well known Educationist. He authored several books in Geography.



Room No. 110, Centre for Political Studies, SSS-II Building, 

Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 

Telephone No.:011-26704140


Area of Interest: Indian Political Thought; Humiliation; Social Movements.


Humiliation: Claims and Context, New Delhi, OUP, 2009.

Articles in Books: 

‘Social Justice’, in Pratap Bhanu Mehata and Niraja Gopal Jayal (Eds.), Companion to Indian Politics, OUP, Delhi, 2010.

‘Constitutional Justice: Positional and Cultural’, in ed., Rajeev Bhargava, Politics and Philosophy of Indian Constitution, OUP, Delhi, 2008.

‘20th Century Discourse on Social Justice: a view from Bahishkrut Baharat’, in ed., Sabhyasachi Bhattacharya, History, Political thought in Modern India and Social Science, New Delhi, Oxford, 2007.

‘Dalits in Pursuit of Modernity’, in Romila Thapar (Ed.), India another Millennium, New Delhi, Penguin-Viking, 2000.
Articles in Journals:

‘The Idea of India: Desi, Derivative and Beyond’, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XXXXVI, No. 37, 10 September 2011

‘Liberal Democracy in India and the Dalit Critique’, Social Research, 78:1, Spring, 2011, pp. 99-122

‘Archaeology of Untouchability’, Economic and Political Weekly, September 2009.

‘Dalit Movement in Mainstream Sociology’, Economic and Political Weekly, No. 14, April, 3, 1993.

‘How Egalitarian are Social Sciences in India?’ Economic and Political Weekly, Dec. 14, 2002.


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