“Poet,Dramatist,Historian,Propagandist,Social Reformer & Founder of Adi Hindu Movement”
Born as ‘HiraLal’ on 6th May, 1879 at Saurikh,Farukhabad (U.P.) to Shri Moti Ram & Ram Piari.His family left the village due to caste discrimination by Brahmins & settled in Umari,Mainpuri.He belonged to family of armymen,his father & uncle Kaluram was in army following his another uncle Mathura Prasad & elder brother Bant Lal both arose to rank of Subedar in British Indian army.His father died when he was young & grownup by his uncle who sent him Nasirabad(Ajmer) for further education.But he discontinued his education due to financial distress.Till then he was well versed with working knowledge of eight Indian languages- Hindi, Sanskrit, Persian, Marathi, Bangla and Punjabi etc.He got married to Hira Bai & had 4 daughters,one of them was married to Mangal Singh Jatav of Gwalior (was Parliamentary secretary in MP govt.)
He joined a group of sadhus and left for a pilgrimage & lived with them for 10 years.Thereafter,he came under the influence of Swami Sachitanand of Arya Samaj and Hira Lal joined him.After joining the Arya Samaj,changed his name to Swami Hariharanand.After working for sometime he got convinced that Arya Samaj was meant to save Hinduism by introducing certain minor reforms in the Hindu Society which was good for Dalits.But with time he came to know that their reforms in the Hindu religion were aimed for blocking conversion of Dalits to other religions not for giving them equal social status.So he lost faith in Arya Samaj philosophy & wanted to work towards the annihilation of hindu caste system.After leaving Arya Samaj he started Adi-Hindu movement for upliftment of the depressed Classes.In a Shastrarth in 1921 at Delhi,he defeated Pandit Akhilanandji of Arya Samaj.He rightly came to the conclusion that unless the untouchables secured political rights,there would be no salvation for them.’His name Swami Hariharanand was changed to Swami Achhutanand’. Now he was with the other stalwarts of Adi-Hindu Movement like, Gopal Baba Warangalkar,Bhagya Reddy Varma,B.Shayam Sunder & Babu Mangu Ram Magowalia and founded the Adi-Hindu Movement in unison with others which got recognized by Indian govt. in 1923.The main centre of the movement was at Kanpur where Mahatma Gandhi’s son Dev Dass Gandhi called a meeting in the house of his confidant at Kanpur where he called Swami Ji and asked him to stop his movement in the interests of Caste Hindus and Congress party but Acchutanand denied to it.Swami Achhutanand was a great rationalist of his times. He viewed any principle and policy from utility point of view and tried to eradicate irrationalism, sub-casteism and superstitions from among the Depressed Classes.When the Prince of Wales was to visit India in 1921-1922, the Congress Party decided to boycott him but Swami Achchutanand and his followers decided to accord a grand welcome to him. Therefore, a huge rally was arranged at Delhi in 1922.Swami Ji submitted written memorandum having seventeen demands of Dalits for the sympathetic consideration of the British Crown.A special session of the Depressed Classes representatives from all over India was convened at New Delhi in December 1927 to discuss the question of reforms in view of the arrival of the Simon Commission. Swami Achhutanand was Chairman of the Reception Committee of the convention and Sh. M. C. Rajah presided over the convention. The convention, demanded separate electorate and increased seats in the legislatures for the Depressed Classes.
He first met to Baba Saheb Ambedkar at Bombay in 1928 in Adi Hindu Samelan. There after both continued liaison.Swami Achhutanand met the Simon Commission on 30th Nov 1930 at Lucknow. His comrades who accompanied Swami Ji were Tilak Chander Kuril, Girdhari Lal Bhagat, Laxman Parsad, Karorhi Mall Khatik and others. Dr. Ambedkar also met the Simon Commission with his comrades as he was then President of Bahashkrit Hitkarini Sabha and submitted as exhaustive memorandum listing grievances and demands of the Depressed Classes .In 1930, Swami ji sent a telegram in support of Dr. Ambedkar and Rai Bahadur Srinivasan, the two untouchables invited to the Round Table conferences at London (UK) &supported the demand of separate electorate made by Dr. Ambedkar & opposed the Rajah-Moonje Pact.He also strongly opposed the nomenclature of Harijan given to Dalits by Mahatma Gandhi.In order to bring a new awareness among the Depressed Classes in 1922 he started a monthly paper “Achhut”, from Delhi but closed down again same year started “Prachin Hindu” but that too closed within 1 year.Thereupon “The Adi-Hindu Journal” was started from Kanpur in 1924.He was a philosopher-poet and a playwright. He wrote six books in Hindi-Shambuk Balidan (Drama),Achhut Pukar -Religious songs,Mayanand Balidan (biography),Pakhand Khandani ,Adi-Vansh Ka Danka,etc.He died in 1933 at Kanpur.Arjun Ram Meghwal
I was born in a middle class family of Kismidesar Village (Bikaner) to Mr. Lakhu Ram Meghwal and Mrs. Heeradevi on 7 December 1954. I got my primary education from the Government school of our village and secondary education from the Jawahar Jain Secondary School at Bheenasar. I got married to Panadevi on 12 May 1968 in the village Nal Badi, when I was studying in the 8th standard. After marriage, I continued my studies further and got the graduation degree in Arts (B.A.) & Law (L.L.B.) from the Sri Dungar College, Bikaner (Rajasthan). After that, I did post graduation from the same college and got the Masters Degree in Arts (M.A). Later, I did Masters in Business Administration (M.B.A.) from the Philippines University.
- Athawale Ramdas Bandu
- Father's Name Shri Bandu Bapu AthawaleMother's Name Smt. Honsabai Bandu AthawaleDate of Birth 25 December 1959Place of Birth Agalgaon, Distt. Sangli (Maharashtra)Marital Status MarriedDate of Marriage 16 May 1992Spouse's Name Smt. Seema AthawaleEducational Under Graduate
Qualifications Educated at Siddharth College, Mumbai (Maharashtra)
Profession Artist, Political and Social Worker, Publisher and Religious MissionaryPermanent Address 91, Lumbini, Sector-7, Charkop,
Kandiwali, Mumbai-400 067
Tel. (022) 8695532
Present Address 8-A, Lodhi Estate,
New Delhi-110 003
Tels. (011) 4651149, 4695532
Positions Held1990-96 Member, Maharashtra Legislative Council1990-95 Cabinet Minister, Social Welfare and Transport, Employment Guarantee
Scheme and Prohibition Propaganda, Maharashtra
1998 Elected to 12th Lok Sabha;
President, Republican Party of India
1998-99 Member, Committee on Transport and Tourism;
Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Industry
1999 Re-elected to 13th Lok Sabha (2nd term)1999-2000 Member, Committee on Industry2000 onwards Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Youth Affairs and SportsLiterary, Artistic and Scientific Accomplishments
Editor-Bhumika (Weekly Magazine), Mumbai;Publisher, Parivartan Publications; and Founder Member,Parivartan Sahitya MahamandalSocial and Cultural Activities
President, (i) Dr. Babasaheb AmbedkarFoundation; (ii) Buddhist Kalawant Academy; and Founder President, Budh Dhamma ParishadSpecial Interests
Upliftment of the handicapped, dalit, poor and weaker sectionsFavourite Pastime and Recreation
Reading, travelling, music, discussion on social and economic problemsSports and Clubs
Cricket, volleyball, football, kho-kho, kabaddi and carromCountries VisitedFrance, Germany, Japan, Russia, U.K. and U.S.A.
Athawale Ramdas Bandu(Marathi:रामदास बंडू आठवले) was a member of the 14th Lok Sabha of India. He represented the Pandharpur constituency of Maharashtra and is he president of the Republican Party of India (Athawale) political party. He also represented Mumbai North Central in 12th Lok Sabha during 1998-99. He left NCP-Congress alliance in 2011 after having lost 2009 Lok Sabha election. Though he politically separated from NCP, he still maintains relation with Sharad Pawar. Ramdas Athavale has his own speaking style. He is fond of writing poems. Sometimes he writes Shero-Shayari. Athavale led RPI party joined Shivsena-Bharatiya Janata Party alliance in 2011 and contested Bruhan Mumbai Corporation elections together. He is one of the mass leader in Maharashtra. He is a former Deputy Chief Minister of Maharashtra.
Born Velur, District Perambalur (Tamil Nadu) Alias(es) Spectrum Raja Allegiance Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) Charge(s) Criminal breach of trust by a public servant under section 409, criminal conspiracy under section 120-B, cheating under section 420 & forgery under sections 468 and 471. Booked under the Prevention of Corruption Act for accepting illegal gratification. Conviction status Taken into custody (arrested) by CBI on 2 February 2011 On 9 May 2012 he applied for bail for the first time since his arrest.and was granted bail on 15 May 2012As of May 2012, trial is being conducted in Special CBI Court. Spouse M.A. Parameshwari Children 1 Daughter (Mayuri)
Andimuthu Raja (born October 26, 1963, Perambalur, Tamil Nadu, India) is an Indian politician from the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam(DMK) political party. He was a member of the 15th Lok Sabha representing the Nilgiris constituency of Tamil Nadu.In 2011, TIME magazine listed the 2G spectrum scam, in which Raja was allegedly involved, as number two on their “Top 10 Abuses of Power” list.
ResignationOn October 17, 2008 he submitted his post-dated resignation to the DMK party chief, M. Karunanidhi, in protest of the killings of Tamil civilians in Sri Lanka. His resignation was a part of the mass resignation of all the DMK ministers forming a parts of the coalition United Progressive Alliance government (UPA) in Centre.
Ex - Chief Minister of Chhatisgarh Personal details Born 29 April 1946
Political party INC Spouse(s) Dr. Renu Jogi Children Amit Jogi Residence Raipur Religion Christian As of January 25, 2009
Jogi studied Mechanical Engineering at the Maulana Azad College of Technology, Bhopal, winning the University Gold Medal in 1968. After having worked briefly as a lecturer at the Government Engineering College, Raipur, he was selected for the Indian Police Service and Indian Administrative Service.
Ajit Jogi's son Amit Jogi was said to have been involved in an operation of bribing Dilip Singh Judeo in 2003. This is as per statement given by Central Bureau of Investigation in Supreme Court of India in 2005 Amit Jogi was later also sent to jail for being involved in a murder case.
On April 20, 2004 Ajit Jogi was seriously injured in car accident at Gariabandh, 130 km from Raipur and had to be flown to Mumbai. He has become a wheelchair user since then. Although, he has not yet quit from active politics.
Bangaru LaxmanBangaru Laxman was born in a Madiga Dalit family in Andhra Pradesh. He did his BA and LLB. He was a minister of state for railways in Government of India from 1999 to 2000. Later he became President of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) but resigned soon after Tehelka corruption case.Bangaru Laxman joined politics at a young age. He was jailed during emergency in 1975. He was elected to Rajya Sabha in 1996. He has held many party positions including the party president.
Name Shri Ashok Tanwar Constituency from which I am elected Sirsa Father's Name Shri Dilbag Singh Mother's Name Smt. Krishna Rathi Date of Birth 12 Feb 1976 Birth Place Vill. Chimni, Distt. Jhajjar (Haryana) Maritial Status Married Date of Marriage 30 Jun 2005 Spouse Name Smt. Avantika Maken Tanwar No. of Children No.of Sons:2 No.of Daughters:1 State Name Haryana Party Name Indian National Congress Permanent Address 01, Sector 20,HUDA, Sirsa, HaryanaTels. (01666) 247533, 247534 09466933333 (M) Present Address 59, North Avenue,New Delhi - 110 001Tels. (011) 23092045 9013180222, 9810559115 (M) Fax. (011) 23092045 Email id (i) ashok[dot]tanwar[at]sansad[dot]nic[dot]in
Educational Qualifications M.A.(History), M.Phil (History), Ph.D. Educated at Jawahar Lal Nehru University, New Delhi Positions Held Jan. 2005 - Feb. 201 President, Indian Youth Congress 2009 Elected to 15th Lok Sabha 31 Aug. 2009 Member, Standing Committee on Human Resource Development 23 Sep. 2009 Member, Library Committee Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of Environment and Forest Member, Joint Parliamentary Committee on office of Profit 25 Jan. 2010 Convenor, Parliamentary Forum on Youth Special Interests Social work (especially in the field of education and health; environment and forest conservation issues ) Other Information Former National President, National Students`s Union of India (NSUI)
He was involved in a major controversy when a private TV network tehelka.com showed him taking bribes on a hidden camera while he was the president of the BJP. He was forced to resign as the party president and a criminal case was registered against him which has entered prosecution stage. However, he was never convicted .
Sardar Buta Singh
Sardar Buta Singh Personal details Born 21 March 1934
Mustafapur, Jalandhar district, Punjab
Political party Indian National Congress Spouse(s) Sardarni Beant Singh Religion SikhButa Singh (born on 21 March 1934) was Chairman of National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC). He is an Indian National Congress leader.
Political careerHe has been eight times elected as a member of Lok Sabha in 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th, 8th, 10th, 12th and 13th Lok Sabha. He is former Union Home Minister under Rajiv Gandhi's Government & more recently governor of Bihar state, India. He took office on November 5, 2004. He was the home minister of India during the early 1990s. He is a Sikh and was first elected to the Indian Parliament in sadhna. He has written a book "Punjabi Speaking State - A Critical Analysis" and a collection of articles on Punjabi Literature and Sikh History.
ControversiesIn 2000, judge Ajit Bharihoke of a special court convicted the former Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao and Buta Singh in the JMM bribery case.The Central Bureau of Investigation had charged Rao, Buta Singh and others with bribing MPs belonging to the Janata Dal (Ajit) and Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) for voting in favour of the minority Congress government during the no-confidence motion against it in Lok Sabha in 1993. The decision was later overturned and both Rao and Buta Singh were cleared of the charges in 2002. In the 2009 Lok Sabha elections Buta Singh was denied a ticket by the Congress Party to run for Lok Sabha. So he contested as an independent candidate from the Jalore constituency in Rajasthan although he was not successful.As the Governor of Bihar, Buta Singh's controversial decision to recommend the dissolution of the Bihar Assembly in 2005 was sharply criticised by the Supreme Court. The court ruled that Mr. Singh had acted in haste and misled the federal cabinet because he did not want a particular party claiming to form the government, to come to power. Mr. Singh however claimed that the party was resorting to unfair means (read horse trading) to secure support to form the government. On January 26, 2006 Singh sent a fax to President Abdul Kalam offering to resign his post. The next day he left office and was replaced by West Bengal governor Gopalkrishna Gandhi.In the latest controversy, his son Sarabjot Singh has been charged of demanding a hefty bribe — Rs 1 crore — exploiting the official position of his father Buta Singh, has put the focus on the Constitutional body NCSC, set up with the objective of serving the cause of the Scheduled Castes
Brinda Karat Member of the Rajya Sabha In office
Constituency West Bengal Personal details Born 17 October 1947
Calcutta, West Bengal, India
Political party Communist Party of India (Marxist) Spouse(s) Prakash Karat SignatureBrinda Karat (Bengali: বৃন্দা কারাট) (born 17 October 1947) is a communist politician from India, elected to the Rajya Sabha as a Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPI(M) member, on 11 April 2005 for West Bengal.In 2005, she became the first woman member of the CPI(M) Politburo She has also been the general secretary of the All India Democratic Women's Association (AIDWA) from 1993 to 2004, and thereafter its Vice President.
Childhood and educationBiography
Brinda Karat was born in Calcutta, where she spent her early childhood in a family of four siblings, including one brother and three sisters. Her father, Sooraj Lal Das was from Lahore. She lost her mother Oshrukona Mitra, at the age of five. She has a sister, Radhika Roy who is married to Prannoy Roy.Brinda was educated at the elite Welham Girls School in Dehradun and, at 16, went on to do her diploma at Miranda House, a college affiliated to the University of Delhi. In 1971, she enrolled for her degree in History at the University of Dehradun
In 1967, she left for London, where she worked with Air India at Bond Street for four years. While working for Air India, she campaigned against the mandatory wearing of skirts in the airlines, after which she became an activist.In an interview, Karat says she returned to India motivated to work for the people While working in London, she became associated with the anti-imperialist, and anti-war movements during the Vietnam War and Marxist ideology. She also attributes many of her political ideals to the economist Devaki Jain, her professor at Miranda HouseIn 1971, she decided to leave her job and return to Calcutta, where she joined the Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPI (M) in 1971, under the guidance of B.T. Ranadive. On the suggestion of the party to understand practical politics, she joined the Calcutta University. Initially she worked with students in the college campus and later during the Bangladesh war at refugee camps in the city.
In 1975, she shifted to Delhi and started working as a trade union organiser with textile mill workers in North Delhi. She grew to be active with worker's movements and the Indian women's movements She gained prominence in the campaign for reform of rape laws in the 1980s. Karat resigned from the central committee of the CPI(M)protesting the lack of representation of women. Even today, Brinda stands out as a prominent campaigner for gender issues.On 11 April 2005, she was elected to the Indian Parliament, Rajya Sabha as a CPI(M) member, for West Bengal.In 2005, only after the inclusion of 5 women members to the Central Committee did Brinda Karat agree to be nominated to the exclusive 17 member Politburo. The Politburo is the highest decision-making body of the party and Brinda Karat is its first woman member
Remarks on Baba RamdevHer remarks accusing Yoga Guru Swami Ramdevof violating labor laws, and publicising accusations about his workers mixing human body parts in potions, have drawn strong condemnation from some in North India, including reprimands from politicians like Sharad Pawar,Mulayam Singh Yadav, Ambika Soni, andNarayan Dutt Tiwari. Pawar noted that Baba Ramdev's 'scientific approach' to yoga was useful while Laloo Prasad Yadav denounced Karat's allegations Subsequently she received a legal notice on the behalf of a Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP) leader in Faridabad.
FamilyShe is married to Prakash Karat, a Keralite by origin and a prominent CPI(M) leader, holding the position of General Secretary currently. Her sister
Radhika Roy is married to Prannoy Roy, founder and CEO of NDTV. In 2005, she acted inAmu a film made by her niece, Shonali Bose, on the Anti-Sikh riots in 1984. She is also related to the Marxist historian Vijay Prashad.
Literary worksBrinda is the author of Survival and Emancipation: Notes from Indian Women's Struggles. This is a comprehensive book on the wide ranging concerns of the women’s movements in India from a left perspective.
· Bhai Tej Singh
Born (1953) and brought up in a mediocre Jatav-Kisan (Scheduled Caste) family of a small village in Etah district of Uttar Pradesh.Established Dr. Ambedkar Rural Welfare Association in the village with the sole intention of doing something good for the villagers particularly the poor and persecuted.Served the Telecom Department (1973-1978), State Bank ofIndia(1978-1981) and thereafter Customs Department till resigned in April 2004 to dedicate himself as whole timer in the service of the poor and persecuted.While remaining in services, He had played an active role in social activities through non-political platforms and the departmental unions and Associations of the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and the other Backward Classes. He was the founder President of the Customs & Central Excise ST/ST Employees Association.On being impressed upon with BSP leader Kanshi Ram in 1978 while on his visit to Aligarh (U.P.), he has decided to give him a helping hand in his endeavor of forging unity amongst the various factions and sections of Scheduled castes, the Scheduled Tribes, Other Backwards Classes and religious Minorities and didn’t turn back till the day Mayawati had joined hand with the reactionary forces (BJP) led by RSS. It may be noted that RSS has since been working to maintain status quo by suppressing the interests of the poor as such is detrimental to the very existence of these people in India.While remaining with Kanshi Ram he has not only extended his able helping hand (Money management) but also taken care of his entire affairs and played decisive role in building up Bahujan Samaj Party through his non-political front BAMCEF (Backward and Minority Communities Federation). He was such a trusted lieutenant of Kanshi Ram that has disburdened him almost in every aspect of his life and mission except of taking the stage. Because of his altruism, hard work, dedication and resolution, a second spot after Kanshi Ram was developed in the party circle. And due to his proximity with Kanshi Ram, he was popularly called mini-Kanshi Ram in BSP circle.Taking cognizance of his growing influence, the lady used to play mischief and trying to dislodge him from Kanshi Ram but failed. It was the growing discontent (1994) against the boorish behavior of the lady in the party that almost entire party had espoused faith in him but he had very politely refused to accede to their request and continued with his helping hand to the leader. Having no political mention that there is no ambition and personal desire but his of place to committed to the mission of Dr. Ambedkar which has faithfully been undertaken by Kanshi Ram, he remained undeterred by the mischief of Maya and continued with his job.But it was the inferiority complexes of this deprave lady which compelled her to manage the ouster of so many hard workers, leaders and trusted lieutenants of Kanshi Ram who had shouldered him in his hour of need in the past! It may not be out of place to mention that it was this inferiority complex which compelled the lady to think every upcoming leader in the party as of her competitor. Her sinister plots and evil designs has become her way of life in the party. Kanshi Ram being swayed by her undue influence and her seducing overtures kept on throwing away his loyal workers out of party-fold. And finally he too has fallen victim of her evil and fanciful designs. But in the case of Mr. Tej Singh, she could not be able to impress upon Kanshi Ram.The incident of the fateful night of 2nd June 1995 when Mayawati has joined hands with reactionary forces like BJP, RSS…and first time taken over as the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh with the ostensible support thereof whom the duo (Maya-Kanshi) used to call a Cobra till date has left a missionary worker like him stunned and compelled to part with the company of Kanshi Ram who maintained obnoxious silence at this crucial juncture. Bhai Tej Singh could not understand as to what has happened to the man who used to ask the people of Bahujan Samaj to keep distance with the Brahminical forces led by RSS and BJP with his open intention and utterances. Having remained in dilemma for over a week, one early morning Bhai Tej Singh had called for his wife and his four kids and clearly told them, “I have almost spent half of my life caring for my parents and you people, now the burden of the mission of my Messiah has fallen on my shoulders. Being very dear and near to me, I hope you will co-operate me by extending your helping hand in my endeavor but please do not create obstacles in my way. I am going to dedicate rest of my life to thisMission.” At this having tears in their eyes, the wife and children of Bhai Tej Singh have promised him all sorts of help and cooperation even if compelled to go without food!After that Mr. Tej Singh has never looked back and built up a formidable force of the missionary workers from amongst the dalit and Muslims to take on the Hindutvawadi forces led by BJP, RSS and its ilk. This is not possible for him without dislodging Mayawati from the minds and heart of dalits who in absence of any viable political alternative are compelled to vote for her party. It may be out mention that there is noreliable dalit leader in Congress Party to watch their interests! Thus, “O helplessness thy name is Mayawati” has become the slogan of the day for these unfortunate dalits. Similarly in absence of a Muslim leader of grass root approach and understanding, Mulayam Singh Yadav has since been flourishing!
In reaching to this day’s position (a well known hardcore activist & figure amongst dalit), Mr. Tej Singh has crossed over so many hurdles and achieved many milestones so far as the ‘Dalit Movement’ is concerned. His tremendous confidence, passion and patience for poor and persecuted are making him undisputed leader of the future and darling of this very section of Indian society. He has emerged as ‘Dalit leader’ in the Indian political horizon.
C. N. Annadurai
Conjeevaram Natarajan Annadurai (15 September 1909 – 3 February 1969), popularly called Anna ("Elder brother") or Arignar Anna ("Anna, the scholar"), was an Indian politician who served as 1st Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for 20 days in 1969 and fifth, and last Chief Minister of Madras from 1967 until 1969 when the name of the state of Madras was changed to Tamil Nadu. He was the first member of a Dravidian party to hold either post.
He was well known for his oratorical skills and was an acclaimed writer in the Tamil language. He scripted and acted in several plays. Some of his plays were later made into movies. He was the first politician from the Dravidian parties to use Tamil cinema extensively for political propaganda. Born in a middle-class family, he first worked as a school teacher, then moved into the political scene of the Madras Presidency as a journalist. He edited several political journals and enrolled as a member of the Dravidar Kazhagam. As an ardent follower of Periyar E. V. Ramasamy, he rose in stature as a prominent member of the party.
With differences looming with Periyar, on issues of separate independent state of Dravida Nadu and on inclusion in the Indian Union, he crossed swords with his political mentor. The friction between the two finally erupted when Periyar married Maniammai, who was much younger than him. Angered by this action of Periyar, Annadurai with his supporters parted from Dravidar Kazhagam and launched his own party, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The DMK initially followed ideologies the same as the mother party, Dravidar Kazhagam. But with the evolution of national politics and the constitution of India after the Sino-Indian war in 1962, Annadurai dropped the claim for an independent Dravida Nadu. Various protests against the ruling Congress government took him to prison on several occasions; the last of which was during the Madras anti-Hindi agitation of 1965. The agitation itself helped Annadurai to gain popular support for his party. His party won a landslide victory in the 1967 state elections. His cabinet was the youngest at that time in India. He legalised Self-Respect marriages, enforced a two language policy (in preference to the three language formula in other southern states), implemented subsidies for rice, and renamed Madras State to Tamil Nadu.
However, he died of cancer just two years into office. His funeral had the highest attendance of any to that date. Several institutions and organisations are named after him. A splinter party launched by M. G. Ramachandran in 1972 was named after him as Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam.
In 1934, he graduated with a B.A. degree (Hons) from Pachaiyappa's College in Chennai. He then earned an MA degree in Economics and Politics from the same college. He worked as an English teacher in Pachaiyappa High School. Later he quit the teaching job and began involving himself in journalism and politics.
ReligionThough Annadurai initially belonged to the openly atheist Dravidar Kazhagam he later announced his stance towards theism as "Only one race, Only one God" (Onre Kulam Oruvanae Devan). Though secular to the core, he later described himself as a Hindu sans the sacred ash, a Christian minus the holy cross, and a Muslim without the prayer cap.
Annadurai would attack superstitions and religious exploitation but would never fight against the spiritual values of society. He once explained his stance towards God and religion as "I do not break coconuts for Pillaiyar, (a form of worship) neither do I break his idols".(Nan Thengayum udaipathillai; Pillaiyarum Udaipathillai)
Entry into politics
Differences with Periyar and birth of DMKThe Indian National Congress, which had been fighting for the independence of India from colonial British rule, was dominated by Brahmins. Periyar assumed that independent India would bring South Indians, especially Tamils, under the dominance of Brahmins and North Indians. For these reasons Periyar called for 15 August 1947, the day of Indian independence, to be a day of mourning. Annadurai opposed this move and the schism between his supporters and Periyar widened. He saw the gaining of independence as an overall achievement of India rather than solely that of Aryan North. Moreover, Periyar's decision on giving up participating in democratic elections was also opposed by Annadurai, in reaction to which he walked out of a party meeting in 1948. Periyar considered that candidates in elections must compromise their ideologies. Moreover, it was Periyar's idea that social reformation can be better achieved outside politics, through education and canvassing the masses, rather than governments. Eventually, when Periyar married Maniammai, who was 40 years younger than he, the personal differences between Annadurai and Periyar split their supporters. Annadurai launched his own party with his party fragment, along with E. V. K. Sampath (Periyar's nephew and until then considered his political heir). The new party was named Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam. DMK's presence was initially restricted to urban centres and its surrounding areas. But by appealing to the urban lower, lower middle and working classes, students, Dalits and lower castes, Annadurai was able to accelerate its growth and spread. He fought for the social justice of the lower castes and thus rapidly gained popular support.
Protests in 1953In 1953, Annadurai directed the DMK to undertake three protests:
- Condemning Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India, for describing the tarring of Hindi letters in railway station boards by DK and DMK activists as "childish nonsense"
- Against C. Rajagopalachari (or Rajaji), the then chief minister of Madras State, for introducing a new educational system that indirectly encouraged traditional caste-based occupations called Kula Kalvi Thittam
- Against renaming Kallakkudi, Dalmiyapuram as the name Dalmiyapuram symbolised north Indian domination. He was eventually sentenced to three months imprisonment in this protest.
“ We must contest more elections, win more seats and that way, win the confidence of the people; and when it is hot, we can strike and strike hard ”
However, the reorganisation of states in India on linguistic basis removed Kannada, Telugu and Malayalam speaking regions from the Madras Presidency leaving behind a predominantly Tamil Madras State. Giving in to realities, Annadurai and his DMK changed the call of independent Dravida Nadu for Dravidians to independent Tamil Nadu for Tamils. Annadurai felt that remaining in the Indian Union meant accepting linguistic domination and economic backwardness. Nevertheless, the Sino-Indian war brought about changes in the Indian constitution. The Sixteenth Amendment (most popularly known as the Anti-Secessionist Amendment) banned any party with sectarian principles from participating in elections. When this amendment was presented in the Parliament of India, Annadurai was one of its members. He vehemently debated against the amendment, but eventually could not stop it from being passed. Faced with the new constitutional changes, Annadurai and his DMK left the call for an independent Tamil homeland on the back burner. From then on Annadurai and his DMK aimed at achieving better co-operation between the southern states and claimed more autonomy for Tamil Nadu. On the party's position, Annadurai said
“ To make the Dravidian state a separate state was our ideal. A situation has arisen where we can neither talk nor write about this ideal. Of course we can destroy the party by undertaking to violate the prohibition. But once the party itself is destroyed there will not be any scope for the ideal to exist or spread. That is why we had to give up the ideal. ”
Anti-Hindi agitationsHindi was first recommended to be an apt language for official purposes in India by a committee headed by Motilal Nehru in 1928. This move was opposed by people and politicians of Tamil Nadu, since they considered that it would make them second class citizens when compared to that of native Hindi speaking North Indians.
Protests of 1938In 1938, the Congress government in Madras Presidency headed by C. Rajagopalachari (popularly known as Rajaji) proposed the use of Hindi language as a compulsory language in schools. This move was opposed by Tamil leaders. Annadurai, along with other Tamil enthusiasts including the poet Bharathidasan, held demonstrations. Annadurai participated in the first Anti Hindi imposition conference held in Kanchipuram on 27 February 1938. Two members of the protest, Thalamuthu and Natarajan, died as a consequence of police beating the same year. With overwhelming opposition, the government of Madras Presidency finally withdrew the order in 1940.
Madras Anti Hindi agitation of 1965When India became a republic with its own constitution in 1950, the constitution had given special status to the Hindi language, which was to gain official status after 15 years in 1965. This move was regarded with anxiety by students in Tamil Nadu. Speaking of making Hindi as official language of India, Annadurai said It is claimed that Hindi should be the common language because it is spoken by the majority. Why should we then claim the tiger as our national animal instead of the rat which is so much more numerous? Or the peacock as our national bird when the crow is ubiquitous?. In view of continued threat to impose Hindi, the DMK held an open-air conference against Hindi imposition at Kodambakkam, Chennai in August 1960, which Annadurai presided over. He gave black flags to leading functionaries, to be shown to the President of India during his visit to the state. Sensing an uprising, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru assured in the Parliament that English would continue to be the official language of India, as long as non-Hindi speaking people desire. DMK gave up the plan of showing black flags and Annadurai appealed to the Union Government to bring about a constitutional amendment incorporating the assurance.
With no constitutional amendment done, Annadurai declared 26 January 1965, the 15th Republic Day of India and also the day the Constitution, which in essence enshrined Hindi as the official language of India, came into practice, as a day of mourning. This move was opposed by the then Chief Minister of Madras State, Bhakthavatchalam, as blasphemous. Hence Annadurai, who by then had been trying to shake off the secessionist image of his party, declared 24 January as a day of mourning. He also replaced the slogan of the protests to Down with Hindi; Long live the Republic. Nevertheless, violence broke out on 26 January, initially in Madurai which within days spread throughout the state. Robert Hardgrave Jr, professor of humanities, government and Asian studies, suggests that the elements contributing to the riots were not instigated by DMK or Leftists or even the industrialists, as the Congress government of the state suggested, but were genuine frustrations and discontentment which lay beneath the surface of the people of the state.
With violence surging, Annadurai asked the students to forfeit the protests, but some DMK leaders like Karunanidhi kept the agitations going. Nevertheless, Annadurai was arrested for instigating the agitation. Although the violence were not directly instigated by the DMK, the agitation itself aided DMK to win the 1967 elections and Annadurai became the new Chief Minister of Madras State.
He has published several novels, short stories and plays which incorporate political themes. He himself acted in some of his plays during his time in the Dravidar Kazhagam. He introduced movie media as a major organ for propaganda of Dravidian politics. In total Annadurai scripted six screen plays.
His first movie Nallathambi (Good Brother, 1948) which starred N. S. Krishnan promoted cooperative farming and abolition of zamindari system. His novels such as Velaikaari (Servant Maid, 1949) and Or Iravu, which were later made into movies, carried the hallmarks of propaganda for Dravidian politics. On Velaikari, Annadurai said that the movie
“ made it clear that greed and avarice of the rich did not pay in the long run.[...] Some of the elementary principles of socialism and stressed that we should depend upon our own labour for our progress and well being and not some unknown factor. ”
Some of his books had a social approach and its content were debatable, such as "Arya Mayai" (Aryan Illusion) in which he highlighted the view point of bringing an equal living society regardless of any caste dominance and especially drawing similarities which existed by then of the upper-caste Brahmin (Aryan) people. He was fined INR 700 for sedition and was also sent to prison.
Some of his well-known works are his books Annavin Sattasabai Sorpolivukal (Anna's speeches at the state legislative, 1960), Ilatchiya varalaru (History of Ideals, 1948), Valkkaip puyal (Storm of life, 1948) and Rankon rata (Radha from Rangon). His work Kambarasam criticises Ramayana of Kamban. His works of fiction such as Kapothipura kathal (Love in the city of Blind), Parvathy B.A., Kalinga rani (Queen of Kalinga) and Pavayin payanam (Travels of a young lady) carried elements of political propaganda.
At times when Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam was extensively using movies for its propaganda, censorship crippled the process. To evade censorships, DMK movies used Annadurai's popular nickname Anna, which also means elder brother in Tamil, as a pun. When praises were bestowed on the Anna on screen, the crowd would break into applause. Kannadasan has criticised Anna's works that apart from Sivaji Kanda Hindu Rajyam and Needhi Devan Mayakkam, the rest lacked even a plot
Posts heldThe provincial conference of the DMK was held at Tiruchirappalli in May 1956. Annadurai stepped down from the General Secretaryship of the party, and Nedunchezhian was elected to that position. It was at the Tiruchirappalli conference that the party decided to contest free India's second general elections which were to be held in 1957. The DMK secured 15 Assembly seats and two parliamentary seats. Anna was elected from his home constituency, Kanchipuram for the first time to the Madras Legislative Assembly. In that election, the DMK won 15 seats and Annadurai became the leader of the opposition in the state In 1962, the DMK emerged as the major political party in the state outside the Congress, winning 50 seats in the Assembly. Although Annadurai himself lost the elections, he was nominated as a member of parliament to the upper house (Rajya Sabha).
As chief ministerIn 1967, the Congress lost nine states to opposition parties, but it was only in Madras state that a single non-Congress party majority was achieved The electoral victory of 1967 is also reputed to an electoral fusion among the non-Congress parties to avoid a split in the Opposition votes. Rajagopalachari, a former senior leader of the Congress party, had by then left the Congress and launched the right-wing Swatantra Party. He played a vital role in bringing about the electoral fusion amongst the opposition parties to align against the Congress. At that time, his cabinet was the youngest in the country.
Annadurai legalised Self-respect marriages for the first time in the country. Such marriages were void of priests to preside over the ceremony and thus did not need a Brahmin to carry out the wedding. Self-respect marriages were a brainchild of Periyar, who regarded the then conventional marriages as mere financial arrangements which often caused great debt through dowry. Self-Respect marriages, according to him, encouraged inter-caste marriages and caused arranged marriages to be replaced by love marriages. Annadurai was also the first to use subsidising of the price of rice for election victory. He promised one rupee a measure of rice, which he initially implemented once in government, but had to withdraw later. Subsidising rice costs are still used as an election promise in Tamil Nadu.
It was Annadurai's government that renamed the Madras State to its present-day form declaring officially as Tamil Nadu. The name change itself was first presented in the upper house (Rajya Sabha) of the Parliament of India by Bhupesh Gupta, a communist MP from West Bengal, but was then defeated. With Annadurai as chief minister, the state assembly succeeded in passing the bill renaming the states.
Anna was instrumental in organizing the World Tamil Conference under the aegies of UNESCO in 1967.Another major achievement of Annadurai's government was to introduce a two language policy over the then popular three language formula. The three language formula, which was implemented in the neighbouring states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, entitled students to study three languages: the regional language, English and Hindi. It was during the period of his Chief Ministership that the Second World Conference was conducted on a grand scale on 3 January 1968. Nevertheless, when a commemorative stamp was released to mark the Tamil conference, Annadurai expressed his dissatisfaction that the stamp contained Hindi when it was for Tamil. Annadurai also issued an order for the removal of the pictures of gods and religious symbols from public offices and buildings. He proceeded on a world tour as an invitee of the Yale University's Chubb Fellowship Programme and was also a guest of the State Department in the US in April–May 1968. He was awarded the Chubb Fellowship at Yale University, being the first non-American to receive this honour. The same year he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Annamalai University.
“ There is no doubt that this powerful orator is the single-most popular mass figure in the region ”
A life-size statue of Annadurai was unveiled on 1 October 2002 in the Parliament House by then President of India, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam in his honor and the function was attended by notable politicians
Ch Dalbir SinghIn these days of brazen and almost whole sale corruption of the political class across the political spectrum except perhaps some leftist parties and individuals, as evidenced by the acts of central cabinet minister Raja, MPs Kalmadi, Kanimozhi and many others & counting, the present generation of Indians would find it hard to believe that once such totally honest and incorruptible politicians walked on the Indian soil.
Dalbir Singh was born in a Dalit family of landless agriculture laborers family of Kani Ram in village Prabhuwala in Hissar district of pre-partitioned Punjab, traditionally a neglected and backward region of the state. Youngest child in the family, Dalbir lost his mother early in childhood. His extended family including uncle Chandgiram were all very poor but were very keen that Dalbir, an intelligent and active child, should get the highest possible education and uplift the family fortunes .A family story goes that once when very seriously ill, a wise Sadhu (holy man) cured him and predicted that he would one day ride an elephant i.e. be a great man.
Sensitive even as a child Dalbir Singh faced and suffered upper caste discrimination right from the very first day in primary school , a behavior he had to face , resist and fight all his life in schools and colleges .He finished his primary school education at Prabhuwala and a neighboring village .He was then shifted to Hissar for education in a charitable middle school and later government high school .Here he met with and forged a lifelong friendship with Mani Ram Godara , a Bishnoi, and both took plunge into politics at a very young age.
During the closing decades of 19 century, Punjab, including the region around Hissar fell under the influence of Arya Samaj movement which had emerged to counter caste based discriminatory and obscurantist Hindu thought and practices .The movement also laid great emphasis on education and organized modern and science education at DAV schools and colleges .All members of Dalbir Singh family were imbued with, influenced and followed the precepts and teachings of Arya Samaj.
The author born at Bhiwani, then a subdivision of Hissar district is aware of the backwardness of the desolate, waterless sandy district. During 1940s and 1950s, the region especially Bhiwani and Hissar areas were dusty and waterless towns, with sand dunes encroaching right inside Bhiwani’s western limits. There used to be perpetual water scarcity in the region. Summers brought in hot abrasive sand storms. There were many big ponds dug to store rainwater for drinking, washing and for the cattle.
Arya Samaj teachings taught equality and opposition to caste and religious discrimination .It also forbade liquor and even meat eating .The author, a Rajput, took to meat eating only when he went over to Banaras for his engineering degree. But now, in the wake of prosperity following extension of irrigation to the region and the green revolution the situation has unfortunately changed to increased violence and alcoholism, a serious menace.
Adjoining Rajasthan ,Hissar district produced many rich Baniyas aka businessman who with others established many charitable educational institutes .Apart from many schools ,Bhiwani city boasted , a degree Vaish ( now Kirori Mal ) college and a Textile Engineering Institute attached to one of the two textile mills .Neighboring Rohtak city boasted , two degree colleges and a Medical college too.
When in class X Dalbir Singh was married to Kalawati in 1946 , a marriage arranged through the good offices of a common Arya Samaj reformer .Such child marriages were common in those days .But the bride would stay home till puberty .Kalawati’s family was better off with its own lands , her brother Ram Singh ,the first Dalit graduate among Dalits of the region ,was a Panchayat Officer in Punjab state .It was a good match for her family since Dalbir Singh , a promising and intelligent student would do well in life . Ram Singh and his family, also Arya Samajis, had wholesome impact on young Dalbir. Since Ram Singh was once posted at Lahore, a major centre of education, it was felt that Dalbir Singh instead of studying at Hissar should pursue his college education at DAV College Lahore .Here apart from Godara, Ch Chand Ram, also a Dalit studied and they became good friends. Ch Chand Ram also emerged as a major political leader.
In 1947, after India’s division into India and Pakistan and partition of the Punjab province Dalbir Singh was forced to shift to Rohtak to complete his graduation, which he duly did .It must be emphasized that, tall and wiry lad, he was an excellent athlete both in his school and college days .Till his terminal illness in mid 1980s he maintained excellent health and spirits.
After graduation, at Ram Singh’s prodding Dalbir Singh did apply for the job of a Block Development Officer ,a very good job in those days, and received the appointment letter too .But he declined to take up the appointment , much to the consternation, anguish and distress of his family specially father Kani Ram .They had slogged and made extreme sacrifices so that he could complete his education, not that Dalbir Singh himself had not undergone many privations .The family expected him to take up the job and alleviate poverty ,bring some prosperity and happiness to the family .
Finally one day Dalbir Singh told his father that he would not take up a job .He had endured too much caste, creed, regional, rich and poor discrimination so he was determined to devote his life to resist evils of the Indian society and help reform it. He remembered that while studying at Lahore he was constantly a victim of cruel and inhuman treatment at the hands of prince lings and rich students. His mind was made up and he would strive and try to eliminate various evils and ills of the Indian caste based society .Father Kani Ram agreed.
Next day Kani Ram watched his son speaking for the first time at a Congress party public rally at Hissar and criticizing Punjab chief minister Kairon , whose achievements in the development of the state were eulogized and lauded by all and sundry . Dalbir Singh rightly proclaimed that ‘ yes, Punjab had progressed but only the Punjabi speaking part i.e. Jullundur division and not the backward Ambala division of which Hissar was a part It remained so till the Sikhs after many agitations and Morchas got their Punjabi Suba and the backward region emerged from the shadow of under development and neglect in 1966 . The new state of Haryana led by some dynamic leaders, taking advantage of many inbuilt and inherent advantages including proximity to Delhi has emerged as a most dynamic and rich state of India. While a minister in Delhi for nearly two decades, Ch. Dalbir Singh assiduously helped out in pursuing the economic development of Haryana by taking up his state’s cause with the centre. I have a feeling that he cherished a deep desire to lead the Haryana government and implement his vision of his home state himself. But his opponents in the party in Haryana ganged up and kept him away from the state.
Having watched the freedom movement from close quarters under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru and Congress party’s ideology of secularism, equal rights for all religions and special incentives to uplift scheduled caste and tribes, neglected, humiliated and exploited since millennia attracted young and idealistic Dalbir Singh, since he had himself suffered at the hands of upper castes and rich all his life. But he rarely mentioned these hurts to me. He sometimes would relate how petty officials mistreated the public specially the poor and the downtrodden.
Ch. Dalbir Singh remained steadfast and true in his loyalty to the Congress and its ideals and policies , in a state where many a politicians ideology is fickle and saleable ,which gave the name Gayaram Ayaaram politics i.e. of shifting and changing party affiliations for gain .I remember very vividly one evening in 1967 when I dropped at Ch Dalbir Singh‘s flat on South Avenue .A number of well known Haryana politicians , who did well for themselves had just visited him after having pledged loyalty to Moraji Desai who had challenged PM Indira Gandhi’s leadership.” How dare they even suggest such a thing, he fumed .He remained steadfast to the Congress and its ideology till the very end. He never wavered, never ever.
Young, enthusiastic, wide eyed and idealistic when the 1952 elections were, he and Godara turned up at the Congress party office in Delhi .By luck Nehru arrived and was very impressed by Dalbir Singh, a young enthusiastic graduate, a rarity among Dalit aspirants .He and Godara, in spite of opposition from older and well established leader’s opposition like Devi Lal, were both allotted Congress party tickets. Dalbir Singh won from Tohana but his election was set aside on the pretext of being under age i.e. less than 25 years .By the time he won the election petition time had arrived for the 1957 elections.
Kairon had returned to power by then .A down to earth politician and good administrator , he recognized the talented , idealistic Dalbir Singh’s dedication and gave him Congress ticket in 1957 . Not only that after the elections Dalbir Singh was inducted into the council of ministers as deputy minister .He was barely 30 years in age .The rest as they say is history. Chaudhary Saheb was soon a great favorite of Kairon because of his sincerity, hard work, sense of purpose and integrity.
First Meeting with Ch. Dalbir Singh and some MemoriesIt was 1960, when I taught electrical engineering at Thapar institute, Patiala .I had just finished my written examination for IFS and was waiting for the UPSC personality test. Around this time my wife’s college friend Basheshar Nath, a political worker of the Congress party from Karnal, turned up along with someone who had some problem to be redressed in the department of Irrigation and Power, then under Ch. Dalbir Singh. The young politician had made news in the Chandigarh's newspaper ‘The Tribune’ for being an unusual politician who attended law classes in the evenings to further educate himself.
So Basheshar and a few others, we all travelled to Chandigarh. When we reached the Kothi (residence) of Chaudhary Saheb, we were told that he was out and would return soon. So we sat down in his living room. It so happened that Basheshar went to the bathroom when somebody looking like a politician, in Dhoti -Kurta and Nehru jacket and Gandhi cap entered the sitting-room, looked at us. Naturally he did not recognize us. Nor did we. But we naturally stood up somewhat non-pulsed. With a straight face he said that he was the younger brother of the minister who would be soon returning and climbed up the stairs. We had not seen his photograph or met him, but we were not convinced that he was the minister's younger brother.
Of course soon Chaudhary Saheb came down by which time Basheshar had come back and we all had a good laugh. Through out our long friendship we had a very easy and bantering relationship about babus and netas. We were young straight forward and perhaps came closer because of his coming from Sirsa and me from Bhiwani, both then subdivisions in the same Hissar district, a backward region of Punjab.
Chaudhary Saheb had a tremendous sense of humor. He would relate stories with great aplomb and timing with a straight face He then joined with a hearty laughter which was very infectious. With a slight crinkliness in his eyes, his smile was dazzling, which could have set many a heart aflutter.
Once a man from his constituency came to him, requesting that his transfer be stopped. Chaudhary Saheb knew that the man never voted for him and even worked against him during polls. But instead of ticking him off, Chaudhary Saheb laughed and narrated how he himself was transferred from one ministry to another in Delhi .If he could not stop his own transfer how he could help the constituent. This was his way of telling the constituent off, politely and with humor. He was a storehouse of Haryanvi jokes.
Chaudhary Saheb was very happy when I qualified for the then coveted IFS in 1961, since none from our region had done so. When I was leaving for Cairo in end 1962, he came over to Delhi to wish me bon voyage and best of luck. We kept on meeting regularly whenever I was posted at the ministry of external affairs in New Delhi , since he had shifted to central politics in 1967 after being elected a member of the Lok Sabha .He was made a member of the council of ministers soon after. Some times we would play rummy with some of his political friends .It was perhaps the only way he would sometimes relax. He was totally devoted to political work for the party and for the people.
He was a man of sterling qualities with a long term vision and devoted to the uplift of the downtrodden. He had unimpeachable honesty and integrity. This was evident from his very simple life style. Knowing his honest nature, he was never asked to collect funds for the party but quite often he headed the Congress party organization in Haryana. He spent all his time to ameliorate the conditions of the masses and for the Congress party.
When barring two wins in north India , all Congress candidates ,including Indira Gandhi lost the post emergency 1977 elections , being not too well off , some friends suggested that why should he not supervise agriculture of some land he possessed .He replied that he was good only at solving poor peoples’ problems and laughing added ,and also being taken by one ambassador car or another from one public platform to another and do ‘ vichar pragat ‘i.e. express his views on various problems facing the country and the people.
Quite often I would stay with him when I visited India from abroad for vacations and met with some of the political leaders from Haryana and elsewhere like Devi Lal, Bhajan Lal, Prof Sher Singh and others. Our friendship built on mutual respect and affection since 1960 meeting at Chandigarh never changed. He was very hospitable and would even get non-vegetarian dishes from outside for me, although he himself was a vegetarian.
In 1985 before I took over as Chairman and Managing Director of Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd, I went over to him for advice since he was once minister of Fertilizers and Chemicals, the controlling ministry. Apart from other advice he told me how some of senior officers in the ministry had shares of Pharma companies which was a clear conflict of interest .His advice was very useful. During my tenure I found that ministry officials would increase drug prices for private sector units (which had perhaps allotted them shares) but dillydallied when I asked for increase for government owned IDPL’s drugs. Some big private Pharma companies had an MP or two almost on a retainer basis to promote their interests.Although I was very surprised and distressed when he told me that he had pleurisy, I was stunned when he passed away in 1987. Unfortunately I was not even in Delhi.
Fortunately for his friends and admirers, his daughter Kumari Selja joined politics, encouraged by Rajiv Gandhi .A capable politician, she has been in the council of ministers when ever Congress has been in power, almost since she was elected to the Parliament in 1992, again at a very young age. She is MA, M. Phil and became a cabinet minister in 2009 .Her elder sister is also MA and a married housewife .Never in our discussions did Chaudhary Saheb ever express any unhappiness or regret at not having a son , a never failing male obsession in India. He gave the best possible education to his daughters.
I have known Kumari Selja, same age as my daughter since she was a child. Like her father, tall and slim, always elegantly dressed in Salwar Kameez, she is his replica .In 1995 she came to Ankara, where I was then posted to sign Cultural Agreement with Turkey. Turkish ministers and others were very much impressed with her .Such a capable and likeable politician at such a young age, they told me .She has amply delivered on the promise shown then.
Dinanath BhaskarDinanath Bhaskar (born 10 March 1963) has been a member of the Bahujan Samaj Party and a minister of Uttar Pradesh state in India. He is a and was a close associate of Kanshi Ram. He is currently in the Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP). He was the health minister during the Samajwadi Party-BSP coalition government of Uttar Pradesh in 1993 and later quit the BSP to join the Samajwadi Party in 1996.In the 2017 state elections, Bhaskar was elected as Member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Aurai constituency as a BJP candidate. This was his third successful election to the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly.
Early lifeDinanath Bhaskar was born on 10 March 1963 in Khetarpala village, Chandauli district. He began his political career as a member of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). He won the Legislative Assembly elections from the Chandauli constituency in 1993 on a BSP ticket but left the party after Mayawati accused Mulayam Singh Yadav of trying to induce support from Bhaskar. He joined the Samajwadi Party in 1996 and successfully contested the 2002 Bhadohi elections to become a Member of the Legislative Assembly for a second time. He left the party after being denied a Vidhan Sabha ticket in a 2009 by-election. He then re-joined the BSP and was made Coordinator of Allahabad zone, Mirzapur zone and Varanasi Zone respectively.Bhaskar resigned from the BSP on 4 April 2015 and joined the BJP one month later. He has been named as a BJP candidatefor the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly elections due to take place in February/March 2017.
- 1993 to 1995: Member of Legislative Assembly Chandauli
- 2002 to 2007: Member of Legislative Assembly Bhadohi
- 1993: Health Minister and Village Development Division (Uttar Pradesh)
- 2003 to 2004: RES Minister
- 2004 to 2007: Chairman Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribe (SC/ST) Commission, Uttar Pradesh
- March 2017- present: BJP MLA for Aura
D. RajaD. Raja is a politician belonging to the Communist Party of India. He is a Rajya Sabha MP from Tamil Nadu. Raja has held the position of CPI National Secretary since 1994.
Full Name Shri D. Raja Elected from Tamil Nadu DOB June 3, 1949 Place of Birth Chithathoor, Distt. Vellore (Tamil Nadu) Political Party Communist Party of India Father's Name Shri P. Doraisamy Mother's Name Shrimati Nayagam Delhi Address 303, 309 and 310, V.P. House, Rafi Marg, New Delhi - 110001 Telephone No. 23317230, Mobile: 98 Permanent Address Balan Illam, 19, Chevalier Sivaji Ganesan Road, South Boag Road, Theagaraya Nagar, Chennai - 600017 Marital Status Married on 7 /01/1990 Spouse Shrimati Aniamma alias Annie Raja Children One daughter Education B.Sc., B.Ed. Educated at G.T.M. College, Gudiyattam, Distt. Vellore, affiliated to University of Madras, Chennai and Government Teachers College, affiliated to University of Madras, Chennai Profession before joining politics Political and Social Worker Positions Held July 2007 Elected to Rajya Sabha Aug. 2007-May 2009 Member, Committee on Science and Technology, Environment and Forests Member, Consultative Committee for the Ministry of Human Resource Development May 2008 onwards Member, Joint Parliamentary Committee on Security Matters in Parliament House Complex Member, Committee on Rules June 2008 onwards Member, General Purposes Committee July 2008-May 2009 and Jan. 2010 onwards Member, Parliamentary Forum on Global Warming and Climate Change July 2009 - Sept. 2010 Member, Committee on Ethics Aug. 2009 onwards Member, Committee on Home Affairs Member, Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Member, Consultative Committee for the Ministry of External Affairs Permanent Special Invitee, Consultative Committee for the Ministry of Human Resource Development Oct. 2009 onwards Member, Joint Committee on Food Management in Parliament House Complex Dec. 2009- July 2010 Member, Select Committee to examine the Commercial Division of High Courts Bill, 2009 Nov. 2010-Aug. 2012 Member, Committee on Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS) April 2011 onwards Member, Sub-Committee to examine various provisions of the Enemy Property (Amendment & Validation) Second Bill, 2010 of the Committee on Home Affairs May 2012 onwards Member, Business Advisory Committee Aug. 2012 onwards Member, Committee on Health and Family Welfare July 2013 Re-elected to Rajya Sabha Book(s) Published (i) Dalit Question, 2007 and (ii) The Way Forward: Fight Against Unemployment, a booklet on unemployment; has written a number of articles (in Tamil and English) on various political and social issues in various journals Term 25/07/2013 to 24/07/2019 Member of Rajya Sabha
Raja raised the issue of JNU students' protests in Parliament budget session. He sought immediate release of JNU Students Union president Kanhaiya Kumar. He also came in defence of his daughter, a student in the same university who joined the protests and sloganeering. A BJP leader in Tamil Nadu, H. Raja, proclaimed that D. Raja should shoot his daughter for shouting anti-national slogans to prove his patriotism. The BJP top brass, however, rejected H.Raja's statements. Moreover, a resident of Rai Bareilly petitioned to lodge an FIR against D. Raja and Congress vice-president Rahul Gandhi for supporting anti-national activities at JNU.
Damodaram Sanjivayya Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh In office
11 January 1960 – 12 March 1962
Preceded by Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Succeeded by Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Personal details Born 14 February 1921
Peddapdu Village, Kurnool District, Madras State, British India
Political party Indian National Congress Cabinet Government of India Portfolio Minister of Labour and Employment(9 June 1964 – 23 January 1966)Damodaram Sanjivayya (Telugu: దామోదరం సంజీవయ్య; 14 February 1921 – 8 May 1972) was the chief minister ofAndhra Pradesh, India from 11 January 1960 to 12 March 1962.
Damodaram Sanjivayya was born in a poor dalit family in Peddapadu village in Kurnool district. He was a brilliant student at the Municipal school and he took a bachelor degree in law from Madras Law College. Even as a student, he actively participated in the Indian freedom movement.
CareerDamodaram Sanjivayya was Minister in the composite Madras State. He was the member of the provisional parliament 1950–52. In 1962, Sanjivayya also became the first dalit leader from Andhra Pradesh to become All India Congress Committee president.He was Minister of Labour and Employment under Lal Bahadur Shastry between 9 June 1964 and 23 January 1966.He had the distinction of being among the first Harijans to have shouldered such high responsibilities in the cause of service to the Nation. He was known for his administrative ability and for his uprightness of character.He wrote a book on Labour problems and industrial development in India, in 1970 published by Oxford and IBH Pub. Co., New Delhi.His statue was erected opposite Public Gardens in Nampally, Hyderabad.A beautiful park, Sanjeevaiah park along the banks of Hussain Sagar in Hyderabad was named in his honor.Damodaram Sanjivayya National Law University, Visakhaptnam one of the premier legal institutions has been named in his honour.
Harinder Singh Khalsa – Ex Ambessdor Norway, Ex M.P Rajya Sabha, Ex Member of SC/ST commission
At Gujarati Literature Festival, Ahmedabad on 16 December 2016
MLA of Gujarat Assumed office
Constituency Vadgam Personal details Born 11 December 1982citation needed]
Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India[
Nationality Indian Political party Independent Education Alma mater Gujarat University Occupation lawyer, social activist, politician Signature
Early lifeMevani was born on 11 December 1982 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. His family is native of Meu, a village in Mehsana district. He completed his schooling from Swastik Vidyalaya and Vishwa Vidyalay Madhaymik Shala in Ahmedabad. He completed Bachelor of Arts in English literature in 2003 from H.K Arts College, Ahmedabad. In 2004, he received Diploma in Journalism and Mass Communication. From 2004 to 2007, he served as a reporter for Abhiyan, a Gujarati magazine. In 2013, he received Bachelor of Laws from D. T. Law College, Ahmedabad.
2016 Gujarat Dalit unrestAfter attack on Dalit men in Una village in Saurashtra region of Gujarat by claimed members of cow protection group, protests broke out across Gujarat. Jignesh Mevani led the protest march called Dalit Asmita Yatra from Ahmedabad to Una, which culminated on 15 August 2016 and was attended by some 20,000 Dalits, including dalit women, who took a pledge to give up their traditional jobs of removing cow carcasses. He demanded the land for upliftment of Dalits.
PoliticsIn Gujarat Legislative Assembly election, 2017, he contested and won the election from Vadgam constituency, running as an independent candidate with support of the Indian National Congress and the Aam Aadmi Party.
ControversyMevani was allegedly photographed receiving a cheque from members of the Social Democratic Party of India (SDPI), the political wing of the Popular Front of India (PFI), under the National Investigation Agency radar after many of its members were allegedly found fighting for the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. In response, speaking to Times Now, senior SDPI official Abrar Ahmed said, "We are extending full support to Mevani. We will support any party which fights communal forces." When the BJP accused Mevani of terrorism links, Mevani denied the charges, and threatened to sue BJP for defamation. However two days after winning the Vadgam seat in the Gujarat Assembly election, speaking to CNN-News18, he admitted that he had taken ₹ 51,000 as donation from the PFI for his campaign, and challenged the central government to ban the organisation.
- 2018 Bhima Koregaon violence
Along with Umar Khalid, Jignesh Mevani was booked under an FIR for giving 'provocative' speeches in Pune. The criminal offence against Mevani and Khalid was for promoting enmity between different groups through their speeches. The Elgaar Parishad rally, where this reportedly happened, was held in Pune to mark the 200th year of the Battle of Koregaon, a place in present-day Pune district, which was fought between the then British Indian Army and the Peshwas. Besides Mevani and Khalid, the mother of Rohith Vemula, Radhika Vemula, Dalit leader Prakash Yashwant Ambedkar, Adivasi activist Soni Sori, and Bhim Army’s Vinay Ratan Singh were among others who attended the conference.
Jagjivan RamFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Deputy Prime Minister of India In office
24 March 1977 – 28 July 1979
Serving with Charan Singh
Prime Minister Morarji Desai Preceded by Morarji Desai Succeeded by Yashwantrao Chavan Minister of Defence In office
24 March 1977 – 1 July 1978
Prime Minister Morarji Desai Preceded by Sardar Swaran Singh Succeeded by Sardar Swaran Singh In office
27 June 1970 – 10 October 1974
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi Preceded by Bansi Lal Succeeded by Chidambaram Subramaniam
Personal details Born 5 April 1908
Chandwa, British Raj (now India)
Died 6 July 1986 (aged 78) Political party Indian National Congress-Jagjivan (1981–1986) Other political
Indian National Congress (Before 1977)Congress for Democracy (1977)Janata Party (1977–1981) Children Suresh
Alma mater Banaras Hindu University
University of CalcuttaBabu Jagjivan Ram ( जगजीवन राम) (5 April 1908 – 6 July 1986), known popularly as Babuji, was a freedom fighter and a social reformer hailing from the scheduled castes of Bihar in India. He was from the Chamar caste and was a leader for his community. He was instrumental in foundation of the 'All-India Depressed Classes League', an organization dedicated to attaining equality for untouchables, in 1935 and was elected to Bihar Legislative Assembly in 1937, that is when he organized, rural labour movement.In 1946, he became the youngest minister in Jawaharlal Nehru's provisional government, the First Union Cabinet of India as a Labour minister, and also a member of Constituent Assembly of India, where he ensured that social justice was enshrined in the Constitution. He went on serve as a minister in the Indian parliament with various portfolios for more than forty years as a member of Indian National Congress (INC), most importantly he was the Defence Minister of India during the Indo-Pak war of 1971, which resulted in formation of Bangladesh. His contribution to the Green Revolution in India and modernising Indian agriculture, during his two tenures as Union Agriculture Minister are still remembered, especial during 1974 drought when he was asked to hold the additional portfolio to tide over the food crisis. Though he supported Indira Gandhi during the Emergency in India (1975–1977), he left Congress in 1977 and joined Janata Party alliance in 1977, along with his Congress for Democracy, he later served as the Deputy Prime Minister of India (1977–1979), then in 1980, he formed Congress (J). He is also famous for "forgetting to pay his taxes" during his years in power.
Early lifeJagjivan Ram was born at Chandwa near Arrah in Bihar, to a family of five siblings, elder brother Sant Lal, and three sisters. His father Sobhi Ram was with British Indian Army, posted at Peshawar, but later resigned due to some differences and bought some farming land in his native village Chandwa, and settled there. He also became a Mahant of Shiv Narayani sect, skilled in calligraphy he illustrated many book of the sect and distributed locally.
Young Jagjivan started going a local school in January 1914, but shortly afterward his father died prematurely, leaving him and his mother Vasanti Devi to economic hardships. He joined Aggrawal Middle School in Arrah in 1920, where the medium of instruction was English for the first time, and joined Arrah Town School in 1922, it was here that is faced caste discrimination for the first time, yet remained unfazed. An often cited incident occurred in the school, there was this tradition of having two water pots in the school, one for Hindus and another for Muslims, so when Jagjivan drank water from the Hindu pot, while being from an untouchable class, the matter was reported to the Principal, who placed a third pot for "untouchables" in the school, but this pot was broken by him twice, eventually the Principal decided against placing the third pot. An important turning point in his life came in 1925, when Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya visited his school, and impressed by his welcome address, invited him to join Banaras Hindu University.Jagjivan Ram passed his matriculation in the first division and joined the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in 1927, where he was awarded the Birla scholarship, and passed his Inter Science Examination; while at BHU he organised the scheduled castes to protest against social discrimination. As a Dalit student, he would not be served meals in his hostel, denied haircut by local barbers, a Dalit barber would arrive from Ghazipur from occasionally to trim his hair, eventually he left BHU and pursued graduation from Calcutta University. In 2007, the BHU set up a Babu Jagjivan Ram Chair in its faculty of social sciences to study caste discrimination and economic backwardness.
He received a B.Sc. degree from the University of Calcutta in 1931, here again he organized conferences to draw the attention towards issues of discrimination, and also participated in the anti-untouchability movement started by Mahatma Gandhi.
CareerNetaji Subhash Chandra Bose took notice of him at Kolkata, when in 1928 he organized a Mazdoor Rally at Wellington Square, in which approximately 50,000 people participated. When the devastating Bihar earthquake of 1934 occurred he got actively involved in the relief work and his efforts were appreciated his work. When popular rule was introduced under the 1935 Act and the scheduled castes were given representation in the legislatures, both the nationalists and the British loyalists sought him because of his first-hand knowledge of the social and economic situation in Bihar, Jagjivan Ram was nominated to the Bihar Council. He chose to go with the nationalists and joined Congress, which wanted him not only because he was valued as an able spokesperson for the depressed classes, but also that he could counter Ambedkar; he was elected to the Bihar assembly in 1937. However, he resigned his membership on the issue of irrigation .In 1935, he contributed to the establishment of the 'All-India Depressed Classes League', an organization dedicated to attaining equality for untouchables. He was also drawn into the Indian National Congress, in the same year he proposed a resolution in the 1935 session of the Hindu Mahasabha demanding that temples and drinking water wells be opened up to Dalits. and in the early 1940s was imprisoned twice for his active participation in the Satyagraha and the Quit India Movements. He was among the principal leaders who publicly denounced India's participation in the World War II between the European nations and for which he was imprisoned in 1940.
Parliamentary careerIn 1946 he became the youngest minister in Jawaharlal Nehru's provisional government and also the subsequent First Indian Cabinet, as a Labour Minister, where he is credited for laying the foundation for several labour welfare policies in India. He was a part of the prestigious high profile Indian delegation that attended to attend the International Labour Organization (ILO)'s International Labour Conference on 16 August 1947 in Geneva along with the great Gandhian Bihar Bibhuti Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha his chief political mentor and also the then head of the delegation, and few days later he was elected President of the ILO.He served as Labour minister until 1952, later h
In Indira Gandhi's government he worked as minister for Labour, employment, and rehabilitation (1966–67), and Union minister for Food and agriculture (1967–70), where he is best remembered for having successfully led the Green Revolution during his tenure. When the Congress Party split in 1969, Jagjivan Ram joined the camp led by Indira Gandhi, and became the president of that faction of Congress.
He worked as the Minister of Defence (1970–74) making him the virtual No. 2 in the cabinet, minister for Agriculture and irrigation (1974–77).
It was during his tenure as the minister of Defence that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was fought, and Bangladesh achieved independence.
While loyal to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi for most of the Indian Emergency, in 1977 he along with five other politicians resigned from the Cabinet and formed the Congress for Democracy party, within the Janata coalition.A few days before the elections, Jagjivan Ram addressed an Opposition rally at the famous Ram Lila Grounds in Delhi. The national broadcaster Doordarshan allegedly attempted to stop crowds from participating in the demonstration by telecasting the blockbuster movie Bobby. The rally still drew large crowds, and a newspaper headline the next day ran "Babu beats Bobby" . He was the Deputy Prime Minister of India when Morarji Desai was the Prime Minister, from 1977 to 1979, though initially reluctant to join the cabinet, and was not present at the oath-taking ceremony on 27 March 1977; he eventually did so at the behest of Jai Prakash Narayan, who insisted that his presence for necessary, "not just as an individual but as a political and social force" and took oath later on. However, he was once again given the defence portfolio. Disillusioned with the Janata party he formed his own party, the Congress (J). He remained a member of Parliament till his death in 1986, after over forty years as a parliamentarian. He was elected from Sasaram parliament constituency in Bihar. His uninterrupted representation in the Parliament from 1936 to 1986 was a world record, until Tony Benn overtook him by serving 51 years (1950–2001) in the British parliament. .
Positions heldUnion Minister of Labour, 1946-1952.Union Minister for Communications, 1952-1956.Union Minister for Transport and Railways, 1956-1962.Union Minister for Transport and Communications, 1962-1963.Union Minister for Labour, Employment and Rehabilitation, 1966-1967.Union Minister for Food and Agriculture, 1967-1970.Union Minister of Defence, 1970–1974, 1977-1979.Union Minister of Agriculture and Irrigation, 1974-1977.Founding Member, Congress for Democracy party (aligned with Janata Party), 1977.Deputy Prime Minister of India, March 23, 1977-August 22, 1979.Founder, Congress (J).He served as President of the Bharat Scouts and Guides from September 1976 to April 1983.[
Personal lifeIn August 1933 his first wife died after a brief illness, thereafter in June 1935 he married Indrani Devi, a daughter of Dr. Birbal, a well-known social worker of Kanpur, and the couple had two children, Suresh Kumar and Meira Kumar.
LegacyThe place he was cremated has been turned into the memorial Samatha Sthal, and his birth anniversary is observed as Samatha Diwas., (Equality Day) in India, his centenary celebrations were held all over the nation in 2008, especially at his statues at the Parliament and at Nizam College; demands for awarding him posthumous Bharat Ratna have being raised from time to time Hyderabad. Andhra University which had conferred an honorary doctorate on him in 1973, and in 2009 on the occasion of his 102nd birth anniversary, his statue was unveiled on the university premises .His daughter, Meira Kumar, is a prominent INC leader, who has won his former seat Sasaram, both 2004 and 2009 and was later the Minister for Social Justice in the Manmohan Singh government (2004 - '09), thereafter she became the Speaker of Lok Sabha in 2009. To propagate his ideologies, the 'Babu Jagjivan Ram National Foundation', has been set up by Ministry of Social Justice, Govt. of India in Delhi.Works
Kanshi RamFrom Wikipedia
- Ram, Jagjivan; Shachi Rani Gurtu (1951). Jagjivan Ram on labour problems. Ram.
- Ram, Jagjivan (1980). Caste challenge in India. Vision Books.
Kanshi Ram Founder and National president of the Bahujan Samaj Party In office
14 April 1984 – 18 September 2003
Succeeded by Mayawati Member of the Indian Parliament
Preceded by Kamal Chaudhry Succeeded by Kamal Chaudhry Member of the Indian Parliament
Preceded by Ram Singh Shakya Succeeded by Ram Singh Shakya Personal details Born 15 March 1934
Khawaspur village, Rupnagar district, Punjab, India
Died 9 October 2006 (aged 72)
Political party Bahujan Samaj Party Spouse(s) Unmarried Religion Buddhism Website www .bspindia .org /manyawar-shri-kanshiram-ji .phpKanshi Ram (15 March 1934 – 9 October 2006), also known as Bahujan Nayak or Saheb, was an Indian politician and social reformer who worked for the upliftment and political mobilisation of the Bahujans, the untouchable groups at the bottom of the caste system in India. Towards this end, Kanshi Ram founded Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti (DS-4), the All India Backward and Minority Communities Employees' Federation (BAMCEF) in 1971 and the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) in 1984. He ceded leadership of the BSP to his protégé Mayawati who has served four terms as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh.
Early lifeKanshi Ram was born on 15 March 1934 in Khawaspur village, Ropar district, to a Ramdasia Chamar Sikh family. The Ramdasias are a Dalit sect but in Punjab at that time there was relatively little stigma attached to being an untouchable.
CareerKanshi Ram joined the offices of the Explosive Research and Development Laboratory in Pune. In 1964 during his time there, he joined the agitation started by SCEWASTAMB (All India Federation of Scheduled Caste/Tribes Backward Class & Minorities Employees Welfare Associations) of Government of India to prevent the abolition of a holiday commemorating B. R. Ambedkar's birthday.In 1978, Ram formed BAMCEF, a non-political, non-religious and non-agitational organisation with wings like BVF, Brotherhood Center and Buddhist Research Center.Later, in 1981, Ram formed another social organisation known as Dalit Shoshit Samaj Sangharsh Samiti (DS4). He started his attempt of consolidating the Dalit vote and in 1984 he founded the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). The BSP found success in Uttar Pradesh, initially struggled to bridge the divide between Dalits and Other Backward Classes but later under leadership of Mayawati bridged this gap.In 1982 he wrote his book The Chamcha Age (an Era of the Stooges) and in it he used of the term chamcha (stooge) for Dalit leaders who for their selfish motives work for parties like the Indian National Congress (INC) such as Jagjivan Ram or Ram Vilas Paswan and for Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)[ keeping in ethical context with Ambedkar's book What Gandhi and the Congress Have Done to the Untouchables to the politics of Dalit liberation.However, it was in 1986 when he declared his transition from a social worker to a politician by stating that he was not going to work for/with any other organization other than the BSP. During the meetings and seminars of the party, Ram stated to ruling classes that if they promised to do something, it would pay to keep the promise, or else just accept that they were not capable of fulfilling their promises.After forming BSP Ram said the party would fight first election to lose, next to get noticed and the third election to win. In 1988 he contested Allahabad seat up against a future Prime Minister V. P. Singh and performed impressively but lost polling close to 70,000 votes.He unsuccessfully contested from East Delhi (Lok Sabha constituency) in 1991 and came at fourth position. Then he represented the 11th Lok Sabha from Hoshiarpur,Kanshiram was also elected as member of Lok Sabha from Etawah in Uttar Pradesh. In 2001 he publicly announced Mayawati as his successor.In the late 1990s, Ram described the BJP as the most corrupt (mahabrasht) party in India and the INC, Samajwadi Party and Janata Dal as equally corrupt.
Proposed conversion to BuddhisIn 2002, Ram announced his intention to convert to Buddhism on 14 October 2006, the 50th anniversary of Ambedkar's conversion. He intended for 20,000,000 of his supporters to convert at the same time. Part of the significance of this plan was that Ram's followers include not only untouchables, but persons from a variety of castes, who could significantly broaden Buddhism's support. However, he died 9 October 2006.Mayawati his successor said "Saheb Kanshi Ram and I had decided that we will convert and adopt Buddhism when we will get "absolute majority" at the Centre. We wanted to do this because we can make a difference to the religion by taking along with us millions of people. If we convert without power then only we two will be converting. But when you have power you can really create a stir," she said.
DeathRam was a diabetic. He suffered a heart attack in 1994, an arterial clot in his brain in 1995, and a stroke in 2003.He died in New Delhi on 9 October 2006 of a severe heart attack. He had been virtually bed-ridden for more than two years.According to his wishes, his funeral rites were performed as per Buddhist tradition, with Mayawati lighting the pyre. His ashes were placed in an urn and kept at Prerna Sthal, where many people paid their respects.In his condolence message, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh described Ram as "one of the greatest social reformers of our time .. his political ideas and movements had a significant impact on our political evolution ... He had a larger understanding of social change and was able to unite various underprivileged sections of our society and provide a political platform where their voices would be heard." Under Ram's leadership, the BSP won 14 parliamentary seats in the 1999 federal elections.
*मां मुझे सेहरा नहीं कफन चाहिऐ*
पूना से जाने के बाद साहब कांशीराम जी का गांव से संपर्क खत्म हो चुका था लेकिन परिवार के सदस्यों को यह जानकारी रहती थी कि साहब बहुत बड़े-बड़े कार्यक्रम करते हैं तथा समाज को मानसिक रुप से तैयार करके एक निश्चित उदेश्य के लिए अपनी सारी ऊर्जा लगा रहें हैं इसी दौर में रोपड (पंजाब) में एक कार्यक्रम का आयोजन किया गया जिसमें साहब को मुख्य वक्ता के रुप में बुलाया उधर साहब के गांव ख्वासपुर में ये सूचना मिलते ही परिवार के लोगों ने आपस में चर्चा की और साहब की माता बिशन कौर ने साहब के पिता हरि सिंह को साहब से मिलकर घर लेकर आने का आग्रह किया तो पिता हरि सिंह जी ने कार्यक्रम मे जाने से मना कर दिया और कहा कि अगर तुम्हें जाना है तो जाओ मैं नहीं जाना चाहता।
तब माता बिशन कौर छोटे-छोटे हरबंस को साथ लेकर कार्यक्रम में पहुंच गई वहां बहुत बड़ा कार्यक्रम था और भारी संख्या में भीड़ एकत्र थी साहब अपना लक्ष्य सामने मौजूद भीड़ को अपने भाषण के माध्यम से बता रहे थे इस नेक कार्यक्रम और साहब की इस तरह की विचारधारा को सुनते हुए माता बिशन कौर लगातार रोती रही जैसे ही कार्यक्रम समाप्त हुआ तो माता बिशन कौर साहब को चिपक कर जोर-जोर से रोने लगी इतने साल बाद अपने बेटे के चेहरे को देखने का मौका मिला है तो मां की ममता न रुक सकी और जो उलाहने माता देना चाहती थी वो उलाहने देती रही काफी देर बाद साहब ने मां को शांत किया और घर परिवार की चर्चा होने लगी तब मां ने कहा कि बेटा समाज की रीति रिवाज के अनुसार बड़े बेटे की शादी की जाती है उसके बाद छोटे की शादी की जाती है तेरे कारण हमने छोटे बच्चों की शादी भी नहीं की है इसलिए घर चल मैं मरने से पहले तेरे सिर पर सेहरा देखना चाहती हूं।
साहब इस बात पर मुस्कुराए और कहने लगे कि मां तुझे अभी भी मेरी शादी कि चिंता है, गंभीर होते हुए साहब ने कहा *मां मुझे सेहरा नहीं कफन दो... क्योंकि मैं मर चुका हूँ ये बात सुनकर मां और जोर से रोने लगी बडी मुश्किल से साहब ने मां को फिर चुप किया और कहा कि मां मेरा व्यक्तिगत घर परिवार नहीं है समस्त बहुजन समाज ही मेरा परिवार है रही बात शादी की मैं पहले ही कह चुका हूँ मैं आजीवन शादी नहीं करुंगा | रही बात घर जाने की अगर आप लोग मेरे से मिलना चाहो तो इसी तरह के कार्यक्रमों में आकर मिल लेना क्योंकि मेरे पास समय बहुत कम है और काम ज्यादा है इस प्रकार लंबी बातचीत करने के बाद साहब अगले कार्यक्रम के लिए आगे बढ गए और मां बिशन कौर रोते-रोते खाली हाथ गांव लौट आई।
जब एक आदमी के जीवन का निश्चित मकसद बन जाता है तो उस मिशन में जज्बातों और भावनाओं को तवज्जों नहीं दी जाती और जो आदमी भावनाओं में बहकर अपने कदम रोक देता है वह जिंदगी मैं अपना लक्ष्य हासिल नहीं कर सकता।
5 दिसंबर,1993 को एक पत्रकार वार्ता में साहब से पूछा गया कि आपकी शादी कब हुई? साहब ने जवाब दिया - "मेैैंने शादी नहीं की है। जब मेरी शादी होने की बात चल रही थी तो मैंने फैसला किया कि मुझे सामाजिक और राजनीतिक जीवन में रहना है, तो मुझे शादी नहीं करनी चाहिए मेरा कोई अपना परिवार मोहमाया का जंजाल नहीं है |"
Member of the Senate of PakistanIncumbent Assumed office
12 March 2018
Personal details Born 1 February 1979 Nationality Pakistani Political party Pakistan Peoples Party Alma mater University of Sindh Nickname(s) Kishoo BaiKrishna Kumari Kohli (Sindhi: ڪرشن ڪماري ڪوهلي Urdu: کرشنا کماری کوہلی; born 1 February 1979), also known by the nickname Kishoo Bai, is a Pakistani politician who has been the member of the Senate of Pakistan since March 2018. She is the first Hindu Dalit woman and the second Hindu woman to hold this position. She is known for her campaigns for women's rights and against bonded labour.
Early life and educationKohli was born on 1 February 1979 to a poor family hailing from a village in Nagarparkar.When she was a child and a student of grade three, she and her family were held captive for three years as bonded labourers in a private jail allegedly owned by a landlord in Umerkot District. They were only released after a police raid on their employer's land. She received her early education initially from Umerkot district and then from Mirpurkhas District.She got married at the age of 16 in 1994 while she was studying in grade nine. She continued her education after her marriage and in 2013 earned a master's degree in Sociology from the University of Sindh.In 2007, she attended the third Mehergarh Human Rights Youth Leadership Training Camp in Islamabad in which she studied the government of Pakistan, international migration, strategic planning and learned about the tools that could be used to create social change.
Political careerKohli joined the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) as a social activist to campaign for the rights of marginalised communities in the Thar region. She also campaigns for women's rights, against bonded labour, and against sexual harassment in the workplace. In 2018, she was elected to the Senate of Pakistan in the Pakistan Senate elections as a PPP candidate on a reserved seat for women from Sindh. She took oath as Senator on 12 March 2018. She became the first Hindu Dalit woman and the second Hindu woman elected to the Senate after Ratna Bhagwandas Chawla
K. Pratibha Bharati
K. Pratibha Bharati Speaker of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly In office
1999 - 2004
Preceded by Yanamala Rama Krishnudu Succeeded by K. R. Suresh Reddy Personal details Born 6 February 1956
Kavali, Srikakulam district
Political party Telugu Desam Party Religion HinduK. Pratibha Bharati (born 6 February 1956) is a politician from the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.She is a former speaker of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly (1999-2004). She was the first woman speaker in Andhra Pradesh's history. She was Minister of Social Welfare 1983, 1985 and 1994 and 1998 of Higher Education. She is a member of India Regional party named Telugu Desam
Pratibha Bharati was born into a politically active Dalit family in Kavali in the Srikakulam district. Her father (K. Punnaiah) and grandfather (K. Narayana) had previously served as Members of the Legislative Assembly.
Name Kumari Selja Constituency from which I am elected Ambala Father's Name Late Choudhury Dalbir Singh Mother's Name Date of Birth 9/24/1962 Birth Place Chandigarh Maritial Status Unmarried Date of Marriage -NA- No. of Children No.of Sons:0 No.of Daughters:0 State Name Haryana Party Name Indian National Congress Permanent Address 87, Durrand Road,Ambala Cantt. HaryanaTel. (0171) 2631272 Present Address 7, Motilal Nehru Marg,New Delhi - 110 011Tels (011) 23061242, 23061928, 23384173 (O) Telefax: (011) 23018074, 23018269 (R), Fax: (011) 23061780 (O) Email id email@example.com Educational Qualifications M.A., M.Phil. Educated at Convent of Jesus & Mary, New Delhi, Graduation and Post-graduation from Panjab University, Chandigarh Profession Positions Held 1/1/1990 Joint Secretary, All India Mahila Congress 1/1/1991 Elected to 10th Lok Sabha 1/2/1991 Member, Executive Commitee, Congress Parliamentary Party 1/1/1992 Union Deputy Minister, Deptt. of Education & Culture, Ministry of Human Resource Development 1/1/1995 Union Minister of State,Department of Education and Culture,Ministry of Human Resource Development 1/1/1996 Re-elected to 11th Lok Sabha (2nd term) 3/3/1996 Member, Executive Committee, Congress Parliamentary Party 4/1/1996 Secretary and Spokesperson, All India Congress Committee 1/1/2004 Re-elected to 14th Lok Sabha (3rd term) 2/1/2004 Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation 1/1/2005 Elected Member of the Governing Board of Commonwealth Local Government Forum 1/1/2007 Elected President of 21st Governing Council of UN Habitat for a two year term 1/1/2009 Re-elected to 15th Lok Sabha (4th term) 1/2/2009 2/1/2009 2/1/2009 Union Cabinet Minister, Housing and Urban Proverty Alleviation and Tourism 1/1/2011 Union Cabinet Minister, Minister of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation 1/2/2011 Union Cabinet Minister, Culture Social and Cultural Activities Worked for empowerment of Women and for upliftment of marginal and disadvantaged groups Special Interests Contemporary economic and political issues, inclusive growth and environmental concerns in the developing world and habitat and related issues facing the urban poor Sports and Clubs Member, (i) Army Golf Club; (ii) India Habitat Centre; and (iii) India International Centre Favourite Pastimes and Recreation Reading on socio-economic, environmental and habitat related issues, travelling to untouched destinations, listen to all genres of music Countries Visited Widely travelled Other Information Member, Commonwealth Women Parliamentarian Steering Committee to represent India Region of Commonwealth Parliamentary Association; Elected Chairperson of the Commonwealth Consultative Group on Human Settlements (CCGHS)
Selja Kumari was born in New Delhi to the Dalit leader Chaudhary Dalbir Singh. She studied at the Convent of Jesus and Mary, New Delhi and has a M.Phil from Punjab University
She began her political career in the Mahila Congress becoming its President in 1990. One of the seniormost dalit leaders within the Congress party, she was elected to the 10th Lok Sabha in 1991 from Sirsa in Haryana. She was Union Minister of State for Education and Culture in the Narasimha Rao-led Congress government. Despite the Congress debacle in Haryana in 1996, she was re-elected to the 11th Lok Sabha.
In 2004, she was elected to the Lok Sabha representing the Ambala constituency of Haryana. She was Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation in the Manmohan Singh-led UPA government.On 16 May 2009, she was once again re-elected from the same constituency, making this her second consecutive victory from Ambala and was given an elevation to Cabinet rank holding portfolios of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation and Culture.
Krishna Tirath Smt. Krishna Tirath MP Constituency North West Delhi Personal details Born 3 March 1955
Karol Bagh, New Delhi
Political party INC Spouse(s) Vijay Kumar Children 3 daughters Residence New Delhi As of September 16, 2006
She began her political career as a M.L.A in Delhi and was a member of the Delhi Legislative Assembly between 1984-2004. In 1998, she became the Minister for Social Welfare, SC & ST and Labour & Employment in the Sheila Dikshit led Delhi government. The Chief Minister saw her as a part of the dissident group and forced to resign from her post by dissolving her entire Cabinet. On her resignation in 2003, she became Deputy Speaker of the Delhi Assembly.
In the 2004 elections she trounced Anita Arya of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and was elected to parliament. In 2009 elections, She again elected from North West Delhi by defeating Meera Kanwaria of BJP
She has been inducted into Manmohan Singh's cabinet as the Minister for Women and Child Development.
Minister of Women and Child DevelopmentAs Minister for Women and Child Development, Tirath stated that the government's priorities would be to "support holistic empowerment of women, ensure adequate and universal availability of supplementary nutrition for children, adolescent girls and expectant mothers and build a protective environment for children where they can develop and flourish as responsible and happy citizens of the society."
Tirath has proposed that working Indian husbands pay a portion of their income to their wives. The goal is to calculate the value of housework, and to socially empower women for the work they do at home.
In a 2012 meeting with United States Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius, Tirath stated her concern for malnutrition among children in India. She emphasized the importance of agencies like Integrated Child Development Services for implementing improvements in education, immunization and supplementary nutrition, in order to alleviate child mortality
Lahori Ram – Economic Devolpment Commisioner, California
Name Smt. Meira Kumar Constituency from which I am elected Sasaram Father's Name Late Shri Jagjivan Ram Mother's Name Smt. Indrani Devi Date of Birth 3/31/1945 Birth Place Patna (Bihar) Maritial Status Married Date of Marriage 11/29/1968 Spouse Name Shri Manjul Kumar No. of Children No.of Sons:1 No.of Daughters:2 State Name Bihar Party Name Indian National Congress Permanent Address Present Address (i) 20, Akbar Road, New Delhi - 110 011 Tels. (011) 23014011, 23014022 Fax. (011) 23016212 Email id firstname.lastname@example.org Educational Qualifications M.A., LL.B, Advanced Diploma in Spanish Educated at Indraprastha College and Miranda House, University of Delhi (Delhi) and Madrid (Spain) Profession Positions Held 1/1/1985 Elected to 8th Lok Sabha 1/1/1990 General-Secretary, All India Congress Committee (A.I.C.C.) 1/1/1994 Member, Congress Working Committee (C.W.C.) 1/1/1996 Re-elected to 11th Lok Sabha (2nd term) 1/2/1996 Member, Public Accounts Committee 1/3/1996 Member, Consultative Committee, Ministry of External Affairs 1/3/1996 Member, Joint committee on the Empowerment of Women and its Sub-Committee on Education and Health Programmes for Women 1/4/1996 Member, Committee on Home Affairs and its Sub-Committee on Personnel policy of Central Para- Military Forces (CPMFs) 1/1/1998 Re-elected to 12th Lok Sabha (3rd term) 1/1/2004 Re-elected to 14th Lok Sabha (4th term) 1/3/2004 Union Cabinet Minister, Social Justice and Empowerment 1/4/2004 Union Cabinet Minister, Water Resources 1/5/2004 Member, Inter-Parliamentary Union 1/6/2004 President, Executive Committee, Indian Parliamentary Group 1/1/2009 Re-elected to 15th Lok Sabha (5th term) 1/2/2009 Speaker, Lok Sabha 1/3/2009 Chairperson, Rules Committee 1/1/2010 Chairperson, Standing Committee, CSPOC Social and Cultural Activities President (i) All India Samta Movement (also its Founder)1990 ; (ii) RVAKV Society (Institute of Blind Girls),1992-98; (iii) Ravidas Smarak Society, Varanasi, 2000; (iv) Jagjivan Seva Ashram, Sasaram, 2002;Chairperson(i) Meera Kala Mandir, Udaipur, 2000; and (ii) Jagjivan Ram Sanatorium, Dehri-on-Sone,2002; Vice-Chairperson, Rajendra Bhawan Trust, Delhi, 1987; Managing Trustee, Jagjivan Ashram Trust, Delhi, 1985-2004; Member (i) Senate, Bihar University, 1969-71; (ii)Supreme Court Bar Association, 1980; (iii) Senate, Punjab University, 1987-91; (iv) Governing Body, Indian Council of Cultural Relations (I.C.C.R.), 1987-92; (v) Central Advisory Board of Education, 1986-89 and 2004 onwards; (vi) Advisory Council, Delhi Development Authority, 1998-99; (vii) National Commission on Population (current); and (viii) National Integration Council (current) Special Interests Visiting old Monuments, Indian Textiles and Craft Sports and Clubs Rifle shooting and equestrian; Member (i) India International Centre, New Delhi; (ii) India Habitat Centre, New Delhi; and (iii) National Sports Club of India, New Delhi Favourite Pastimes and Recreation Reading and Indian classical music Countries Visited Widely travelled Other InformationLeader, Indian Parliamentary Delegation to (i) Nairobi, Kenya, September, 2010; (ii) Berne and Geneva, July, 2010; (iii) Mongolia, June, 2010; (iv) Hungary and Luxembourg, June, 2010; (v) Bhutan, May, 2010; (vi) Swaziland, May, 2010; (vii) Bangkok, March-April, 2010; (viii) Mauritius, January, 2010; (ix) New York, November, 2009; (x) Geneva, October, 2009; (xi) Tanzania, September-October, 2009; (xii) Rome, September, 2009; (xiii) Austria, September 2009; ; and (xiv) Detroit, USA for Conference on Democracy; Head, Congress Party Delegation to (i) inaugurate Indian National Congress of America, San Francisco; (ii) World Conference on Solidarity with Cuba, Havana; (iii) POSSAC Conference, Athens, Greece; and (iv)Indian Non-Government Delegation to UN Preparatory Committee Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, Geneva; Member (i) Congress Party Delegation to Mauritius for MMM Conference; (ii) Indian Delegation to the UN General Assembly; (iii) All Party Delegation of MPs to Conference on Towards Détente in the Sub-Continent, Pakistan; (iv) Official delegation accompanying the President of India on State visit to Mauritius; and (v) Indian Delegation to Peoples Democratic Republic of Yemen and Yemen Arab Republic; accompanied the then President of India, Dr. Abdul Kalam on State visit to Tanzania and South Africa; actively participating in movements pertaining to social reforms, human rights and democracy; as Chairperson, National Drought Relief Committee of the Congress Party during the century`s worst drought in 1967, launched a Family Adoption Scheme under which drought-affected families were adopted by affluent families; joined IFS in 1973 and resigned in 1985; served in Embassy of India, Madrid (Spain), 1976-77; High Commision of India, London, 1977-79 and Ministry of External Affairs, 1980-85; being committted to human rights and abolition of caste system, visited every place where atrocities were committed against Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes during the last 20 years; held meetings/ demonstrations, courted arrest and filed Public Interest Litigation cases in Supreme Court to ensure justice to them; Member (i) Court of Jawaharlal Nehru University, 1998-99; (ii) Court of University of Delhi since 1996-98; and (iii) Rajghat Samadhi Committee, 1998-99; (iv) Inter-Parliamentary Group, 1985; (v) Telephone Advisory Committee, 1997-98; and (vi) ZRUCC (Main) Delhi, Ministry of Railways, 1998-99.
Mayawati Kumari - President of Bahujan Samaj Party.
- 23rd, 24th, 30th and 32nd
- Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh
Incumbent Assumed office
13 May 2007
Preceded by Mulayam Singh Yadav In office
3 May 2002 – 29 August 2003
Preceded by President's rule Succeeded by Mulayam Singh Yadav In office
21 March 1997 – 21 September 1997
Preceded by President's rule Succeeded by Kalyan Singh In office
3 June 1995 – 18 October 1995
Preceded by Mulayam Singh Yadav Succeeded by President's rule Personal details Born 15 January 1956
Political party Bahujan Samaj Party Spouse(s) Unmarried Relations Six brothers and two sisters Residence Lucknow Alma mater University of Delhi
Mayawati's rise from humble beginnings has been called a "miracle of democracy" by P. V. Narasimha Rao, former Prime Minister of India. In 1993 she formed a coalition with the Samajwadi Party and emerged, at 39, the youngest chief minister of Uttar Pradesh and the first Dalit woman Chief Minister in India In 1997 and in 2002, she was Chief Minister in coalition with the Bharatiya Janata Party, the second time for a full term. In two of these coalitions, she withdrew her support halfway through the term.
Mayawati's tenure has attracted considerable controversy. She is now India's richest Chief Minister The rise in her personal wealth and that of her party are described by critics as indicators of corruption. Acts such as pulling down a stadium to build a monument to leaders of her party, including herself, are seen as whimsical and arbitrary, and her style has been compared to "running a fiefdom".
Mayawati was born in New Delhi at Shrimati Sucheta Kriplani Hospital, to Ram Rati and Prabhu Das. Mayawati's father Prabhu Das was a post office employee at Badalpur, Gautam Buddha Nagar. Prabhu Das, retired as section head from Postal department, Government of India. Badalpur, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh is her ancestral village.Her family belonged to the scheduled caste Hindu Jatav subcaste of the Chamar community.The "family's small income" was spent on sending the sons to private schools while the daughters went to "low-performing government schools".
Mayawati was a good student and did two degrees – a Bachelors of Arts and an LL.B. (Law) from Kalindi Women's College under the University of Delhi. Subsequently, she did her B.Ed from VMLG College, Ghaziabad. She was working as a teacher in Inderpuri JJ Colony, Delhi, and studying for the Indian Administrative Services exams, when Dalit politician Kanshi Ram came to their house in 1977. According to biographer Ajoy Bose, Kanshi Ram said, "I can make you such a big leader one day that not one but a whole row of IAS officers will line up for your orders." She was part of Kanshi Ram's team when he founded the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) in 1984. In 1989 she was elected to the parliament from Bijnor.
At Kanshi Ram's funeral ceremonies in 2006, Mayawati said they had both been following Buddhist traditions and customs. Her act of performing the last rites of Kanshi Ram (Hindi: दाह-संस्कार, traditionally done by a male heir) was an instance of their views against gender discrimination. She has indicated that she may formally convert to Buddhism at some point.
She worked as a teacher in Delhi (Inderpuri JJ Colony). In 1977, Dalit politician Kanshi Ram became very influential in her life resulting in her joining his core team when he founded the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) in 1984. Shortly after, she changed her career path and entered politics full time.
At Kanshi Ram's funeral ceremonies in 2006, Mayawati said they had both been following Buddhist traditions and customs. Her act of performing the last rites (Hindi: दाह-संस्कार) of Kanshi Ram has set an example of her and Kanshi Ram's views against gender discrimination. She said that she will convert to Buddhism after getting an absolute majority at the Centre.
In 1984 Kanshi Ram founded the BSP as a party to represent the Dalits and Buddhists. Mayawati was a key member of this organization. BSP fielded Mayawati for its first election campaign from the Kairana Lok Sabha (Lower House) seat in the Muzaffarnagar district in 1984, and then again for the Lok Sabha seats of Bijnor in 1985 and Haridwar in 1987. In 1989 she was elected for Loksabha seat of Bijnor with a total of 1,83,189 votes.
Although BSP did not win, the electoral experience led to considerable activity for Mayawati over the next five years, as she worked with Mahsood Ahmed and other organizers. In the 1989 election, the party won 9% of the popular vote and 13 seats. It won 11 seats in the 1991 election. Because the Dalits are widely spread over the state, Kanshi Ram and Mayawati then adopted a policy of attracting other groups, which continues today.
Mayawati won for the first time in the Lok Sabha elections of 1989 from Bijnor. In 1995, while a member of the Rajya Sabha (Upper House), she became a Chief Minister in a short-lived coalition government, and validated her position by winning from two constituencies in 1996. She was again Chief Minister for a short period in 1997, and then for a somewhat longer term in coalition with the Bharatiya Janata Party from 2002 to 2003. Before that in 2001 her mentor, Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) president Kanshi Ram named her as his successor. Mayawati has said in an interview that she has no time for family life or romantic relationships because she wants to focus on her political career and this is why she remains unmarried.
2007 Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections
Contrary to some poll predictions, BSP won a majority in the 2007 elections, the first such majority since 1991. Mayawati managed to attract support from Brahmins, Thakurs, Muslims and members of other backward classes. These people voted for a Dalit party for the first time, partly because BSP had offered seats to people from these communities. The campaign was accompanied by a colorful slogan: Haathi nahin, Ganesh hain, Brahma, Vishnu Mahesh Hain: "The elephant (BSP Logo) is really the Lord Ganesha, the trinity of gods rolled into one". Her new slogan invited everyone, including the higher castes, to "come ride the elephant", her party's election symbol.
Chief Minister, 2007
Mayawati was sworn in as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh for the fourth time on 13 May 2007. She announced an agenda that focused on providing social justice to the weaker sections of society and providing employment instead of distributing money to the unemployed. Her slogan is to make "Uttar Pradesh" ("Northern Province") into "Uttam Pradesh" ("Excellent Province").
In 2007 Mayawati's government began a major crackdown on irregularities in the recruitment process of police officers recruited during the previous Mulayam Singh government. So far 17,868 policemen have lost their jobs for irregularities in the recruitment process and 25 IPS officers were suspended for their involvement in corruption while recruiting the police constables.Mayawati is instituting reforms to introduce transparency into the recruiting process, including posting results of selection exams online.
As part of her social reform plans she advocates reservation for the poor among upper castes in addition to reservation for weaker sections of society. Reservation in India is a system whereby a percentage of government positions and seats in all universities are reserved for persons in backward classes and scheduled castes and tribes.
2009 parliamentary elections
Mayawati's BSP did not meet expectations[by whom?] in the 2009 general elections. The BSP, which was expected to win more than 35 seats[why?] in Lok Sabha from the state of Uttar Pradesh, succeeded in winning only 20 seats. The BSP obtained the highest percentage (27. 42%) of votes in Uttar Pradesh for any one political party. It was in third position in terms of national polling percentage (6.17%).
Disproportionate assets case
Mayawati's assets run into millions of dollars with several properties to her name. In 2007-08 assessment year, Mayawati paid an income tax of Rupees 26 crores, ranking among the top 20 taxpayers in the country. Earlier the CBI had filed a case against her for owning assets disproportionate to her known sources of income. Mayawati described the CBI investigation against her as illegal. Her party asserts that her income comes from gifts and small contributions made by party workers and supporters. Some of the assets uncovered by the CBI in 2003 were:
- 41 agricultural plots
- 16 residential plots
- 7 shops
- 3 orchards
- 2 shops-cum-residences located in and around Delhi
- 1 mansion in her ancestral village of Badalpur, built on a 30,000-square-yard (25,000 m2) estate.
While the source of the funds was given as voluntary donations, CBI found at least 50 sweepers, hawkers, and rickshaw-pullers who had been asked to open bank accounts and sign blank cheques from which these funds eventually originated.
Diplomatic cables published in 2011 through Wikileaks detailing the opinions of American civil servants asserted that Mayawati ran all governmental decisions through her small group of advisors and that she employed food tasters for security.The diplomatic cables also alleged that Mayawati sent a private jet to Mumbai to retrieve some sandals. Mayawati responded to the cables by saying that the statements they presented were baseless.
In her tenures as a Chief Minister, Mayawati erected number of statues of Buddhist and Dalit icons like Bhimrao Ambedkar, Shahuji Maharaj, Gautam Buddha, BSP founder Kanshi Ram, and of herself. The statues and the memorial parks in which they are erected are said to have cost the state Rs. 2000 crore. The Supreme Court of India admitted a Public Interest Litigation questioning this expenditure. She maintains that the statues are symbols of Dalit assertion and the expenditure was required because the past governments did not show respect towards Dalit icons, in whose memory nothing was ever built. In February 2010, Mayawati's government approved a plan for a special police force to protect the statues. She feared that her political opponents might demolish the statues. There are incidents of vandalis
Mohinder Singh KaypeeFrom WikipediaMohinder Singh Kaypee (born 7 November 1956) is an Indian politician and member of Indian National Congress. He was a member of the Indian Parliament during previous Congress Regime at Centre and represented Jalandhar (Lok Sabha constituency). But in 2014 Parliamentary elections he lost to BJP Candidate from Hoshiarpur. He also remained MLA and Minister in Captain Amarinder Singh Govt. During 2002-07.
Mallikarjun Kharge Minister for Labour and Employment Incumbent Assumed office
29 May 2009
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh Preceded by Oscar Fernandes Constituency Gulbarga
Personal details Born 21 July 1942
Warwatti, Bidar, India
Political party INC Spouse(s) Radhabai Kharge Occupation Lawyer Religion HinduismMallikarjun Kharge, (born 21 July 1942) is an Indian politician and currently the Union Minister of Labour and Employment of the Republic of India. He is a member of the 15th Lok Sabha of India. He represents the Gulbarga constituency of Karnataka and is a member of the Indian National Congress (INC) political party.He is a senior Karnataka politician and was the Leader of the Opposition in the Karnataka Legislative Assembly prior to contesting the 2009 General Elections. Prior to that he was the President of Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee during the 2008 Karnataka State Assembly Elections.He has won elections for a record 10 consecutive times having won the Assembly elections for an unprecedented 9 consecutive times (1972, 1979, 1983, 1985, 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004, 2008) and the recent 2009 General Elections from Gulbarga. Kharge is considered a competent leader with a clean public image and well versed in the dynamics of politics, legislation and administration.Mallikarjun Kharge was born in Warwatti, Karnataka to Mapanna Kharge and Sabavva. He finished his schooling from Nutan Vidyalaya in Gulbarga and went on to obtain a Bachelor of Arts degree from the Government College, Gulbarga and his Law degree from the Seth Shankarlal Lahoti Law College in Gulbarga. He started his legal practise as a junior in Justice Shivraj Patil's office and fought cases for labour unions early in his legal career.Early life and background
Early careerKharge started his political career as a student union leader while in the Government College, Gulbarga when he was elected as the General Secretary of the students' body. In 1969, he became the legal advisor to the MSK Mills Employees' Union. He was also an influential labour union leader of Samyukta Majdoor Sangha and led many agitations fighting for the rights of labourers. In 1969, he joined the Indian National Congress and became President of the Gulbarga City Congress Committee
Political careerHe first contested for the Karnataka State Assembly elections in 1972 and won from Gurmitkal constituency.
In 1973, he was appointed as the Chairman of the Octroi Abolition Committee which went into the question of revitalising the economy of the municipal and civic bodies in the state of Karnataka. Based on its report, the then Devaraj Urs Government abolished the levy of octroi at multiple points.
In 1974, he was appointed as the Chairman of State owned Leather Development Corporation and worked to improve the living conditions of thousands of cobblers who were indulging in leather tanning industry. Work sheds cum residences were built across the state for their benefit during this time.
In 1976, he was appointed as the Minister of State for Primary Education, during which time, over 16,000 backlog vacancies of SC/STs teachers were filled up by recruiting them directly into the service. Grants under Grant-in-aid code were given to schools run by SC/ST managements for the first time.
In 1978, he was elected for the second time as MLA from Gurmitkal constituency and was appointed as Minister of State for Rural Development and Panchayat Raj in the Devaraj Urs ministry.
In 1980, he became the Minister for Revenue in the Gundu Rao Cabinet. During this time, the focus was on effective Land Reforms resulting in giving occupancy rights to millions of land-less tillers and labourers. More than 400 land tribunals were constituted to expedite the transfer of land rights to the tillers.
In 1983, he was elected for the third time to the Karnataka Assembly from Gurmitkal.
In 1985, he was elected for the fourth time to the Karnataka Assembly from Gurmitkal and was appointed as the Deputy Leader of the Opposition in the Karnataka Assembly.
In 1989, he was elected for the fifth time to the Karnataka Assembly from Gurmitkal.
In 1990, he joined Bangarappa’s Cabinet as the Minister for Revenue, Rural Development and Panchayat Raj, portfolios he had held earlier and brought about significant change. Restarting the Land Reforms process that had stopped in the interim, resulted in hundreds of thousands of acres of land being registered in the name of the landless tillers.
Between, 1992 and 1994, he was the Minister for Co-operation, Medium and Large Industries in the Veerappa Moily Cabinet.
In 1994, he was elected for the sixth time to the Karnataka Assembly from Gurmitkal and became the Leader of the Opposition in the Assembly.
In 1999, he was elected for the seventh time to the Karnataka Assembly and was a front runner to the post of Chief Minister of Karnataka. He became Minister for Home in the S. M. Krishna Cabinet during a particularly trying time for Karnataka especially the Rajkumar kidnap by the notorious poacher Veerappan and the Cauvery Riots.
In 2004, he was elected for the eighth consecutive time to the Karnataka Assembly and was once again considered a front runner to the post of the Chief Minister of Karnataka. He became the Minister for Transport and Water Resources in the Dharam Singh led coalition government.
In 2005, he was appointed as the President of the Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee. In the Panchayat elections held soon after, Congress won the largest number of seats compared to BJP and JD(S) indicating a revival of the Congress fortunes in the rural areas of Karnataka. .
In 2008, he was elected for the record ninth consecutive time to the Assembly from Chitapur. Though the Congress party put up a better show when compared to the 2004 elections, the Congress lost the elections with a majority of the senior leaders losing. He was appointed as the Leader of the Opposition for the second time in 2008. In 2009, Kharge contested the General Elections from Gulbarga Parliamentary constituency and won his tenth consecutive election.
Union MinisterIn May, 2009, Kharge was appointed as the Minister for Labour and Employment in Manmohan Singh Cabinet.
Philanthropic and Social ActivitiesHe is the Founder-Chairman of Siddharth Vihar Trust that has built the inspiring Buddha Vihar in Gulbarga, India. The Buddhist Temple was inaugurated by the President of India on January 7, 2009.
The idol of Buddha was consecrated by The Dalai Lama on January 19, 2009 along with several religious leaders including the Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, Murugha Rajendra Sharanaru of Chitradurga, Chennamalla Swamiji of Manavdharma Peeta Nidumamidi, Robert Michel Miranda, the Bishop of Gulbarga, Sharanabasappa Appa of Sharanabasaveshwara Samsthana.
He is the Patron of Chowdiah Memorial Hall which is one of the premier concert and theater venues in Bangalore and helped the centre get over its debts and aided the centre’s plans for renovation.
Personal lifeMallikarjun Kharge is married to Radhabai and has 5 children - 2 daughters and 3 sons.
Giani Ditt Singh
–“A scholar, poet,editor of Khalsa Akhbar and an eminent Singh Sabha reformer.”
Singh was born as ‘Ditta Ram’ on 21,April 1850 in village Kalaur,Fatehgarh Sahib to Divan Singh.He studied Gurmukhi,Prosody,Vedanta & Urdu in Tior at Ropar.At 16,he went Gulabdasi centre at Chhathianvala(Kasur).Formally initiated into the sect of Sant Desa Singh,he became a Gulabdasi preacher.Singh was drawn into the Sikh fold through Bhai Gurmukh Singh,was active figure of Singh Sabha movement.He was married to Bishan Kaur in a Sikh rite at Lahore in 1880 & had 2 children Baldev Singh & Vidyavant Kaur. In 1886,he became a principal contributor to and subsequently the second editor of the weekly Khalsa Akhbar Lahore,founded by Bhai Gurmukh Singh.He had passed the Gyani examination the same year and was appointed a teacher at the Oriental College.He used the Khalsa Akhbar as a vehicle for the spread of Singh Sabha ideology.
When the Amritsar Khalsa Diwan excommunicated Bhai Gurmukh Singh, Ditt Singh responded by publishing excerpts from his book Svapan Natak, a thinly veiled satire ridiculing the Amritsar leaders, in the Khalsa Akhbar. This resulted in a lawsuit filed by one of the targets of the satire, which, although eventually dismissed, cost the Khalsa Akhbar dearly in time and money to defend. The paper shut down in 1889. With support from the Maharaja of Nahba, the paper resumed publication in 1893, again under Ditt Singh as editor. This led to the eventual launch of an English-language weekly, titled simply Khalsa.Through all of his Sikh Sabha activities,Singh had maintained his ties to the Arya Samaj,but in 1888, the increasing discord between the Arya Samaj and Sikh gurus led to Singh’s ultimate departure from the movement. After this,he threw himself entirely into the work of the Singh Sabha movement.As an educator, Singh helped in the setting up of Khalsa College, Amritsar, and wrote textbooks for the students of the college.During a religious gathering in 1877 at Lahore, Singh visited Dayanand Saraswati “to know his mind and to know his ideals“.Singh published these dialogues in his book Sadhu Daya Nand Naal Mera Sambad which is considered major texts of Sikh philosophy along with Durga Parbodh.Well-known among his works are- (Guru Nanak Prabodh,GuruArjan Chariltar,Dambh Bidaran,Durga Prabodh,Panth Prabodh,Raj Prabodh,Mera ate Sadhu Dayanand da Sambad,Naqh Siah Prabodh,Panth Sudhar Binai Pattar,Abla Naari.)He also published accounts of the martyrdoms of Tara Singh of Van, Subeg Singh, Matab Singh Mirankotia, Taru Singh and Bota Singh.The death of Singh’s daughter was a great blow to Singh,who was already suffering exhaustion from his workload as leader of the Singh Sabha movement.He continued to work, but his health deteriorated rapidly and he fell seriously ill. Singh died at Lahore on 6 September 1901.
After Singh’s death, Bhai Vir Singh wrote a poem in his honor that was published in the Khalsa Akhbar. In addition, the Giani Ditt Singh Memorial International Society regularly organizes functions to keep Singh’s memory alive.His son Baldev Singh was first Dalit to graduate in Licenciate in Medical Practitioner from Glasgow University.
Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia
–“An Indian freedom fighter,politician,one of the founder members of the Ghadar Party & Founder of AdDharam Movement”
Also known as Mangu Ram Chaudhry,born in Jan. 14th,1886 at Muggowal,Hoshiarpur,Punjab to Harman Dass and Atri.. Harman Dass faced discrimination at every step of his life thus did not want his son to face the same problems and enrolled him in school for early education.He got educated by a village saint till the age of 7 & then attended schools in Mugowal area and Dehradun.In most of the schools Mangu Ram was the only Dalit Student.He was forced to sit in back of the classroom or even in separate room and had to listen through the open door.When he attended high school in Bajwara, he was forced to stay outside the building and had to listen to the classes through the windows.But he had to leave school and help his father in his leatherwork.In 1909,many of upper caste farmers from Doab of Punjab had gone to the United States and Mangoo Ram also decided to go.He persuaded his father that it would be good for the business he would send money back from U.S.Amid assurances from some of the local landowners and two fellow caste friends he went to abroad for work.The friends turned back but Mangoo Ram persevered and arrived in California late in 1909.For 4 years he picked fruit for the former Zamindars of his village who had settled in the San Joaquin valley of California . He was also employed in a sugar mill.Mangoo Ram lived first in Fresno & did indeed make money and set his savings home.
.In 1913 some of the Punjabi settlers in California were forming a militant nationalist organisation. Mangoo joined this group,the Ghadar movement in San Francisco.He was struck by the fact that,as he was later to say, “it was a new society; we were treated as equal”.Initially Mangoo Ram played only a minor role in the organisation but in 1915 he volunteered to be one of five Ghadrites to participate in a dangerous mission involving smuggled weapons shipped from California to the Punjab.He was chosen by then Ghadar Party chief- Sohan Singh Bakhna.The secretary of the Los Angeles where they boarded an intermediary boat after collecting all their personal identification. According to Mangoo Ram, the intermediary boat took them to the Socorro islands to rendezvous with the weapons boat, but after thirteen days military shop from Sydney, the “Man of War”,discovered the timely intervention of an American warship were they spared. They went to Vera Cruz, Mexico,to receive rations.There they finally connected with their weapons boat,the Maverick they joined group, took on giant turtles for food, and headed for India.They were halted again in Hawaii,where Mangoo Ram witnessed the eruption of volcanoes. Free again, they advanced a bit further, perhaps to Java or New Caledonia.There the Japanese,on behalf of the British, imprisoned them for one year. Eventually, the British decided to hang them, but at midnight the night before they were to be hanged at dawn, fate intervened. The Germans spirited them away in the dark, and the five went their separate directions-Harmans Dass and Charan Dass to Bangkok,the others, including Mangoo Ram, to Manila.Then,Mangoo Ram was sequestered in the Philippines in a series of hideouts on various islands Members of the Ghadar party were his benefactors during this period and Mangoo Ram remembers fondly their hospitality and friendship.The war ended in 1918, the Ghadar party was no longer quite the threat its was earlier when it enraged the British by compounding separatism with sedition through its liaison with the Germans. But Mangoo Ram decided to stay in Manila nonetheless. He met an American, a Mr Johnson of Marshall Field and Company who hired him to work in an tea garden.
In 1925,when was returning India,he saw the original condition of Dalits & pledged to work for their social change & wrote to Ghadar Party headquarters in San Francisco about the difficult conditions of the Dalits in India announcing that their freedom was more important to him than that of the nation itself. Babu Mangoo Ram started teaching in a primary school in his home village which he named Ad Dharm School.He founded Ad Dharm movement for the emancipation and empowerment of his people. He organized all the ex-untouchable castes falling under the then category of the Depressed Classes in Punjab and reminded them of their rich heritage when they used to be the masters of this land. He told them how they were reduced into worse than slaves in their own land by the alien Aryans who brought with them their sick social system called caste and started them oppressing with the whip of untouchability.He got special rights from the Britishers by adding Ad Dharm to the Census list as a separate religion of the Depressed Classes in Punjab in 1931.In 1937, his Ad Dharm won 7 out of all the 8 reserved seats in Punjab. During Dr. Ambedkar’s fight with Mr. MK Gandhi at the Roundtable Conferences in London (1930-32) Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia Ji sent telegrams in support of the former as the leader of the untouchables in India against the latter (MK Gandhi). In 1946, Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia joined Unionist Party and elected to the Punjab Legislative Assembly and remained in legislature till 1952.In 1972 he received recognition in the form of a pension and an award from Indira Gandhi for his work towards Indian independence.In 1977, after the Ad Dharm movement had been re-established, and Mangoo Ram had been again elevated to leadership of the movement, his supporter sent him on a triumphant tour of communities of expatriate lower caste Punjabis in Great Britain.The establishment of movement was the voice against the brahminical society which put Dalits at bottom of the social structure.He was one of the very few visionaries who correctly realized that the real salvation of the downtrodden lies in their total social and cultural transformation.Mangu Ram died in 22,April 1980.
Manda Krishna Madiga
Nandi Yellaiah MP In office
2014 - present
Preceded by Manda Jagannatham Constituency Nagar Kurnool Personal details Born 1 July 1942
Hyderabad, Hyderabad State
Political party Indian National Congress Children 2 sons, 2 daughters Religion HinduNandi Yellaiah (born 1 July 1942) a politician from Indian National Congress party is a Member of the Parliament of Indiarepresenting Nagarkurnool constituency of telangana state in the lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament.
Early lifeHe was born in Tajir nagar, Bholakpur, Musheerabad, Dist Hyderabad in Hyderabad State to Nandi Nagaiah. He finished his matriculation.
CareerHe is a 6 term Member of lok sabha. he was elected to 6th,7th,9th,10th,11th lok sabha from siddipet(s.c) parliamentary constituency.He was elected to the 16th Lok Sabha from Nagar Kurnool defeating Manda Jagannatham. he also represented rajya sabha until 2014
Phool Chand MullanaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Phool Chand Mullana Born Phool Chand Mullana
6 April 1941
Milak Khas, Yamunanagar district, Haryana
Nationality India Citizenship India Education B.A., LL.B. Occupation Lawyer & politician Political party Congress Spouse(s) Pushpa Devi (deceased) Children One son, one daughter Parent(s) Shanker Lal (father)Phool Chand Mullana (born 6 April 1941 in Milak Khas village of Yamunanagar district of Haryana) is an Indian lawyer and politician. He is a B.A., LL.B. by education. He was elected four times as MLA (in 1972, 1982, 1991 and 2005) from Ambala District to Mullana Assembly constituency. He was a cabinet minister in the Haryana government, handling the portfolios of Revenue, PWD, Education, Forest and Technical Education. He was president of the Haryana Pradesh Congress Committee from 2007 to 2014. He is chairman of the Haryana State Scheduled Caste Commission.He was awarded Haryana Ratan in 2005 for his contribution in the politics and social welfare of Haryana.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prithvi Singh Azad Born 15 September 1892
Raipurrani, Patiala district, Punjab, India
Died 5 March 1989 (aged 96)
Occupation Indian independence activist Years active 1907–1989 Known for Indian independence movement
Lahore Conspiracy Trial
Partner(s) Late Prabhavati Prithvi Singh Azad Children Ajit Singh Bhati, Pragya Kumar Awards Padma BhushanPrithvi Singh Azad (1892–1989) was an Indian independence activist, revolutionary and one of the founder members of Ghadar Party. He came from a Rajput family and suffered incter the Indian independence, he served as the minister of labor and local self-government in the Bhim Sen Sachar ministry in the state of Punjab. He was also a member of the first Constituent Assembly of India.The Government of India awarded him the third highest civilian honour of the Padma Bhushan, in 1977, for his contributions to society.arceration several times during the pre-independence period, including a term in the Cellular Jail. Af
BiographyPrithvi Singh Azad was born in a Bhati Rajput family on 15 September 1892 at Lalru, a small hamlet in Patiala district of the north Indian state of Punjab. He was attracted to the nationalist movement while he was still in his teens and was reported to have been influenced by the arrest of Lokmanya Tilak and Khudi Ram Bose by the British government in 1907–08. He visited the US in 1912 and it was during this time he met Lala Har Dayal, one of the founders of later-day Ghadar Party, a militant organization formed by Indians in North America for the liberation of India. He also assisted in the establishment of Hindustan Ghadar, the mouth piece of the party. Returning to India along with around 150 freedom fighters, he was captured by the British on 7 December 1914, tried, sentenced for 10 years' imprisonment and spent time in various jails, including Calcutta, Madras and the Cellular Jail. After the initial futile attempt, he escaped by jumping out of a running train while he was being transferred from one jail to another. Later, he became an associate of Chandra Shekhar Azad and reportedly received a Mauser pistol from him. It was reported that Azad was with Chandra Shekhar Azad just before the British forces surrounded him at Alfred Park on 27 February 1931, but the latter asked Prithvi Singh to escape while deciding to continue his battle with the forces; alternatively another contention was that the two Azads met at Alfred Park a few days before the death of Chandra Shekhar.Azad died on 5 March 1989, at the age of 96. The story of his life has been documented in two autobiographies; Kranti Path ka Pathik (A Traveler in the Revolutionary Path), was published in 1990 by Haryana Sahitya Akademi while Baba Prithvi Singh Azad, the Legendary Crusader was published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan three years earlier in 1987.[ A set of documents related his life has been preserved in Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, New Delhi as Baba Prithvi Singh Azad Papers. A local Hospital in Lalru, his native place, is being considered for renaming as Baba Prithvi Singh Azad Memorial Hospital. His daughter, Pragya Kumar, is a medical doctor and the chief medical officer at Panjab University, ChandigarhIt was Chandra Shekhar who advised Azad to visit Russia for further training; it was reported that the idea to send Azad to Russia in fact came from Bhagat Singh, another martyred revolutionary and Chandra Sekhar was conveying Bhagat Singh's request. He visited Russia to spend a few months there and his experiences in Russia were later published as a book, Lenin ke Desham Me, which was subsequently translated into English by Vijay Chauhan under the title, Prithvi Singh Azad In Lenin's land.On his return to India, he met several mainstream freedom fighters, including Mohandas Gandhi and joined the nationalist movement led by Gandhi. Between 1933 and the Indian independence in 1947, he was arrested several times which included the Lahore Conspiracy Case in which he was sentenced to death; the sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment in the Cellular Jail.After the Indian independence, he successfully contested the elections to the first Constituent Assembly of India from Punjab and was its member since the assembly met for the first time at Constitution Club Hall, New Delhi on 9 December 1946 After the Indian independence, he was selected as the Minister for Labor and Local Self-government, the only harijan member of the ministry, when Bhim Sen Sachar took over as the second Chief Minister of Punjab in 1949. The Government of India honored him with the civilian honor of Padma Bhushan in 1977.