Monday, July 29, 2013

Dalit Community

Dalit, a term that has become synonymous with Untouchable, is the name that many Untouchables, especially politically aware individuals, have chosen for themselves. The name means "oppressed" and highlights the persecution and discrimination India's 160 million Untouchables face regularly. First used in the context of caste oppression in the 19th century, it was popularized in the 1970s by Untouchable writers and members of the revolutionary Dalit Panthers (the name was inspired by the Black Panthers of the United States). Dalit has largely come to replace Harijan, the name given to Untouchables by Gandhi, much like the Black Power movement in the United States led to the replacement of the labels colored and Negro with black. For some activists, Dalit is used to refer to all of India's oppressed peoples whether Hindus, Muslims, Christians, tribal minorities, or women. 

Heidi Schultz

A History of the Untouchables: The Buraku and the Dalit 
Katelyn Coyle 
 The Buraku of Japan and the Dalit of India remain the lowest caste of their respective countries. Experiencing more than just poverty and low status, the Buraku and the Dalit have been described as being lower than human, filthy, and contaminated. Members of these castes are considered to be the untouchables. Highly discriminated against, the untouchables remain outcastes, even in modern society. Both the history of the caste systems in Japan and India, and modern reformation movements must be discussed to fully grasp the current situation of the Dalits and the Buraku. 
 To understand the discrimination towards the Dalit of India, one must be knowledgeable of the caste system in India. A caste can be defined as a social class, made distinct from others by differences in rank, profession, or wealth. The caste system in India has been heavily influenced by the Hindu religion. In Hinduism, everyone is born into a caste (or jati). One cannot change his or her caste. Micheal D. Coogan writes, Underlying the hierarchical social system is the fundamental Hindu idea that people are born into an existence that is the fruit of their past karma. One’s social status in life is therefore traditionally considered predetermined and immutable, 
and the individual must adhere to the particular ritual practices and dietary rules of his or her jati. (159-160) 
Scholars studying the history of India point out that the caste system might have evolved due to race. It is believed, that along with sacrificial religions, the Aryans might have integrated a caste system into the country, dominating the darker skinned natives (Majumder). Four castes predominate in India. The Brahman, the priests and holy leaders, are the highest class, which is followed by the Kshatriya, the princes and warriors. The Vaishya are the farmers, merchants, and artisans of society, and the Shudra are servants and workers (Schmidt et al 132-145). The lowest class is the Dalits, known as the untouchables. The Dalits are said to have no caste as they are not even viewed as being part of human society. As Emerson explains, in the Hindu religion, the three highest classes, the Brahamin, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya, can be referred to as “twice born,” and in the past these three castes were the only people allowed to study the sacred texts and scriptures (298). Those designated as untouchables, or Dalits, often concerned themselves with work that was considered “impure.” Work that involved killing, the disposal of waste, or the handling of corpses was reserved for this caste. Even in modern India, Dalits are still seen as contaminated. An upper class person who is touched by a Dalit or who comes in contact with the shadow of a Dalit must go through elaborate cleansing rituals to undo the “damage” done. Dalits cannot wear shoes in the presence of those in higher castes and still encounter many barriers against practicing religion. Even to this day, untouchables are often chased out of many temples for fear of contamination. 
 In Japan, the Buraku emerged as the lowest caste because of their work. In feudal Japan, the elite members of society belonged to the daimyo, the feudal lords, and the highest rank one could achieve was to become Tenno Heika, or the emperor. Below the elite classes were the samurai (the warrior class), the nofu (farmers), the jukenaru (skilled artisans), and the shonin (merchants). Below these four castes were the hinin, the kakibe, and the kujome. The Burakumin (commonly called the Buraku), were known as the untouchables, the lowest social caste of Japanese society. Like the Dalits in India, the Buraku experienced discrimination based in large part on religion. The members of the Buraku caste were employed as butchers, leather workers, executioners, and tanners. Since the predominant religion at the time, Buddhism, preached the sanctity of life, those whose work involved the killing of animals were looked upon with contempt and disgust. The Buraku, like the Dalits, were considered by upper class people to be impure and contaminated (Hendry 75). Such impurity was considered contagious by the more elite members of society. As a result, most of the Buraku lived in isolated areas, as seen in the literal translation of 
“Buraku,” meaning “village people.” The condition of a Buraku was considered hereditary; hence, the child of a Burakumin couple would have a predestined life as an outcast. Marrying a Buraku was out of the question for someone of higher status. Additionally, the Buraku were forbidden to enter most religious sites. Instead, the Buraku had their own temples and places of worship in order to keep them isolated from society. To further discriminate against the Buraku people, the lowest caste was required to remove all headwear as a sign of subservience. Throughout Japanese history, the Buraku lived harsh, impoverished lives due to their birth status and consequent caste. 
 Comparisons between the Buraku and the Dalits are numerous. Both castes were discriminated against due to their professions as their work went against the principles of the predominant religion of society. The Buraku and the Dalits were considered filthy and contaminated by higher castes. Both castes lived in isolation, forced to live apart from society. Because the Dalits and the Buraku were considered contagious, associating with them would reflect poorly on the religious virtue of any upper class person. Neither the Dalits nor the Buraku were completely free to pursue religion, but the Buraku did have temples designated for their use. The Dalits were forbidden access to any religious temple, as well as studying scriptures and texts. Nevertheless, the major and most crucial difference between the Dalits and the Buraku appears in modern times.  While both caste systems are still largely discriminated against today, modern reformations, such as civil rights protests, have helped improve and raise awareness of the conditions of the lowest castes. Today, the Buraku is an invisible caste in that there is no visible difference between a member of the Buraku and someone of another caste. While the Buraku do not visibly appear any different from those of a higher class, Buraku people are still heavily discriminated against. Many Buraku continue to live in impoverished communities in Japan. During the 1990s, the Buraku Liberation League aided in pressuring the government to pass the Special Measures Law for Assimilation Project, which called for government assistance in Buraku communities. One major setback for the Buraku lies in education. A survey done by local governments in 2000 states, 
Due to the fact that the drop-out rate for Buraku high school student is two to three times that of the national average, the enrollment percentage for Buraku students drops to 10 points behind the national average at the time of graduation. (Buraku Liberation League) 
 Despite organizations that campaign for the rights of the Buraku, discrimination still exists. Members of the Buraku have a harder time finding jobs and have lower incomes than those in higher castes. Permanent job positions are rare for the Buraku, and most members of the caste end up working in the leather trade. Marriage between families of different castes is still looked down upon, and a person marrying into a Buraku family may be disowned by his or her own family out of shame. While living conditions for the Buraku can easily be improved by the passing of new legislation, ending a deeply ingrained tradition of discrimination and hatred is a significantly harder task (Japan). Perhaps it is the Japanese people’s love of tradition and obedience that impels them to keep traditions like the caste system in practice. 
 The most notable civil rights movement pertaining to the Dalits came during the time of Muhatma Gandhi. Gandhi advocated social change and the end of discrimination of the Dalit class. As opposed to the many negative and offensive terms used for the Dalit, Gandhi referred to the lowest caste as the harajin, or the “children of God” (Schmidt et al 139). Today, untouchability has been officially abolished in India, though Dalits are still commonly treated as inferiors (Human Rights Watch). At present, there are approximately 260 million Dalits in India, making up 25% of the population (National Campaign). This caste still suffers from harsh discrimination. Certain Dalits, however, have managed to obtain important positions in India. For example, K. R. Narayanan became the tenth president of India, despite the fact that he was a Dalit. Another Dalit, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, was a notable lawyer and an influential leader. Crusading for the rights of his people in 1947, Ambedker is best known for being the prime architect of the Constitution of Independent India, which came into force in 1950 (National Campaign). Modern activists for the Dalit caste have become very involved with improving the education system. Most members of the Dalit caste cannot afford private education, and public school systems are often under-equipped and under-staffed. Discrimination against the Dalits is less apparent in suburban areas of India, where the population is more dense, and people from many different castes mingle together. In rural areas, however, extremely harsh conditions may arise for members of the Dalit (Human Rights Watch). Discrimination, it appears, varies depending on the area of India one inhabits.  The Buraku and the Dalits have been forced to live under bleak and harsh conditions simply because they were born to a family of low caste. While civil rights movements continue to persist in both Japan and India, discrimination remains deeply ingrained in both cultures. Even in India, where the idea of untouchability has been abolished since 1950, the gap between the Dalits and the rest of society is present. Hence, hatred of the Buraku and the Dalits may never cease unless citizens of Japan and India are taught to rework their way of thinking. The tradition of discriminating among castes is so heavily ingrained in both societies that laws and legislation can only improve living conditions for lowest castes to a small extent. Even if the government provides funding to improve their living conditions, the untouchable castes will continue to have trouble finding permanent jobs and achieving higher levels of education. One must wonder if the caste system in India and Japan exists today because of the human desire to segregate and establish superiority. The untouchable castes, those individuals who have been traditionally described as being lower than human, will continue to be outcasts until the citizens of Japan and India rework their ways of thinking and take additional positive steps to end discrimination. 

Works Cited 
Buraku Liberation League. Current Conditions of Buraku and Distinguishing Features of Buraku 
Discrimination in Japan. May, 2002. 18 November, 2005. 
Coogan, Micheal D. The Illustrated Guide to World Religions. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. 
Emerson, Gertrude. Voiceless India. New York: John Day, 1944. 
Hendry, Joy. Understanding Japanese Society. London: Routledge, 1989. 
Human Rights Watch. “Caste Discrimination: A Global Concern.” September, 2001. 18 November, 
Japan. Narr. Jane Seymour. Videocassette. Coronet Film and Video, 1988. 
Majumder, Partha P. “Indian Caste Origins: Genomic Insights and Future Outlooks,” Genome 
Research. 11.6 (June 2001): 931-932. 19 November, 2005 
National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights. “Who Are Dalits?” We Demand Freedom from Caste 
Bondage for the 260 Million Dalits of Asia. 1995. 18 November, 2005. 
Schmidt, Sager, Carney, Muller, Zanca, Jackson, Mayhall, Burke. Patterns of Religion. Belmont: 
Wadsworth, 2005. 

Dalit History

In the pathological hindu perpetrated India, the society and whole of the nation is plagued by hindu fundamentalists, various divisions, factions among factions and groups among groups structured so shrewdly and clandestinely by keeping one thing in Mind, Only one thing in Mind to Sabotage, the dalits are the most victimized and most exploited of all by this Sabotage.

Though it is a few thousand year old system, the very reason we are discussing today explains why?, because it has transformed into many different ways and means that this centuries old system is fully practiced today by most of the Indians. 

It is a system of grand scale robbery ever to occur on this planet, so clandestine a structure like this is to rob the individuals of their rights, dignity and the future of human beings. 
The foundation is though laid by the invading Aryan's or brahmin stooges of India of the Old India, it has continued for thousands of years unabated and unchallenged, neither there were any volunteers from the group that perpetrated and destroyed India with this caste pathology. The most victimized and vandalized group of the social evil of caste system is the Dalits, once they were called with so many derogatory and filthy names by the hindus,

While thousands of caste names and divisive groups names are still in use in India and world wide, to fight to annihilate this pathology, the victims of caste system, the so called untouchables who have been called with so many derogatory terms and names in the past came out temporarily to call themselves "Dalits" (there are so many meanings to this word, but it is used in the connotations of Exploited people by hindus, by hindu caste system and by the racist discriminative mind sets of Indians), any other meaning to this word should not be used in the context of Indian dalits, which will be derogatory and uncalled for and doing so will only damage their movements.

Though quite a lot of dalits themselves do not like this term, would love to use Scheduled Castes/Scheduled tribes or other similar names in use that was given by the savior and Father of India Dr.Ambedkar, it is not universally appealing to them, neither many other alternative terms and words, most of them died away or shrunk in usage except Dalits, one of the reason  perhaps the media kept bragging in their news media with this term. Those conscious and concerned Dalits are kept arguing and debating to move on with the movement with a more respectable and dignified terms, such as "Sakya" or Ambedkarites or Buddhists, at the moment these words are in use sporadically among the internet savvy dalits.  Since the dalits are divided into so many smaller groups and sub-groups and further sub-groups, this is a night mare. The muslim dalits, the christian dalits, Sikh dalits, dalits in the Jainims and other factions are not that friendly to be called Sakya or atleast there is not much dialog going on, though the reality and truth is pretty much all the Dalits of today were the Buddhist people and they have been sabotaged of their Buddhist pedigree and tradition by the day to day atrocity of hindu caste culture. The consciousness is at the heights at the moment, time will answer as to where all this groups will come together and once for all finish the hindu pathology.

A detailed chronological history of these caste words and terms will be updated soon, but in the meanwhile, look at some of the most dangerous results of the hindu caste system, it degrades humans beyond a cow, snake or animal or insect. How pathetic one's mind can get, the answer can be found in hindu scriptures and todays hindu culture................................. see videos below, these are some of the results of caste system of India....!

Adi Dravidar
Adi Dravidar is term used by the state of Tamil Nadu in India to denote Dalits. It means "Original natives orindigenous people of Dravida land". The term was coined by Tamil social activist Periyar Ramasami who worked against casteism and division among the people based on castes. Many Adi Dravidas have converted to Christianity, Buddhism.
Dravidian refers both to Dravidian languages, a group of languages, and to the Dravidian people, who speak them. Almost all of the South Indians speak Dravidian languages.
Arunthathiyar, or Sakkiliar or Chakkiliyar, are one of the most marginalized social groups or castes from Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. Along with Pallar and Parayar, they form the largest Dalit group. "Arunthathiyar" is more preferred and considerate name over "Chakkiliyar".The name "Sakkili" is hypothesized to be derived from Sanskrit to mean beef eater or someone who eats more meat. It also said to mean someone who is afraid or blind.
In caste system, although they were traditionally associated with leather work for agriculture and war equipments, they are associated with scavenging (janitor), as a result of forced labor upon them by virtue of ascriptive system of caste domination. Hence their social status is artificially depressed below other scheduled castes suffering from lack of social, political and economic empowerment. Though they are classified as a scheduled caste group, they are considered untouchable among untouchables in scheduled castes.
The Badhik, or sometimes pronounced Badhak are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. They have been granted scheduled caste status in Uttar PradeshThe community is found mainly in Shahjahanpur District, and speak the Khari boli dialect of Hindi. A small number are also found in Mathura and Pilibhit.
The Badhik are strictly endogamous community, and practice the principle of clan exogamy. They are Hindu and observe all the major Hindu festivals but do not have exclusive family or clan deities. The Badhik are a landless community, providing the bulk of the agricultural labourers in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Traditionally, the community were hunters and gatherers, but not they are mainly butchers. Their subsidiary income is animal husbandry, poultry and drying and tanning of skins. A small number are also employed as agricultural labourers. As a Dalit community, they often suffer from societal discrimination. Each of their settlement contains an informal caste council, known as a biradari panchayat. The panchayat acts as instrument of social control, dealing with issues such as divorce and adultery.
The Badi or Badhi are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They have scheduled caste status in Uttar Pradesh.The Badi are sub-group within the larger Nat caste. They are found mainly in Saharanpur District. The Badi are further divided into a number of clans, the main ones being the Swaroop and Aurender. They are strictly endogamousm and practice clan exogamy
The Badi are one of a number of nomadic communities that were involved in entertaining at fairs. A fair number are now employed as agricultural labourers, with a smaller number have acquired small plots of land.
The Baheliya are a Hindu  found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They have scheduled caste status. A small number of Baheliya have converted to Islam and now form a distinct community of Muslim Baheliya.In Haryana, the community is known as the Chirimar.The Baheliya are a tribal community of hunters and bird catchers, and the origin of their name is from the Sanskrit vyadka, meaning one who pierces, . They are mainly involved in bird catching, extracting honey from beehives and picking peacock feathers for the manufacture of fans. They are divided into a six groups, the Aheria, Gehlot, Sissodia, Karaul, Pasi and the Muslim Baheliya. Other minor clans include the Chandel and Srivastav. Each of these groups claim a Rajput origin, with the Sissodia claiming to be superior over the other groupings. All these groups intermarry, except the Muslim Baheliya. They are found throughout Uttar Pradesh, and speak the various dialects of Hind.

The Baiswar or Baiswar Chhatri are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are considered to be ferocious fighters.
According to the traditions of the community, they are a branch of Bais Rajputs of Dundiya Khera. Their ancestors were two brothers who fled Dundiya Khera to escape a Rajah, with whom they had fallen out with. They fled to Rewa in what is now Madhya Pradesh. Over time, his descendents moved into the districts of Sonbadhra and Mirzapur. A small number migrated to Varanasi District in the 19th Century. There homeland is in a hilly forested terrain, inhabited mainly by tribal communities such as the Bind and Chero.
The community have no connection with the Bais Rajput, and are now strictly endogamous. They are further divided into four divisions, the Khandait, or swordsmen, the Rautia, the Chaudhary and the Sohagpuria. Each of these groups intermarry, but marriage is forbidden within the clan. They are mainly a community of peasant proprietors. Animal husbandary is an important secondary occupation

The Bajgi are a Hindu found in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand in India. They have been granted Scheduled Caste status in both these states. The Bajgi are also known as Auji, Das, Jhumarya and Dholi.
The community get their name from the Garhwali word bajana which means to play an instrument. They are said to have acquired this name on account of their traditional occupation which was to act as drummers in the courts of the temples of different village deities. The Bajgi are also called to play on special occasions such as marriages. They are found throughout Garhwal, and speak Garhwali. The Bajgi are a sub-group with the Shilpkar ethnic group of Uttarakhand. A few are also found in the adjoining districts of Uttar Pradesh such as Bijnor.
The Bajgi are still mainly employed as village musicians, with tailoring and barbering as their main subsidiary occupation. A few are employed as landless agricultural labourers. The Bajgi are Hindu, but incorporate folk beliefs such as belief in local deities such as Nirankar, Bhairab, Goril, Durga, Jakh and Nag.

The Balahar are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are also known as Vargi and have scheduled caste status.The word balahar means a crier or summoner in Hindi. They are said to have acquire this name from the fact that they were traditionally employed as part of an informal police force by Princely State of India, and their duties included carryout the summons of the prince . Like other Hindu occupational castes, they might be of diverse origin, but are now bound by rules of endogamy. In Uttar Pradesh, the Balahar claim to have originate from Jaipur in Rajasthan, and claim to be Rajputs. They are chiefly in the Bundelkhand and Doab regions.

The Balai, or Balahi are a Hindu  found in the state of Rajasthan in India. They have scheduled caste status.
The Balai are strictly endogamous community, and practice the principle of clan exogamy. These clans are referred to as gotras, and their main gotras include the Bhagirath and Soosa, which is also a Mina gotra. The Balahar are a landless community, the majority are agricultural labourers. They were once a community of weavers, but few are now involved in weaving. They are Hindu, and have customs similar to other Hindu communities in western Uttar Pradesh.
Balai also known as Chobdar. The word Chobdar means a stick holder from the Persian words "choob", meaning stick, and "dar" meaning holder. According to their own traditions, the Chobdar are by origin Rajput. After the defeat of Prithvi Raj Chauhan at the hands of Mohammad Ghouri, some members of Prithvi Raj’s army to save themselves took to the manufacturing of leaf cups and plates. As such they evolved into a community distinct from the Rajputs. The Chobdar are found mainly in north eastern Rajasthan, in the districts of jaipur, Tonk,Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Kota. They speak Braj Bhasha, although most Chobdar speak and understand Hindi.[1] The Balai are now mainly farmers, although a few still practice their traditional craft of manufacturing plates and cups from leaves. Their customs are similar to neighboring Hindu communities such as the Jats. They live in multi-caste villages, although they are residential segregated, occupying their own distinct quarters

The Bangali is what people from Bangladesh are called and the term is used more from natives thanBengali, it means the same as Bengali and also it may refer to a caste found in India todayBangladesh that is also called Bangali, and the Hindu branch have scheduled caste status in Punjab,Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. They are distinct from the Bengali ethnic group of eastern India and Bangladesh. The Bangali are one of the many nomadic groupings found in North India, and have customs similar to other nomadic communities such as the Kanjar.
The Bangali are semi-nomadic tribal grouping, who are said to by origin Sansiya. They are said to have separated from the Sansi parent group when they took up snake charming. The majority of the Bangali are now settled, occupying their settlements of reed huts at the edge of established villages. They are found mainly in the Doab region, with two clusters, one in Muzaffarnagar District in the villages of Bhokaredhi, Kamhera, and Kithora and the other in Bijnor District, in the villages of Raoli and Seemla Fatehpur. The Bangali speak their own dialect, which contains substantial Punjabi loanwords.

The Basith are a Hindu caste found in the Indian administered area of Jammu and Kashmir. They are also known as Vashishth Rajputs and have been granted Scheduled Caste status. According to the 2001 Census of India, their population was 18,866.
According to the traditions of the Basith community, they are of Rajput origin, and immigrated from Chamba in Himachal Pradesh some two centuries ago to Poonch. Their villages are found in a hilly forested terrain near the Line of Control. They are a Hindu community in a predominantly Muslim region, occupying their own villages. The Basith speak Pahari, and their customs are similar to neighbouring communities such as the Domaal. However, the Basith maintain a distance from neighbouring Muslim communities with strict restrictions on commensality.
The Basith are strictly endogamous and practice clan exogamy. There clans called zaats include the PandhalChatriyalChimalRaine, and Salotre, each of which have their own origin myth. A number of zaats then form a gotra, for example the Chatriyal belong to the Changin gotra and the Chimal belong to the Pardwari gotra. Like many North Indian Hindus, the Basith have an informal caste council called a biradari panchayat. Each of their settlement contains this informal body, headed by a chaudhary. The panchayat deals with all intra community disputes, and as well as those who breach community norms. Marriage outwith the caste is strictly discouraged, and those who transgress this are excommunicated. The Basith are Hindu of the Satnami sect. They worship all deities of the Hindi pantheon besides have their clan gods and goddesses called kul-devitas.
The Basith are a community of small and medium sized farmers, with a landless minority. Those who are landless are largely sharecroppers. A important subsidiary occupation is working as drivers for the Jammu and Kashmir State Transport Corporation. As those that have been granted Scheduled Caste status, the Basith are beneficiaries of various affirmative action policies of the Government of India.
The Basor are a Hindu  found in the state of Uttar Pradesh . They are also known as Dumar, and have scheduled caste status.The Basor are a sub-division within the SC community, who were traditionally involved in the manufacture of bamboo furniture. Their name means a worker in bamboo. The Basor are found mainly in the districts of JalaunHamirpurMahobaJhansi and Banda and In Madhya Pradesh Bhopal, Jabalpur, Gwalior, Rewa are the district where they generally resides . They speak Bundelkhandi dialect, although most can also understand the high version of Hindi, known as Khadi Boli.

The Batwal are a Hindu scheduled caste found in the state of Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab in India. They are also known as Barwale.
The Batwal of Punjab trace their ancestry to the town of Batmalu in the Kashmir Valley, and the word Batwal in Punjabi means literally the inhabitant of Batmalu. Other traditions place their origin to the town of Batbal in Jammu. The community provided the traditional watchmen of the Punjab. According to the community own tradition, the Batwal were forced to flee their settlements when India was attacked by Alexander the Great. Once the Greek armies retreated, the Batwal found that their neighbours had seized their lands, and they were forced to become village watchmen. Like other communities of similar status, the Batwal have been granted scheduled caste status, which allows them to avail a number of affirmative action schemes by the Government of India.
In the Jammu region, from where the Punjab Batwal claim to have originated, there are a number of traditions as their origin. One traditions refer to the fact that the Batwal were tied to the land by the Dogra landowners, and the word Bat in the Dogri language means someone who is bonded. They were for generations bonded to particular families of Dogras, and were practically serfs. The Batwal are found mainly in Kathua, Jammu and Udhampur districts.
The Bawariya are a Hindu caste found in the states of HaryanaPunjab and Uttar Pradesh in India. They have scheduled caste status in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. In Punjab, they are known as Bauria.The word Bawariya is set to mean people who roam in Hindi. They are a semi-nomadic group scattered over North India. The Bawariya claim to be Rajputs from Chittor in Rajasthan. This is reflected in their clans, all of whom are well known Rajput clans. At present, the Bawariya are found in the districts of Meerut, Banda, Agra, Mainpuri and Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh and neighbouring state of Haryana. They speak Bawari among themselves, which is similar to Marwari..
According to traditions in Punjab, the Bawaria or Bauria as they are also known get their name from the word baur, meaning a net. As a community that was involved in hunting, the community became known as the Bawariya, but they are, in fact, Rajputs. The Bauria are found mainly in the districts of Firupzur, as well as Bhatinda, Ludhiana and Sangrur.

The Bedia a community of Bihar, they believe that they originally lived on Mohdipahar and have descended from the union of Vedbansi prince with a Munda girl. The other view is that a section of the Kurmis were outcasts and to be known as the Bedia or Wandering Kurmis.
The Bedia, sometimes pronounced "Beriya", are a Hindu found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They have been granted general status.The community has several names, like Bedia Kudmi,Choto Kudmi, Shershahbadia, Bhathia,Wandering Kurmis, Maldahiya and Badia and Bedia too, however its official name is Sharshahbadia. The word bedia is a corrupt form of the Hindi wordbehara, which means a forest dweller. They are a nomadic tribe, that had been notified under the Criminal Tribes Act. According to early British scholars, they were one of the many nomadic tribes found in North India, and were of the same stock as the rajputs. According to their own traditions, they were originally Rajputs, who lost status, after their defeat at the hands of the Mughals. The community was connected with some bad works, as well as petty theft. They speak Awadhi and are found mainly in the districts of Bahraich, Barabanki, Basti, Agra, Faizabad, Gonda and Kanpur. After independence, they were denotified in 1952, when the Criminal Tribes Act was repealed.

The Bhantu are a Hindu  found in North India, and those in Uttar Pradesh have scheduled caste status .
The word bhantu in Hindi said to mean different. They were one of the many nomadic groups in found in North India. The Bhantu claim to be Rajput soldiers in the army of Maharana Pratap, who after his defeat at the hands of the Mughal Emperor Akbar dispersed into forests. Their the community took up dacoity and theft. During the period of British, they were notified under the Criminal Tribes Act. Many were exiled to the Andaman Islands. In 1952, they were allowed to return to Uttar Pradesh, and many were settled in Shekhupur village in Badaun District. They are now found mainly in the districts of Moradabad, Kanpur, and Kheri. The community consists of seven exogamous clans, the Gaado , Dholia, Cherele, Banswale, Dhapan, Sadheke, Mina and Marwari. Marriages are strictly prohibitted within the clans.
The Bhantu were traditionally a nomadic community involved with in dacoity and robbery. Most Bhantus are now settled, and are involved with daily wage labour. A small number are a now petty traders as well. The community is Hindu, and their tribal deity is Sheranwali Mataji.

The Bhambi are a Hindu caste found in the state of Maharashtra in India. They are also known as Chhambar and have scheduled caste status.The traditional occupation of the Bhambi was tanning of hides. There are a number of traditions as to the origin of the word Bhambi. Either the name refers to an ancestral village or the bhambi were originally a sub-division of the Chhambars. The name Bhambi has now replaced the word Chhambar. They are further sub-divided into a number of sub-groups, the main ones being the Ahri or Dhor, Chevli or Chouli, Malvan ir Kokani, Daboli, Harali and Ghati. Each of these Bhambi groups are endogamous, and consist of exogamous clans. The Bhambi speak the various locak dialects of Marathi.
The Bhambi are a landless community, and their traditional occupation was shoemaking, A greater number were employed as agricultural labourers. Like other castes in Maharashtra, a significant number of Bhambi have begun to immigrate to the towns and cities, especially Mumbai. The urbanized Bhambi are now mainly daily wage labourers. They are Hindus, and their customs are similar to other Hindus of Maharashtra.

Bhangi is an Indian caste or jāti traditionally treated as untouchable, and was historically restricted to three occupations: cleaning latrines, sweeping, and scavenging (which sometimes involves handling dead bodies). They prefer to be known as Balmiki. Pejoratively called "toilet cleaners", as it was their traditional profession, Bhangis had to carry human waste away in buckets on their heads. In the traditional Indian caste system, professions were passed on from parents to children, thus a child born in Bhangi family was forced into this profession mostly for economic reasons.
Efforts have been made to improve sanitation systems in India, including laws that ban the construction of dry toilets, and the manual removal of human waste. However Bhangis, who are numerous throughout India, continue to work in their traditional roles and they continue to face severe social barriers, discrimination, and hate crimes. The Bhangi community includes a number of sub-division such as the Hela.

The Boria, also known as Baurasi are a Hindu  found in North India, and those in Uttar Pradesh have scheduled caste status .The Boriya are sub-group of the Pasi community. Although of Pasi origin, the two communities are quite distinct, and do not intermarry. They are found mainly in the Awadh region, mainly in the districts of Gonda, Faizabad and Barabanki districts. The Boria speak the Awadhi dialect.The Boria are strictly endogamous community, and prefer marrying close kin. Most Baria belong to the Kabirpanthi sect.

The Bhuiyar or Bhuyiar ( in Hindi:-भुइयार) are a Hindu found in North India, and those in Uttar Pradesh, Delhi have scheduled caste status. They are also known as Bhanyar Julaha; Kabirpanthi and Kori. The traditional occupation of Bhuiyar Caste is weaving. But gradually the occupation ended with the arrival of weaving machines.
They are group of Munda tribesmen who settled in southern and Western Uttar Pradesh in the 16th Century. They were a community that historically were involved with weaving and some were involved slash and burn agriculture, and occupied the hilly terrain of south Mirzapur District. The Bhuiyar are further divided into sub-divisions, which are referred to as kori. Their main kuris are the Baria, Birkunia, Chandnihys, Chetrihya, Chiriha, Dioriya, Khutta, Parha, Patparaha and Sudha. They are strictly endogamous, and practice clan exogamy. The Bhuiyar are found in the districts of Bijnor, Moradabad, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Ghaziabad, Haridwar, Dehradun, Sonbhadra, Mirzapur, and now speak Hindi, having long forgotten their Munda language.
" A different view in the perspective of bhuiyar are presented by some notable writer of Rajputana and rajasthan. According to the book published as the "caste of khsatiraya" or khsatriya jatiyon ki suchi from bahadur singh bidasar, it is clearly mentioned that bhuiyar is caste /breed of rajput in old days which is also approved by Govt of India. It was mentioned in a book name BHUMI KHSATRIYA SAMAJ by Mr. Agrawat, he presented a descriptive study that every clan of bhuiyar samaj is matched with rajput and even most of the gotra used by bhuiyar samaj is just a vansh in rajputs.
The Bhuiyar are now a community of settled agriculturists. Their earlier slash and burn practices have disappeared. Most Bhuiyar are small and medium sized farmers, with a minority being employed as agricultural labourers and some even own their business, who decided to settle in cities. With the economic upliftment and new job opportunities, more are preferring to settle in a city for better education for their kids. Joining the Indian Army is still one of the hot pursuits in young kids from this community. Many are now also employed in the mines that have appeared in Mirzapur District. They live in multi-caste villages, occupying their own distinct quarters. They have much in common with neighbouring tribal communities such as the Kol, Agariya and Chero. Each of their settlement contains an informal caste council, known as a biradari panchayat(बिरादरी पंचायत). The panchayat acts as instrument of social control, dealing with issues such as divorce and adultery.

clans  The Bhuiyar caste clans(गौत्र) is *Bhamra (भामड़ा), Parwar,Narwal, Katariyan, Kankarwal, Agrawal, Bagwal, Gondwal, Uparwal, Jag, Doodhwal, Mahetiyan, Khagaran, Khapriyan, Vashiyan, Mukaryan, Kakran, Bharwan, Baliyan, Taryan, Taharyan, Ashiyan, Tedewal, Kait, Dharwal, Deshwal, Bhagwal, Peetwal, Jayashwal, Jurwal, Granthiwal, Kachhwal, Teetwal, Galyan, Taharan, Adayan, Jaityan, Fariyan, Loeewal, Vojyan, Kritiyan, Amyan, Chaudhrana, Gurjarvan, Kadyan, Dhhidival, Bhal, Maithyan, Puniyan, Charvahan, Badgujar, Metram, Bhagla, Kashyap, Vaijran, Jagpal, Katariya, Dahiya, Kankhana, Saroha, Kankarwal, Muwal, Dhangad, Sidhauliya, Doniyal, Narwal, Mahalwan, Monchhwal, Panwar,Kachhwaha, Rathee, Bhadbhujar, Bagala, Gaud, Bhadbhuja, Fariyan, Dulaniya, Tomar, Karne, Dhhakran, Sadhhiyan, Gogyan, Roliyan, Chhajara, Bangujar, Gogwal, Chaupra, Bhahal, Barne.

Follower: Bhuiyar society mainly is follower of Kabir Saheb. Kabir is also described in his couplets.

ज्यों उलझै सूत को, सुलझावै भुइयार |
उसने भी यह गुर, पाया सदगुरू द्वार || (कबीर ज्यो. से)
Jyon ulajhai sut ko, sulajhavai bhuiyar |
Usane bhee yaha gur, paya sadaguru dwar|| (From Kabir Jyoti)
जिस तरह् टूटे सूत से, कपड़ा बुने भुइयार |
उसी तरह से सदगुरू, बनावै उच्च विचार || (कबीर ज्यो. से)
Jis tarah tute suta se, kapada bune bhuiyar |
Usi tarah se sadguru, banavai uchcha vichar|| (From Kabir Jyoti)

The Chamail are a Muslim community, found in the state of Bihar in India. The Chamail are a small semi-nomadic community. They specilize in treating cattle. The community are Muslim converts from the Hindu Chamar caste. They are found mainly in the districts of Begusarai,Munger and Patna. The Chamail are landless, and depend on neighbouring land owning communities for work. As a landless community, they are ectremely marganalized. Illetracy rates are extremely high, as many live in encampments at edges of villages, and have no access to schools. The Chamail are Sunni Muslims, and strictly endogamou.

Chamar, also known as Chamari/Camari/Charmkar/Charmkari, are one of the untouchable communities, or dalits, who are now classified as a Scheduled Caste under modern India's system of positive discrimination. As untouchables, they were traditionally considered outside the Hindu ritual ranking system of castes known as varna.
They are found mainly in the northern states of India, Pakistan  and Nepal.
Ram Narayan Rawat posits that the association of the Chamar community with a traditional occupation of tanning was constructed, and that the Chamars were instead historically agriculturists.

Chandala is a Sanskrit word for someone who deals with disposal of corpses, and is a Hindu lower caste, formerly considered untouchables. Currently it is a term used specifically in Indo-Aryan speaking regions of India.Sandala has become a swear word in the colloquial usage of the Tamil language. Chandal is a general derogatory slur used to refer to a filthy, mean or low person in North India.

The Chirimar are a Hindu caste found in the state of Haryana in India. They are also known as Baheliya
In Hindi, the word chiri means a bird and the suffix mar means to kill, so Chirimar means someone who kills or catches birds. The Chirimar are an occupational caste that were traditionally employed as hunters and trappers, and are one of the many gypsy like semi-nomadic communities found in North India. They are said to have immigrated from Uttar Pradesh in the 18th Century, and are now found mainly in Ambala District. The Chirimar speak Hindi, with most understanding Haryanvi.
The Chirimar are strictly endogamous, and practice clan exogamy. Their main clans include the Banoudhiya, Pateria and Kattaha. Like other occupational castes, they have a fairly strong caste council, which deal with intra community disputes and enforces community norms. The Chirimar live in multi caste villages, occupying their distinct quarters.
Trapping and trading birds like various kinds of sparrows, pigeons and parrots and animals like rabbits remain the Chirimar main occupation. These are sold at local markets to wholesalers who belong mainly to the Baniya caste. Some are also employed as vegetable vendors and tailors. Their customs are similar to other Haryana Hindus.
Jawahar Chirimar is a New York-based entrepreneur who has previously held positions on the main board of Lehman Brothers and Citibank Alternative Investments. He got his undergraduate degree from Cornell University and then his doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania. He is married to Nandini Chirimar, an artist, who he met during his time at Cornell University. The 2nd generation of the Chirimar family now attends Cornell University, as Jawahar's nephew Aditya is pursuing his undergraduate degree there.
Chura (Punjabi: ਚੂੜ੍ਹਾ) is a caste in Punjab and other northern Indian states whose traditional occupation is sweeping. Churas are largely followers of Sikhism and secondly Christianity. A small minority practice Valmikism, an off shoot or cult. form of mainstream Hinduism which still incorporates elements of Sikhism in its practices. They are treated as untouchables or Dalits as they occupy the lowest category in Hinduism's religious hierarchy. As of 2001, according to the Indian Census, the Sikh Mazabhi are 9.98% of Punjab population, with Hindu Valmikis forming 3.53% of Punjab population. Together, the parent Chura caste forms 13.52% of the Punjab's population.

The Dabgar are a Hindu caste found in the states of Uttar PradeshRajasthan, and Gujarat in India. They are also known as Dhalgar and have scheduled caste status in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh, while they have Other Backward Class status in Gujarat.In Rajasthan, the community prefer the self-designation is Dhalgar.
The word Dabgar is said to be derived from the Sanskrit word daravakarra, which means the makers of any spoon shaped vessels. According to their own traditions, they were originally found in Rajasthan, and were soldiers. They took an oath to resist the Mughals, but were defeated. After this defeat, a section converted to Islam, from whom descend the Muslim Dabgar community. The rest of the community fled in the jungles of Bundelkhand, and slowly spread to the Doab region of Uttar Pradesh. They then took up the occupation of manufacturing of rawhide jars.
The Rajasthan Dabgar are involved in the manufacture of a number of musical instruments such as the Tabla, dholak, dhagli and thap. Most of these instruments have leather as a component, as such the community is considered untouchable. The Dabgar themselves claim to of Rajput origin, and are found mainly in the Marwar region. They speak the Marwari, but most understand Hindi. Most are Dabgar groups claim to have originated in Rajasthan, which might the historical homeland of this community.

The Dalera, sometimes pronounced as Dalere are a Hindu caste found in North India, and those inUttar Pradesh have scheduled tribe status .
The Dalera derive their name from the Hindi word daliya, meaning a basket. Traditionally, they were a community engaged in the manufacture of baskets. According to their traditions, they were Rajputs, who on defeat in a battle took to the occupation of basket making. The Dalera are found mainly in the districts of Rampur and Bareilly in Rohilkhand. In Bareilly District, they are found mainly in the villages of Gungawa, Sekha, Hajipur, Bhuda and Rotapur, and in Rampur District, are found in the villages of Pur, Dalphurya and Nagra.
The Dalera are a landowning community, with many still involved mainly in the manufacturing of baskets and mats. They are mainly a community of small and marginal farmers, with a small minority employed as agricultural labourers. The Dalera live in multi-caste and multi-religious villages, occupying their own distinct quarters. Each of their settlement contains an informal caste council, known as a biradari panchayat. The panchayat acts as instrument of social control, dealing with issues such as divorce and adulter.

The Deha, sometimes pronounced as Dhaya, Dhea, Daiya and Dheya are a caste found in India, and have scheduled caste status in Haryana.According to some traditions, the community are a branch of the Balmiki community. Community myths refer to their descent from two brothers, Chhaju and Raju. Chhaju's daughter took to scavenging, and as such was ostracised. Over time her descendents came to form a distinct community. Other traditions make references to the fact the community emigrated from Sargodha in what is now Pakistan. The Deha speak their own dialect, although most also speak Haryanvi

Dhedhs or Dheds or Dhedhas are one of the scheduled castes of India. They were one of the out-caste and deprived class of Hindu society of India.
They were involved in jobs like carrying away animal carcass and works related to leather, animal hides. The word dhedha has been derived from a Gujarati word dhayadavan, to drag. Further, the caste people are also largely involved in weaving.
In Rajasthan, the Meghwal community were called Dhedha and according to census of 1901 were identified as untouchables.[3] In British India, in the Bahwalpur, the Dhedhs, who preferred to call themselves Menghwals, were the people, who were called Chamars to east of Punjab. They ate flesh of dead animals and were considered as out-caste by Hindus, though they have Hindu names.
They have nine exogamous section : (1) Gandel (2) Baru-Pal (3) Sahdal (4) Sapune (5) Lilar (6) Bahmanian (7) Japal (8) Lakhale (9) Turke.
By occupation they are weavers and greatly worship the deity of Ramdev Pir at Ranuja. In their marriages, Brahmins serve as purohit, accepting dry fruits from them but not the cooked food.
In MaharashtraMahars were considered a part of Dhedha community. However, after mass conversion of Mahar community from Hinduism to Buddhism, to avoid curse of untouchability, on foot-steps of Bhim Rao Ambedkar, they are now not to be called Dhedhas or even Mahars but Buddhists.
In GujaratDhedhs are considered as sub-caste of the scheduled caste of weavers called Vankars Some of the other castes in which there are few exceptions of Dhedhs are Bawa (Dhedh) or Dhedh-Sadhu (Sadhu), Dhedh -Barot (Barot).
Dhedhs speak many languages, as per their area of living like GujaratiMarathi,Rajasthani SindhiThar
In Kathiawar, the Nagasia Dhehds, once helped the Sarvaiyas to regain their villages of Hathnasi,Jesar and other territories. In recognition of their assistance the Sarvaiya Rajputs forgave Dhedhs frombham tax ( tax on skins of dead animals ) and tax was not levied on all Sarvaiya village till British ruled India.

Dher or Dhera are one the backward classes and scheduled caste of India. They were one the lowest and despised section of Hindu out-caste society, degraded by the slavery imposed on them by the Hindus for many ages.They are primarily found in Andhra PradeshKarnataka,Maharashtra and Gujarat. In Southern India, among Dhers there were three principal class of slaves called Holiyas, Yemaru and Paleru.
In British India, the Dhers live in scattered groups, occupying wretched hovels of foliage, and depending on the chase, fishing, and the carcases of dead animals. Some worked as leather tanner and mostly used to work as slave labor.

The Dhobis go by many different names, such as VannarMadivalaAgsarParitRajakaChakali,RajakulaVeluthadar,Ekali,Sethy,Kanojia,Panicker). etc. This castegroup from India and Pakistan specializes in washing clothes. The word Dhobi is derived from the Hindiword dhona, which means to wash. They are found throughout North IndiaGujaratMaharashtra as well as the Punjab province of Pakistan, where they are known as Gazar A dhobi is likely to be of many different origins, with those who ancestors took the occupation of washing clothes evolving over time into a distinct caste bound by rules of endogamy. Most Dhobis follow the customs and traditions of the region they live, so for example those in North Indiaspeak Hindi, while those in Maharashtra speakMarathi. The Indian census of 2009 reported the Dhobis population to be 22,00,000.
Dhobis are an occupational caste grouping, and usually operate from door to door collecting dirty linen from households. After a day or two, they return the linen washed, sometimes starched and ironed. Dhobis were the forerunners[citation needed] on the Indian subcontinent to modern professional dry cleaners. Since the dhobi charges are much less than those a dry cleaners, they are popular with most households.
Each dhobi marks a unique symbol or character on garments belonging to a particular household. This is marked in black indelible ink to prevent it from being washed off. Dhobis may wash the clothes themselves or outsource it to dhobis who only wash clothes. In Andhra Pradesh this caste is known as Rajaka (Chakali) and they make up 12% of the Andhra Pradesh population. There are Muslim Dhobis in Karnataka, they known as Agasar, Parit also, they speak Urdu and Kannada, and the Hindu dhobis are known as Madivala in karnataka. They are known as Madvala or Rajaka in the state of Goa, and have Other Backward Class status, while most Dhobis in North India have scheduled caste status.                                                               

Indian Dhobies, c. 1905

Dhobies at work at Saidape, c. 1905

In Karnataka, there are Dhobis, they are also called as Agasa & Parit. Their population is concentrated mainly in Bagalkot, Belgaum, Bijapur, Dharwar, Haveri, Davangere & Gadag districts. And their secondary language is Kannada. There are also Hindu dhobis, called Madivala, and their population is concentrated mainly in Davanagere,Chitradurga, Raichur and Shimoga districts..Perhaps the second largest concentration of Dhobis after Andhra Pradesh(12% of total population of A.P.), is found in Uttar Pradesh. They have been granted scheduled caste status. The community is strictly endogamous, and practice clan exogamy. Their main clans, known as gotras, are the Ayodhyabasi, Mathur, Shrivastav, Belwar, Jaiswar, Belwar, Yadava & Chauhans from Ajmer Rajasthan, practice hypergamy, with clans of lower status giving girls in marriage to those of higher status, but not receiving girls. They speak various dialects of Hindi, such as Khari boli, Awadhi Bhojpuri and Braj Bhasha.

The Dhobi are still involved in their traditional occupation, which is washing clothes. Traditionally, the community would wash clothes for particular families, and would receive grain and services from them. But with the growth of the cash economy, most Dhobi are now paid money for their services. A significant number of Dhobis are cultivators, and this particularly so in western Uttar Pradesh. They live in multi-caste villages, but occupy their own distinct quarters. Each of their settlements contains an informal caste council, known as a Biradari Panchayat. The Panchayat acts as instrument of social control, dealing with issues such as divorce and adultery.

The Dhobi of Rajasthan claim descent from Rajput community, and are known as Dhoba. Although the Dhobi are found throughout Rajasthan, their main concentration is in Ajmer District. The Dhobi speak Mewari, although most also understand Hindi. They have been granted Scheduled Caste status. Like other Hindu castes in Rajasthan, the Dhobi community is further divided into clans known asataks. Their main ataks are the Chauhan, Marwara and Hilogia. Marriages are forbidden within the clan. Most Dhobi are still involved in their traditional occupation of washing clothes. They are exclusively Hindu and their tribal deity known as Ghatmata.

The Dhobi of Haryana are said to have originated from Punjab and Rajasthan. They are scattered throughout the state. Like other Hindu communities, they are divided into clans called gotras. Some of the major gotras are the Chauhan, Shukravar, Rajoria, Tonwar, Panwar, Badera, Satmase, Akhasriya, Mahavar, Basvadiya and Sunaria. These clan names are also used as surnames. Their main occupation remains washing of and drying of clothes. A small number of Dhobi are marginal farmers.They are classified as OBCs.
In Maharashtra, the Dhobi are found throughout the state, and are also known as Parit. They claim to have originally belonged to the [untouchables] community, and in particular the Chauhan clan. The Dhobi have been listed as Other Backward Class (OBC). They speak Marathi among themselves, and Hindi with outsiders.
The community are endogamous, and practice clan exogamy. Their main clans in Maharashtra are the Abidkar, Bannolkar, Belwarkar, Chawhan, Chilate, Chawlkar, Chewakar, Dudhmogre, Dhongde, Gaikwad, Ghousalkar, Harmekar, Hedulkar, Jangade, Kalyankar, Kanekar, Kalatkar, Lad, Malekar, Nandgaonkar, Nane, Pawar, Pabrekar, Palkar, Purwarkar, Salekar, and Waskar. Marriage within the clan is prohibited.
The Dhobi of Mumbai wash their linen in the Mahalaxmi area known as Dhobi Ghat. This area is strangely popular with foreign tourists looking for a piece of quintessential "Indian-ness". Another region in South Mumbai, Dhobitalao, used to be a (now filled up) lake where British soldiers used to have their uniforms washed about 120 years ago.
The Dhobi of Punjab are said to have immigrated from the ancient city of Kannauj in Uttar Pradesh, and are now found throughout Punjab. They are further sub-divided into clans called gots from the Sanskrit gotra, and marriages are forbidden within the clan. Their main clans are the Chauhan, Panwar, Tonwar and Rajoria. The Dhobi speak Punjabi, and their customs are similar to other Punjabi dalit castes. They are community still very much involved in their traditional occupation which is washing clothes. Some have also taken to other occupations such as dry cleaning, shop keeping, hosiery and plying rickshaws. A significant migration to the urban areas of Punjab and other parts of India has begun. Traditionally, the Dhobi lived in villages dominated by landowning castes such as the Jat, who acted as their patrons. This relationship has broken down, and any transaction now is made in cash. Each Dhobi settlement contains a biradari panchayat, which acts as instrument of social control, and resolves intra community disputes.
The Dhobis of the United Kingdom are predominantly based in Rugby, Warwickshire. They are known for their gatherings and great community spirit. The local Volleyball Club is the hub of their activities and they are responsible for the organisation of many community events. They also actively hold many charity events outside of their own scope on a regular basis. Midlands Rajput Volleyball Club (MRVC), aka Shree Rajput Dhobi Samaj Rugby.The community also hold an annual sporting tournament. This includes other centres, from Leicester, London and even Preston.
The Dhobis in the UK are a far notion of what they were known for in India. Many are highly diverse professionals, ranging from Solicitors (Lawyers) to Politicians.

The Tamil Dhobis are called "Vannar", other names include Vannan, Panicker, Salavai thozhilale, Laundry man,Waserman etc. Majority of modern Tamil Vannar's are part of the middle class. There are some Vannars considered as untouchable people. They are Thirumalai Vannar , Erankuli Vannar, Muthirai Vannar, Puthirai Vannar, Pandiya Vannar, Theendu Vannar, Theenda Vannar,Solizya Vannar,etc. Puthirai Vannars have been classified as scheduled caste.

The state is having fair percentile of Dhobis in coastal belt i.e.. eastern Odisha (cuttack,puri,balasore,ganjam) and marginal percentile of population in central Odisha and western Odisha. They practise Hindu religion and as a community they follow all typical Odiya festivals like Rathayatra,raja,Sankranti along with national festivals like Holi and deewali. They worship mainly Lord Jagannath and their village deities. They have been classified as schedule caste.Their main surname is Sethy/Behera/Das/Seth throughout eastern Odisha and western Odisha. As per occupation is concerned,ninety percent of them were in to traditional laundering job till 1970.However awareness/ambition and mainly reservation gave them a comparative good position afterwards.Nowadays maximum of highly educated Odiya Dhobis are in to private sector software line/process plant/call centre/BPO. Fair percentile of Medicos/bureaucrats are easily traceable in Medical or in any government infrastructure in comparison to other Schedule-caste Odiyas.

In the Andhra Pradesh state of India, the Rajakas form 12%[citation needed] of the total population and they are considered backward caste. Their nature of business is laundry and agriculture. Their social status need help and the community is requesting AP Government to move them into Schedule caste and Government promised them to move them into Schedule caste over and over again but ignoring them from long time. Primary reason for this is from this community there is no representation in any higher positions in politics,nor any sort of government representation. In other parts of country it is well known as Dhobi caste and there in schedule caste. Another statical information regarding Rajaka caste in Andhra Pradesh this community evenly spread across Andhra Pradesh (Coastal Andhra area, Telengana and Rayalaseema Areas)

The Domar are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are also known as Mehtar and have scheduled caste status.
According to the traditions of the community, they trace their origin to Rajah Harishchandra, who on an occasion is said to have disguised himself as a Dom at a funeral pyre in Varanasi. The Domar are very likely to be of Bhangi origin, and many are still employed as sweepers and scavengers. They are found mainly in eastern Uttar Pradesh, principally in the districts of Kanpur,Raebareli, and Allahabad, and speak the Awadhi dialect.
The Domar community are said to have originally consisted of seven divisions, the Domar proper, the Turahiya, the Lal Begi, the Hadi, the Bansphor, the Dusadh and the Dhanuk. All these are now distinct communities, and strictly endogamous. The Domar, like other Hindu communities practice clan exogamy. They are Hindu, but are rarely visited by Brahmin priests, and have their own religious specialist.

Domba or Dom
The Domba or Dom (Sanskrit ḍoma, dialectally also Domaki, Dombo, Domra, Domaka, Dombar, Dombariand variants) are an ethnic or social group, or groups, scattered across India. In North India, the preferred self-designation is Dom
The Domba are sometimes also called "Chandala". Both terms also came to be used in the sense of "outcaste" in general. The form ḍomba Prakrit, while ḍoma andḍumba are encountered in Kashmiri Sanskrit texts. Derived from ḍoma is ḍomākī, the name of a language spoken in a small enclave in the Northern Areas in Pakistan. It is also believed that the Dom or Domi peopleof the Middle East are descendants of Domba who were taken, or traveled, to Sassanid Persia as servants and musicians.
The term ḍoma or ḍomba is extensively used in Indian Hindu and Buddhist literature for a segregated and enslaved population.
Currently there remain several thousand people across India known depending on various regional dialects, as Domaki, Dombo, Domra, Domaka, Dombar, Dommara and Domba. In Western India, in the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat they are referred to as Domba or Domari which is very similar to the name used in the Middle East (see Dom people). Place name studies indicate that they attested all over India and even in Sri Lanka. In North India, they are generally known as Dom or sometimes Doom.

Dom Communiry

Ḍom is a widely distributed ethnic term in South Asia. The Dom are not a caste, rather, their historical presence suggests they once constituted a large scale tribe or what one might conversationally call a “race.”
Specific reference to the Dom people occurs by the 2nd century BCE (Ghurye 1969:313). Persian scholar al-Biruni (early 11th century) noted that the Dom were among those peoples located outside of and ranked beneath the four main classes of Indian society. Their occupation was to sing and play a lute (1919:101-2). Al-Biruni’s contemporary writer, Gardizi, mentioned a class of people called “Dunbi,” most likely the Dom. They were described in his writing as “black-skinned” “players on stringed instruments and dancers” who occupied an untouchable class of society (Minorsky 1964:202-3). 
Throughout South Asia the Dom practice such professions as scavenger, executioner, basket-maker, musician, blacksmith, leatherworker, weaver—in short, occupations considered menial. One might speculate that the bulk of the castes that have been considered untouchable had their origin in some larger Dom base. In any case, the Dom are of nearly universal low social status. One of the Punjabi branches of the Dom, locally called Ḍūm, constitute a fairly distinct group from the larger “race” as known in the rest of South Asia. The people best known as Dum in Punjab are hereditary musicians, bards, or genealogists. In fact, though the phenomenon of Dom people as musicians is widespread, it may have its origins in the greater Punjab region (see Schreffler 2010:105).
Importantly, the idea of Dom as a large-scale people or tribe engaged in many occupations underscores the fact that the occupation of musician overlaps with other occupations and duties, such as tailor, barber, circumciser, and basket-maker. The Dum of the greater Punjab area were Jacks of several trades. Compare for example the role of the Dum in Pathan society, which extended to many rituals. During wedding rites of the Kha††ak Pathans of the 19th century, Dums acted as go-betweens or assistants. Rose recorded that when the bride was taken to her husband’s home, a Dum rode along on the pony with her (1911:531), saying that “The ḍúm is throughout an important person and is fed on all occasions” (ibid.:532).The descendants of the Dum, spread among several subcastes, make up an important community in Punjab(India). However, people are fairly unaware of them, in part due to the fact that the over-broad (and often regarded as pejorative) term “Dum” is rarely used. Musicians that appear to be from the larger Dum stock are currently divided among at least three separate communities: Jogī, Mahāshā, and Mirāsī.

DOM IN MIDDLE EAST NAME,ORIGIN & MIGRATION: GYPSY is the general english term used to describe this large ethno linguistic group,in their homeland they were called DOM later develop into ROM in Europe but in middle east and Africa they still refer themself as Dom or Domi Originaly comming from India Dom scattered through out the world numbring more than fourty million people.more than three million Dom live in middle east.The only written records of their history must be garnered from the annals of kings and ancient historians, which in most cases include only brief references to the Gypsies as opposed to detailed narratives.According to Dr.Donald Kenrick thye bfirst moved from India to Persia when Ardashir the Shah of Persia conquered part of India (modern day Pakistan) in 227 AD.During the reign of Bahram Gur (420-438 AD), Shah of Persia,many Dom's were taken to Persia to work as muscian and dancers. Persian poet Firdusi wrote a version of the legend in his eleventh century Shahname, or Book of Kings.

The King of Iran, Bahram Gur,heard about the Gypsies who were in northern India. He heard about their customs and so on, and he wanted to see for himself. And so he sent a letter to the ruler of northern India, and asked him to send a few families of Gypsies - those Gypsies he had heard about, who dance and sing.

The ruler in northern India sent him about 400 families. He put them in boats and sent them to Iran. When they reached the Iranian border, people informed the King that the families had arrived in boats. The King greeted them and gave them land to live on, and tents, and gave each house a sack of wheat, and some calves. He asked them to change their customs - instead of singing and dancing and so on, to farm, raise livestock and learn how to cultivate.
He left them for a week, and then came back, incognito; he wasn't wearing his royal robes. He found that in every house there was dancing and singing and so on. He went around all the tents, and then he gathered them together. He said, "Look, I gave you sacks of wheat, and told you to leave your customs, all this dancing and singing and so on, and become peasant farmers. Why haven't you done what I told you?" They said, "Master, nothing comes from our hands, not farming or anything else. This is our custom; this is what we're used to."
The King grew angry with them, and threw them out of Iran. They went to Mosul and Kirkuk and Suleimaniyya and spread around and settled there.
With time, their population grew. And when [Kurdish conqueror] Salah Al Din Al Ayyoubi appeared, and occupied the Arabian Peninsula, and encroached upon Iraq and Mosul and Kirkuk, and began to move towards Syria and Lebanon, he took some of the Gypsy families who were in Mosul as prisoners to fight with him.
Then Salah Al Din came to Jordan and Syria and Lebanon, and he came to Palestine, here. And then the Gypsies he had taken as prisoners dispersed. Some of them settled in Jordan, others in Palestine, some in Syria and Lebanon. Some went to the border of Turkey.
In 1947, Jacob Schimoni published a booklet on the Gypsies of Palestine, including photographs of Gypsies, sometimes with performing animals such as bears or monkeys. He provided a rough - albeit condescending - description of the local Gypsy language and culture.

Of the Gypsy people who roam all over the world, some are also found in Erets Yisrael [sic], a few of whom wander in this land only, while others travel in various Arab countries as well as Israel. Their centre seems to be in the Jaulan [Golan Heights]. They have accepted the Moslem faith, but it is asserted that they do not understand it, as they are on a very low cultural level and do not care much about religion. Among themselves they speak a special language called in Arabic "aspur," that is the sound or twitter of the sipor, i.e. "bird." But the majority know Arabic, which they use in their relations with the natives. They dress like the Arabs of the villages, and the Bedouin, but their wives wear even more jewels and ornaments than the Arabian women. In their trades, which are of various kinds, they are akin to their brethren in other countries: e.g. tinkers, coppersmiths, engravers. But amongst the Arabs they are regarded as thieves. Some are dancers and singers; they give entertainments such as animal shows in the streets of towns and in the vicinity of villages, particularly during such festivities as wedding celebrations and other occasions of "fantasia." For the rest, many of them are beggars who go around from door to door. Their tents are poor and miserableToday Dom"s can be seen iun the middle east countries such as Iran,Iraq,syria,lebanon,Gaza etc.Dom adopted the language of the countries to which they migrated.In addition to the local language they speak dialect of Domari,language in middle east.Nawari is ofent used as synonym for Domari.Nawari is also a dialect language of Arbic language.The Dom people express themselves and their culture through dance and other outwardly visible means. The life style of Dom varies widely many of them mantained their nomadic  life style.They offer their services as dancers, muscians,metal workers.In Jordan they can be found harvesting the crops. Dom in the Middle East are pastoralists.The Dom in Kurman, Iran are illustrative of semi-nomadic people.They work as craftsman,fortune tellers, peddlers and dancers.Some Dom setteled in Israel, Lebanon and northern Cyprus and lives in home in cities and villages nad they have better opportunity for work and education.Attitudes toward the Dom are generally negativeThe Dom themselves make distinctions between the various groups of Dom people.The Dom people tend to adopt the dominant religion of their host country. For the Middle Eastern countries this means Islam.
The Dusadh or Paswan is a Hindu community found in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh,Jharkhand and few parts of West Bengal in India and Nepal which is the neighbor county to India. It is assumption by some foreign authors like William Crooke who considered Dusadh as backward community and merged other Hindu community with Dusadh without any proper evidences. Etymology of the term "Dusadh" is contradictory, however, a synonym used instead of Dusadh is Paswan, which is derived from Persian word "Pasban" meaning Sentinels or Defenders,because of bravery and courage these peoples were mostly engaged in "Chaukidaari" (Village Watchmen).
The History of Dusadh is still unknown and undiscovered. But , the Dusadh claims descent from Duhsâsana, or in other stories from Bhîmsen, or from Salhes of the Loric cycle. Those Dusadh living in the hills at the end of the 19th century referred to asKhasiya Rajput. It is believed that they are the migrants from the other parts of the world. As, they were having well skill of architecture design they moved to the different parts of the world in such of job. For them India was most suitable place here they were employed in various filed some of were temples designing, war equipments etc. They contributed a lot in the architectural designing. But in return they were forced to live in very extrema condition as they were migrant they had nothing to survive hence, they moved to the hilly area where the people could not reach easily.They perform a puja called <<Rahu Baba Ke Puja>> which is a three days rituals meant to develop unity among the caste.

The Gandhila sometimes pronounced as Gandhil and Gandola, are a Hindu caste found in North India. They have scheduled caste status in Punjab and Haryana.
According to the traditions of the community, they descend from a Rajput by the name of Sabal Singh. He was killed fighting in the forces of the Sultanate of Delhi, and his family were driven out by his enemies. They were then forced to take menial jobs, such as rearing donkeys. The word Gandhila is said to mean a donkey rearer. The Gandhila are found mainly in Ambala District, and speakHaryanvi. In Uttar Pradesh, the Gandhila are found mainly in Meerut and Muzaffarnagar districts. They speak Hindi with outsiders, but have their own dialect.  In Punjab, the Gandhila are found mainly Jalandhar and Patiala districts. The Punjab Gandhila trace their descent from two brothers, Sambal Singh and Ajit Mal, both of whom were Chauhan Rajputs. On their defeat at the hand of theMughal Emperor Babar, the two brothers took an oath not to sleep on a bed or eat with silver utensils until the Mughals were defeated. They then fled to the jungle, where the Gandhila were helped by theBangali, another jungle nomad tribe. The Bangalis suggested that the Chauhans take up raising donkeys. The community thus became known as gadhewalas or donkey keepers, which was eventually corrupted to Gadhila.

The Habura are a Hindu caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They have scheduled castestatus in that state.
According to some traditions, the word habura has its roots in the Sanskrit hawwa, which means an evil sprit. Their own traditions make reference to the fact that community are descended from Rajputsoldiers. They were attempts to forcibly convert them to Islam, and as a result took refuge into the forests. The Habura then took up a nomadic existence, often also engaging in vagrancy. As a result, the British colonial authorities placed them in the category of a criminal tribe. After independence ofIndia in 1947, they were denotified in 1952, when the Criminal Tribes Act was replaced with theHabitual Offenders Act, but the community continues to carry considerable social stigma.

The Halalkhor are a Dalit Muslim community, found in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in India . They are mostly Shias. The Halalkhor are also known as Shaikhra or Shahani in Bihar and Muslim Bhangi and Mehtar in Uttar Pradesh.
The word halal khor is from Persian حلال‌خور and literally means those who eat halal food. The community is traditionally associated with sweeping and scavenging, and are descended from the Hindu Bhangi community who converted to Islam. Initially they were Sunnis, but are believed to have converted to the Shia sect in the 18th century. In some states in North India, they have backward caste status. They are divided into two sub-groups, the Kampu and Shaikada. The community are found throughout Uttar Pradesh, and speak various dialects of Hindi such as Awadhi.
The Halalkhor of Bihar are Muslim sweepers, and are also known as Mehtar, Bhangi, and Halalbegi. They are found throughoutBihar, and speak a number of dialects. According to traditions, they are Muslim converts from the Hindu Bhangi caste. The Halalkhors of Bihar are split on sectarian lines between Shia and Sunni. There is no intermarriage between these two sects. Many Halalkhor in Bihar are employed as sweepers by the various municipalities in Bihar. Many have also emigrated toMumbai and Kolkata, where they are employed as day labourers.
The Halalkhor often face discrimination from the other Muslim castes, and are one of the most marganalized Muslim group inUttar Pradesh. Like other communities, they have a traditional caste council, known as the biradari panchayat. This caste council is involved in resolving disputes within the community. There are now growing demands for the community to be grantedScheduled Caste status, which is currently restricted to Hindu Dalits only.

The Heri are a Hindu caste found in the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. They are also known as NayakThori and Aheri.
The Heri claim to have originated in Rajasthan, and said to have immigrated some four centuries ago. According to traditions, the word Heri is derived from the Rajasthani word her, meaning a herd of cattle. They were still quite recently a nomadic community. The Heri are one of the many Gypsy like groupings found in North India, with their specialist occupation being that they were expert trackers and hunters. They still speak Rajasthani, and are found throughout Haryana.
In Punjab, the term Thori, Aheri and Heri appears to be synonymous. They used to carry merchandise on pack animals. According to their traditions, the Aheri are Rajputs by origin, who were soldiers in the army of Maharana Pratap. After the defeat of the Maharan by the Mughal Empire, the Aheri were hunted down by the Mughal armies. To escape the Mughals, they fled and settled in Punjab. The Aheri are found mainly in the districts of PatialaBhatindaFiruzpur, and Faridkot.
In the Colonial period, Aheri were listed under the Criminal Tribes Act, 1871, as being a tribe "addicted to the systematic commission of non-bailable offences."[5] After independence, they were denotified in 1952, when the Criminal Tribes Act was replaced with the Habitual Offenders Act, but the community continues to carry considerable social stigma
The Holar (or Holaya) are a small Dalit community or caste found in Maharashtra and Gujarat states in India. The caste bears some similarities to and is sometimes mistaken with, but not identical to, the Chamar. The Holar engage in leatherworking and sales of horns and hides, and some also keep sheep and goats. The caste also traditionally provides musicians to the Dhangar caste and even today play at weddings and other festivities.

The Hurkiya are a caste found in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand in India. They have been granted Scheduled Caste status in both these states. In fact, there are two distinct communities that go by the name Hurkiya, those of Uttarakhand, who are Hindu by religion, and those found in western Uttar Pradesh, who are Muslim. Both Hurkiya are of common origin, being a sub-group within the Dom ethnic group, and are one of the many gypsy like grouping found in North India.
The Hindu Hurkiya are a small endogamous community found in the Kumaon region, where they are also known as Mirasi. They derive their name from an instrument the hurka, a tiny hand drum which they played, while their women danced. According to their origin myths, the Hurkiya were originally settled in the Gangolihat area of Pithoragarh District, from where they spread to other parts of Uttarakhand. The community were employed by the Johari Bhotia as singers and entertainers, and most Hurkiya are still found in the Johar Valley. There are also a tradition, that the Hurkiya were invited from the plains of Uttar Pradesh by the Khas Rajput clans of Chougarkha in Allmora District. In terms of distribution, the Hurkiya are mainly found in the towns of Munsiyari, Didihat and Baram, all in Pithoragarh District. A small number are also found in Almora and Nainital districts. The Hurkiya speak Kumaoni, although most can also understand Hindi.

Jalia Kaibarta

Kaibarta fisherman in East Bengal in 1860s
The Kaibarta (or Kaibartha), is a Hindu caste. The word Kaibarta means occupation through water (boating and fishing) traditionally, found in Assam, northernOrissa, eastern BiharWest Bengal and Tripura. Kaibarthas are divided into two groups, Jaliya and Haliya. Jaliya Kaibartha's are categorized as a Scheduled Castethough the Mahishyas (Haliya Kaibarta) are not, through the Mahishya Samaj endeavored to instill pride in their agricultural roots, since they were the cultivators of the soil.Concerning the etymology of the name Kaibartta there has been considerable difference of opinion. Some derive it from ka, water, and vartta, livelihood; but Lassen says* that the use of ka in this sense is extremely unusual in early Sanskrit, and that the true derivation is Kivarta, a corruption of Kimparta, meaning a person following a low or degrading occupation. This, he adds, would be in keeping with the pedigree assigned to the caste in Manu, where the Kaibarta, also known as Márgava or Dása, is said to have been begotten by a Nisháda father and an Ayogavi mother, and to subsist by his labour in boats. On the other hand, the Brahma-Yaívartta Purána gives the Kaibartta a Kshatriya father and a Vaisya mother, a far more distinguished parentage ; for the Ayogavi, being born from a Sudra father and a Vaisya mother, is classed as pratiloma, begotten against the hair, or in the inverse order of the precedence of the castes.

Jatav, also known as JatavaJatiyaJatbaJatoi[citation needed] is a social group that in India are considered to be a part of the Chamar caste, one of the untouchable communities (or dalits), who are now classified as a Scheduled Caste under modern India's system of positive discrimination.
In the early part of the twentieth century, the Jatavs attempted the process of sanskritisation, claiming themselves to be historically of the kshatriya varna. They gained political expertise by forming associations and by developing a literate cadre of leaders, and they tried to change their position in the caste system through the emulation of upper-caste behavior. As a part of this process, they also claimed not to be Chamars and petitioned the government of the British Raj to be officially classified differently: disassociating themselves from the Chamar community , they felt, enhance their acceptance as kshatriya. These claims were not accepted by other castes and, although the government was amenable, no official reclassification as a separate community occurred due to the onset of World War II. The post-war independence of India saw untouchability made illegal.


Kharwar is a community found in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Delhi and Chhattisgarh.
The anthropologists consider the Kharwars of Dravidian origin.
The traditional economic activities of the Kharwar have been agriculture and other wage earning labour. However, some members of the community claim that their ancestors were zamindars (landlords), and that the Rajas of Ramgarh belonged to the community. Some Kharwars claim a Suryavanshi kshatriya origin, and call themselves "Kharagvanshi". The Government of India classifies them under the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes category.The surnames used by this community include Singh, Mandal (especially in Katihar and Bhagalpur districts of Bihar) and Kharwar.

Kabirpanthi Julaha
The Kabirpanthi Julaha are Hindu caste found in the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. They are distinct from the Muslim Julaha of North India.The word julaha in Hindi and Urdu means a weaver. Over time a number of castes such as theDhanukBhuiyar and Kori took to weaving, and now form an endogamous community. They are thus known as Kabirpanthi, which means a follower of Kabir, a figure associated with weaving. The Julaha are found throughout Haryana and speak the Haryanvi.
The Julaha practice clan exogamy, like neighbouring North Indian Hindu communities. Their clans, known as gotras include the khatak, Bagri, Atkan, Khare, Chauhan, Bhatti, Sahrawat, Kataria, Dahiya, Punia, Morwal, Khangwal, Malik, Saroha and Swain.
The Julaha have seen a decline in their occupation. Many are now petty cultivators and rearing cattle. A larger number are agricultural labourers. The community have now been granted Scheduled Castestatus.

The Kharot are a Scheduled Caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are anendogamous sub-group within the Beldar caste, and are found mainly in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The name kharot is said to be derived from the Sanskrit word khata, which means grass. They were historically associated with the manufacture of mats from grass, and the word kharot literally means a grass mat manufacturer. According to 2001 Census of India, there population was 700, found mainly in Basti District. Like other Scheduled Caste communities, they have seen a disappearance of their traditional occupation, and most Kharot are now landless agricultural labourers.

The Khatik (HindiखटीकUrduکھٹیک‎) are a caste found in Punjab province in Pakistan and in several states inIndia. Those in Pakistan are Muslim, while most Indian Khateek are Hindu while there is a small minority inGujarat and Maharashtra, who are Muslim. They are one of the most widespread communities in South Asia. TheHindu Khatik have scheduled caste status in some states in India, while the Muslim Khatik are campaigning for Scheduled Caste status.
The Khateeks, both Hindu and Muslim were found mainly in JalandharLudhiana and Patiala districts of Punjab, and SirsaJind and Kurukshetra districts of Haryana and also in some parts of Rajasthan. As with other Muslim communities in Punjab, the Muslim Kathik of Punjab left their homeland after the independence in 1947, except those of Malerkotla State, who remain in India. Other Muslim Khatik communities remain in Gujarat and Maharashtra. Hindu Khateek are also found in the states of Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh.

The Khatik are widely distributed community in North India, and each Khatik group, has its own origin myth. What they have in common is that they were historically kshtriyas who were assigned to kill animals in yagas performed by kings.Also today,only khatiks has right to kill animals during bali offerings at Hindu temples.

Kinnaraya or Kinnarayo also Kinnara are a social group or caste amongst the Sinhalese of Sri Lanka. Like the Burakumin of Japan and Paraiyar of the Tamil Nadu state in South India, they were segregated from the mainstream society yet played a vital role as mat weavers for the mainstream community.As the mainstream Sinhalese speakers claim North Indian ethnic origins the presence of many South Indian type functional Jatis like the Kinnaraya indicate a complex migration history from India to Sri Lanka. But Kinnarayas do indicate vestiges of tribal origins like the other formerly untouchable caste of Rodiyas. Although they have become part and parcel of the caste structure albeit with a primary function associated with mat weaving. They are also used as agricultural workers, weavers and domestic help throughout the country.

The Koli people are historically an ethnic group nice of hypergamous marriage, which was commonly used to enhance or secure social status as, for example, with the Nairs and Nambudiri Brahmins of Kerala. Some Kolis had also once held small princedoms before the British Raj period and some were still significant landholders and tenants in the twentiative to Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra,Uttar Pradesh and Haryana states.
The Kolis of Gujarat intermixed with Rajputs due to the pract
eth century. However, most Kolis had lost their once-equal standing with the Patidar community due to the land reforms of the Raj period and, for example, most Kolis in the Surashtra region of Gujarat were still occupied as agricultural labourers or tenant cultivators in the 1990s.

Vulnerability assessment of Goa's Lamani tribe

The Lamanis were known to live in the arid regions of Karnataka
The quest for livelihood
alternatives have forced the
Lamanis to move to Goa
Goa's booming tourism industry provides employment for migrants from across the country. Among them are the Goaarmattis, a tribal group popularly referred to as Lamanis. They hail from the underdeveloped arid regions of Karnataka where lack of viable livelihood alternatives forces them to move to neighbouring cities. Over the years, they have helped other family members migrate and today the Lamani community in Goa is a sizeable number. Initially employed in the construction sector, they have switched to tourism because of higher returns. Their presence on the beaches of Goa has raised concerns about sexual exploitation, which is commonly alluded to by locals, police, and social workers.
In this context, TERI undertook a study to assess the factors that make Lamani women and children in the state vulnerable to exploitation with a view to suggesting possible interventions. This study was conducted across Goa and Karnataka. In Goa, eight villages in the taluka of Bardez and Pednem, known to be flesh trade hotspots, were selected. In Karnataka, data was collected from the Lamani villages in Gadag and Bijapur.
The Lamani community is involved in tourism
A beachfront shop set up by a Lamani trader
Historically, the Lamanis were a nomadic tribe. In the 15-16th century, they were hired as agricultural labour but as diseases and natural calamity struck, their cattle were affected. They then turned to the forest for livelihood. But with the notification of forests as reserved and protected areas, they began to resort to crimes like dacoity, poaching etc. Some were also engaged in the preparation and illegal sale of alcohol. To have more control over the community, the British brought them under the Criminal Tribes Act 1871. Post-Independence, this Act was denotified and efforts were made to bring the Lamani community into the mainstream by providing them land for cultivation. However, with population growth and limited land holdings, they began migrating to cities and towns in search of livelihood.
Their interaction with tourists makes them vulnerable to trafficking
A Lamani woman selling her wares at a night market
The Lamanis have strong community loyalties and remain marginalised from mainstream society. Issues involving the tribe are brought before their Jaat Panchayat (i.e. a group of tribal elders) which recommends action. A strong patriarchal system ensures that women are not represented in this body and dependent on their male counterparts. In fact, most of the women have low literacy levels. They are poor and debt-ridden. This makes them vulnerable to traffickers, many of whom pose as labour contractors. The involvement of the community in tourist trade further exacerbates their vulnerability. There is constant interaction with international tourists and the incidence of community members travelling abroad is noticeable. Case studies point to the role of the community members as perpetrators.
More women are trying to integrate in mainstream society
Low literacy levels and strong patriarchal system makes Lamani 
women dependent on the male counterpart
The study also focused on interventions to prevent, mitigate, and combat trafficking among Lamani women and children (see box). Among other recommendations was the proposal to set up a monitoring committee to ensure proper coordination among various agencies. The women and child department, Government of Goa and Karnataka can take the lead in establishing such a committee, which will coordinate the interventions that are to be executed by various agencies, monitor and report the progress made by various players in the context of trafficking. International agencies like UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) can also help in this endeavour.
Policymakers also need to respond to the growing problem of sex tourism involving vulnerable groups. The local law enforcement authorities need to understand the plight of migrant communities and be better equipped to enforce laws and protect the vulnerable. The recommendations of the study can be replicated for other migrant groups with similar vulnerability patterns across the country.


Madiga or Maadiga or Maadigar or Maadar is a Scheduled Caste that is found primarily in the southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, KarnatakaMaharastra. They are also referred to by other names such as Maatangi, Makkalu, Madigowd and Madigaru.
Madigas traditional occupation was leather-working, and it was the work of Madigas to produce leather goods. They were also skilled drummers.
Like all castes in India, today they generally believe in prestigious origins (see Sanskritisation). One such theory speculates that Madiga is derived from Sanskrit word Maha-Adiga which can be loosely translated as great and oldest. Madiga is one of the oldest caste.
The Mahar are an Indian community historically identified as Untouchables, found largely withinMaharashtra (where they comprise 10% of the population) and neighboring states. As Untouchables they were assigned a very low status in Hinduism, and as a result a majority of the Mahar community followed social reformer B. R. Ambedkar in converting to Buddhism in the early 20th century
The 19th century activist and social reformer Jyotirao Phule posited that the Mahars are indigenous people of India belong to Kshatriya (warrior) varna, and they were conquered by Aryans, currentBrahman race, which came from beyond Indus region to invade India and the established caste system for their social control. The Mahar fought with them as a result their ancestors were singled out as untouchables. Phule proposed etymologies "great/terrible enemy" (maha meaning great and arior art meaning enemy). or "those who take away dead animals" (mrit har). In turn, the name of Maharashtra state is possibly derived from "land of the Mahars"

Mala or Malla (different from the family/last name Malla from Andhra) is a social group or caste mostly from the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Mala is derived from the Sanskrit malla, which means wrestler. They are one of the dominant Dalit castes in Andhra Pradesh, the other being Madigas.
According to Government of India census data from 2001, Malas constitute a total of 41.6 percent (5,139,305) of the scheduled caste population of the state. They are largely concentrated in the Coastal Andhra region. During the Adi-Andhra movement of the 1930s, several Mala caste people, including few Madigas, especially from coastal Andhra called themselves as 'Adi-Andhra' and were recorded in the census with the 'Adi-Andhra' caste name akin toAdi Dravida of Tamil Nadu. (Adi-Andhra is synonym word instead of using MALA or Madiga, in Adi-Andhra Malas are 90% and 10% belonged to Madiga caste). In the ancient times, Malas were mostly village watchmen or hardworking laborers. They were skilled workers too and were also recruited by the British Army because of their martial skills. Presently they don't have a specific caste profession and can be seen in many professions.


The Mang or Matang (Minimadigin Gujarat and Rajasthan) community is an Indian caste, historically associated with low-status or ritually impure professions such as village musicians, cattle castraters, leather curers, midwives, hangmen, undertakers, and criminals. In the modern day they are listed as a Scheduled Caste, a designation which has replaced the former term Untouchable.Their origins lie in the Narmada Valley of India, and they were formerly classified as a criminal tribe under the Criminal Tribes Acts of the British Raj

Matang is a Dalit caste in the Indian states of MaharashtraAndhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. Matangs are known as Madigas in Andhra Pradesh.
References to Matang are found in ancient Jain literature.[citation needed] According to Jain literature,Vinami, the great grandson of Rishabh the first Teerthankar of Jainism, was the founder of Matang race. Suparshvanath, the 7th Teerthankar of Jainism himself was a Matang. His Yaksha (attendant god) was also a Matang. The Yaksha of Mahavir the 24th Teerthankar was also a Matang. Matang Yaksha is Jain God of Prosperity.In rural areas, they manufacture items like ropes, brooms, etc., and supply these items to farmers. To obtain a sight of a Matang is considered as a holy sign in villages.

The Mochi are Hindu. They are spread across entire India and are found in the states of PunjabWest Bengal,BiharUttar PradeshOrissaMadhya PradeshJharkhandChhattisgarhMaharashtra and Gujarat
The Mochi of Uttar Pradesh claim to have originated in Rajasthan. Historically, the community was involved in the manufacture of protective leather dresses for soldiers, and the community are closely associated with the Rajput community. They share gotra names with the Rajput community. They have the following sub-groups, the Sinolia, Sasendia, Sonwal, and Nidaria. The Mochi are involved in the manufacture of leather shoes for example Nike, Fila, Adidas, etc.


The Musahar are a Hindu scheduled caste found in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh in India, andTerai. They are also known as Arya or Banbasi, or in Bihar as Rajwar, and on the plateau as Manjhi.The Musahar were traditionally rat catchers, and there is still uncertainty as to their exact origin. This Hindu Mythology story shows how they are perceived in the traditional indian society, Parmashwar (the Hindu creation god) created man and gave him a horse to ride. The first Musahar decided to dig holes in the belly of the horse to fix his feet as he rode. This offended Parmeshwar, who punished them by making them rat catchers. They are found in eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and north Madhya Pradesh. The Musahar speak the Bhojpuri dialect of Hindi.
In Bihar, the word Musahar is said to be derived from moos, a local Bhojpuri word for a rat, on account of their traditional occupation as rat catchers. The Bihari Rajwar self-identify as Rajvanshi Kshatryia.

The Musahar consists of three sub-groups, the Bhagat, Sakatiya and Turkahia. Each of these clans are endogamous. The Musahar were once rat catchers, but this activity has been abandoned. They are now mainly landless agricultural labourers. They are one of the most marginalized groups in India, and have suffered discrimination. Although the Musahar are Hindu, they believe in a number of tribal deities.

In Bihar, the Musahar are employed in the stone quaries of the state. Many have also emigrated to the states of Punjab and Haryana, and are employed as agricultural labourers. They speak Bhojpuri, but many now have working knowledge of Hindi. The Musahar are found throughout Bihar.
In the rural areas, Musahar are primarily bonded agricultural labourers, but often go without work for as much as eight months in a year. Children work alongside their parents in the fields or as rag pickers, earning as little as 25 to 30 rupees daily. The Musahar literacy rate is 3 percent, but falls below 1 percent among women. By some estimates, as many as 85 percent of some villages of Musahars suffer from malnutrition and with access to health centres scant, diseases such as malaria and kala-azar, the most severe form of leishmaniasis, are prevalent.
The Government of Bihar operates the Mahadalit Mission, which partially funds some programs to expand education and other social welfare programs for the Musahar. An example is the Prerna schools operated by Sudha Varghese, residential schools for Musahar girls that include vocational training in the curriculum. Varghese also operates Nari Gunjan, which has 50 centres teaching 1500 Musahar girls throughout Bihar.

Nalavar also Nalava is a Sri Lankan Tamil caste of traditional agriculturalists and toddy tapers. But today they are found in all aspects of the society. They are part of a new amalgamation of castes inJaffna peninsula called as Panchamar or Fives. They are Ambatar or barbers, Vannar or washers, Nallavar, Pallar and Parayar.
It is a unique caste as one of the Tamil castes that is not found in Tamil Nadu (see Koviar). Some have assumed this to be due to indigenous development where as others have speculated that it is a Tamil social group that assumed independent identity in Sri Lanka. Those who assume an indigenous origin say that Nalavar are derived from a Sinhalese social group speculated to be Nilavothat was left behind during the ascendancy of the Jaffna Kingdom where as competing theory suggests that Nalavar are similar in composition to Sanar or Nadar of Tamil nadu who have a different local name.

Nethakani, also known as Netkani,Mala Sale sub-caste of Sale, is a Telugu caste of cotton weavers and labourers.These people were migrated from Maharashtra and spread over middle India and southern parts of Indian. In Maharashtra Nethakanis are known as Netkani Caste people. Traditionally they have been associated with the occupation of weaving (netha neyuta means "weaving" in Telugu), but they have now largely moved to cultivation and agricultural labour; with a few of them being small land-owners. According to Bhadravathi Kalyana Natakamu, a folk-drama which hasbeen published, the Nethakani are one among the four sections of Padmasaliyulu who are the sons of one Bhavana Rushi. The Four sections mentioned in this drama are Padmiyulu, Padmasakhiyulu, Padmasalikulu and Padmapulindulu. Padma-pulindulu was the Original Name of the Nethakani. From Padmapulindulu, the name became Chenethakanivaru, which in course of time changed to the present form, Nethakani. Most of the people related to this caste are located in the northern region of theIndian state of Andhra Pradesh in the districts of AdilabadKarimnagarNizamabad, Khammam and Warangal. Nethakanis also migrated to Maharashtra and distributed throughout, they speak Marathi in Maharashtra & Adilabad bordering MH. Nethekanis are classified as a scheduled caste (SC) in India, Nethakani's are among the smaller SC castes in Andhra Pradesh; a study estimated their population to be around 80,000, constituting about 1% of the state's total SC population

The Orh are a Hindu caste found in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand in India. They have been granted Scheduled Caste status in both these states, and are also known as Mistri and Raj .The Orh are one of number of communities of Dom origin found in the Kumaon and Garhwal areas of Uttarakhand. There traditional occupation is that of a mason, and according to the their traditions, they originated in western Nepal, where many are still found. The Orh either speak Kumaoni or Garhwali, although most can also understand Hindi.

The Pallar (previously Mallar) is a caste from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. They are mostlyagriculturalists in Tamil Nadu, Sri Lanka and amongst the Tamil diaspora.They prefer to call themselves Mallar or Devendra Kula Velalar.
A number of historians support the argument that the Pallar are the same community as that formerly called Mallar in the region.According to ancient Sangam literature, the Pallar is an ancient group of people originating in theMarutam land. The land was said to be good for agriculture, and situated near a river.As they were the producers of food grains, they lived with self respect...and agriculturists (Mallars) were the most respected community. They claim themselves to be the descendants of Devendran (the god of Marutham) Land

The word panchpiria literally in Urdu means a follower of five pirs or Sufi holy men, from the Urdu word for five which is panch, and pir or holyman. This community gets its name from the fact that they are devotees of five sufi saints, Ghjazi Mian, Rajab Salar, Subhan Parihar and Bade Purukh. They areMuslim converts from the Bind caste. The Panchipiria are found mainly in the Doab region of westernUttar Pradesh. There customs are similar to the Lal Begi, another Muslim community that have been traditionally been involved in sweeping and scavenging.The Panchipiria are endogamous, and marry close kin. They speak both Urdu and the Khari bolidialect of Hindi. Their economic status is precarious, with many Panchpiria employed as street cleaners by many municipalities in western Uttar Pradesh. They are entirely landless, with many employed as wage labourers. The Panchpiria are also employed by the Shia community to play the shanai instruments during the Muharram festival.

Paraiyar or Parayar (in the past, anglicised as Pariah) is a caste group found in the Indian state of Tamil Naduand Kerala. In Tamil Nadu though they have been enumerated under three different caste names asParaiyanSamban and Adi Dravida, they have generally been referred to as Paraiyar. In northern Tamil Nadu they are known as Paraiyar, in southern Tamil Nadu they are known as Samban. Paraiyan and samban are synonymous with Adi Dravida.
The Indian census of 2001 reported that in Tamil Nadu the Adi Dravida population was about 5,402,755 and the Paraiyar population as 1,860,519.

The Pasi are one of the untouchable communities (ordalits) who are now classified as a Scheduled Casteunder modern India's system of positive discrimination. As untouchables, they were traditionally considered outside the Hindu ritual ranking system of castes . They are found in the northern Indian states of BiharDelhiHaryana and Uttar Pradesh as well in theTerai region of Nepal
In Bihar, the Pasi are also known as the Chaudhary. The community were traditionally connected withtoddy tapping. They are found throughout Bihar, and speak the Magadhi dialect of Hindi. They have four sub-divisions, namely the Tirsulia, Gaiduha, Kamani and Byadha. In addition to toddy tapping, the community now are also involved in a number of activities such as petty business

The Patharkat are a sub-group of the larger Kanjar caste. Their name Patharkat in Hindi literally means stone cutters. Having taken up the profession of stone cutting, this particular group of Kanjarsbroke all links with the parent community, and the two communities do not now intermarry. They are found mainly in Awadh, and their concentrations are in the districts of SitapurUnnaoRaebareli,Hardoi and Lucknow. In Lucknow, they are found mainly in the localities of Qaisar Bagh, Saafatgang, Daligang, Bangla Bazar, Nishatgang, Lal Kuan and Chinhat. They speak Ghiarai among themselves and Hindi with outsiders.
In Bihar, the Patharkat are found in the districts of Champaran, Arrah and Gaya. They are divided into seven exogamous clans, the Sankat, Sanda, Bhains, Marriya, Uthwar, Lahia and Baid. The Patharkat claim to have comme from Rajasthan some three hundred years ago.

Pardhi or Phasse Pardhi are a tribe in India. The tribe often faces harassment by Indian law enforcement agencies. The tribe is found mostly in Maharashtra and parts of Madhya Pradesh. The Phasse are a sub tribe of the Pardhi caste, which includes sub-castes like Gav-Paradhi, Berad-Paradhi, Gai-Paradhi, Chita-Paradhi. The Passe number 60,000, with 10,000 child beggars and only 3,000 literates in Mumbai alone. Pardhi is the term for "hunter". Widely found surnames among them include Chauhan, Pawar and Solanke.


The Pardhis claim descent from the Rajputs.
The criminal branding of the tribe goes back to 1871 after the British passed the "Criminal Tribes Act". About a hundred and fifty tribes were branded as criminal, and the police were given sweeping powers to arrest them and watch over their movements.
T. V. Stephens, a British officer at that time quoted:
"... people from time immemorial have been pursuing the caste system defined job-positions: weaving, carpentry and such were hereditary jobs. So there must have been hereditary criminals also who pursued their forefathers’ profession."
Volume XII of the 1880 Bombay Presidency Gazette has further comments about the group stating:
"They are still fond of hunting and poaching and have not got rid of their turn for thieving.... The Phase Pardhi [a sub-tribe] is nearly always ragged and dirty, walking with a sneaking gait."
In 1952, the tribe was denotified as "criminal" and named as a nomadic tribe. However this has not changed the public perception of the tribe, and they continue to be stigmatized and live as outcasts, further aggravating their backwardness and economic hardships.
Another Paradhi tribe called the Gav-Paradhi, settled primarily in the Amravati District Maharashtra, escaped the label of 'criminal tribe' as they were mostly agriculturalists.
The PulayarPulaya, or Pulayas or Holeya or Cheramar, are one of the main social groups found in KeralaKarnataka and in historical Tamil Naduor Tamilakam.The spiritual life of the Pulaya includes certain ancient magic rituals and practices that have a certain reputation. Members of the mainstream community may consult Pulaya sorcerers (Manthrikavadi) in Kerala, for advice.
Pulayas are noted for their music, craftsmanship, and for certain dances which include Kōlam-thullal, a mask dance which is part of their exorcism rituals, as well as the Mudi-āttam or hair-dance which has its origins in a fertility ritual. According to the 2001 Census, the Pulayan population in Kerala stands at 1,041,540 forming 3.27% of the total population of Kerala

Rai Sikh
Rai Sikh are members of the Mahtam ethnic group who have converted to the Sikh faith. The term Mahtam is now used mainly for those members of this ethnic group who profess Hinduism and Islam. Historically, the majority of the Rai Sikh were found in territory that is now Pakistan, mainly in Sahiwal, and Multan districts, and the erstwhile Bahawalpur State. A small number were also found along the banks of the Sutlej in Jalandhar and Firozpur districts, as well the princely state of Kapurthala. In terms of distribution, the Rai Sikh are found mainly in over two hundred villages in Firozpur District, sixty villages in Kapurthala District, fifty villages in Jalandhar and Ludhiana districts. In neighbouring Haryana, the Rai Sikh are now found in the districts ofKarnalHissar and Kurukshetra. Almost of all these are refugees from Shaikhupura District in Pakistan.

Sections of the Rai Sikh were declared a criminal tribe under the Criminal Tribes Act by the British colonial authorities in India. After independence, they were denotified in 1952, when the Criminal Tribes Act was replaced with the Habitual Offenders Actand on that basis members of the community have demanded that they be granted Scheduled Caste, which has been denied to them. They are found all across the Pakistan-India border . mainly they are living in north India and rajasthan.the government of India provide them shelter and land nearby border areas.

The Rattal are a Hindu caste found in the Indian administered area of Jammu and Kashmir. They have been granted Scheduled Caste status. According to the 2001 Census of India, their population was 13,327.
The Rattal are a community that were traditionally involved in the removal of carcasses and skinning for leather. An important subsidiary occupation was the weaving of baskets. The Rattal are grouped along with other similarly placed Hindus of Jammu. They live in the warm and temperate zones of Jammu province in the districts of KathuaUdhampur, and Reasi

Rohit or Rohitas, also called Bambhi, are a chamar caste of GujaratIndia.Rohit (or Rohitas) consider themselves to be followers or descendants of the famous saint Rohidas. Traditionally, they did leather or hide work and were also identified as Khalpa. But in 1947, a group ofKhalpa organised and decided to call themselves Rohit. They also abandoned all leather works.The Rohit claim to have sprung from a union between a Rajput and a low caste woman. In the census of 1961, Rohits have been identified as one of the fifteen sub sections of the Chamar caste.
The Saryara are a Hindu caste found in the Indian administered area of Jammu and Kashmir. They have been granted Scheduled Caste status. According to the 2001 Census of India, their population was 13,327.

The Saryara are found mainly in the districts of JammuKathua and Udhampur, with almost half the Saryara population living in Bahu Fort, a settlement situated on the banks of the Tawi River. According to their traditions, they are descended from the camp followers of Bahulochan, the brother Jambulochan, The Saryara are a Dogri speaking community, although most also understand Hindi

The Singikat are a Hindu  found in the state of Haryana. They are known as Gyarah.The name Singikat is derived from a combination of two Hindi words, the singi which refers to a conical brass pipe with a wide mouth and kat which means holder. The Singi pipe is used to suck impure blood from wounds. They are a branch a of the Singiwala community of North India. The HaryanaSingikat are said to have originated from Kuchwan village in Marwar, and said to have immigrated in the 18th Century. They are now found throughout Haryana, and speak Haryanv

The Singiwala are both a scheduled caste, as well as a Muslim community, found in the state ofRajasthan in India. They also known as Jheewar Bangalee. Many members of Singiwala community have migrated to Pakistan after independence have settled in KarachiSindh.
The name Singiwala is derived from a combination of two Hindi words, the singi which refers to a conical brass pipe with a wide mouth and wala which means holder. The Singi pipe is used to suck impure blood from wounds. They are divided into twelve and half exogamous clans, the main ones being the Sauda, Nakpulla, Pardesi, Dilwali, Savara, Kalandar, Gyarah Donbde, Teli, Mewadi and Radi. All the clans have equal status, and there is no concept of hypergamy. A section of the Singiwala emigrated to Haryana in the 18th Century and now form a distinct community known asSingikat

The Sirkiband are a Hindu caste found in the states of Haryana and Punjab in India. They havescheduled caste status in Haryana. A small number in Punjab are now Sikh.
The community get their name from the Hindi sikri, meaning straw and band meaning those who tie. They are a community that was traditionally involved in the manufacture of articles made of straw and grass. The Sikriband consist of a number of endogamous groupings, such as the Nat, Madari, Bazigar, Deha, Bhope and Singikat. These groups are further divided into clans called gotras, which are exogamous. Their main gotras include the Athwal, Kilala, Chanal, Kurania, and Sarsar. The Sikriband speak Haryanvi, but most also understand Hindi
The Sonkar are a Hindu  found in the Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradeshin India. They are sub-caste of the Khateek community. Historically, the Sonkar were a community of dyers. They are divided into a number of exogamous clans, the main ones being the Magariya, Gotiya and Jaraliya. The community speak the Bundelkhandi dialect of Hindi. In Uttar Pradesh, they are found mainly in the districts of Hamirpur and Jhansi.In Chattisgarh, Sonkar are a different community. They are sub-cast of kachhi(Kushwaha/Koshwaha/Maurya) & comes under other backward casts of India


The Thori are a scheduled caste found in the states of GujaratRajasthan and Haryana in India. They are also known as the Nayak.
The Thori trace their descent from the Suryavanshi Rajputs. They claim that they held the role of commanders in the army of the various Rajput Rajahs of Rajputana. As their power grew, the Rajahs tried to defame them. This led a split a split with the wider Rajput community, and the Thori acquired a distinct identity

The Tirgar are a scheduled caste found in the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan in India.The Tirgar derive their name from two words – tir meaning arrow and gar meaning maker. This community was traditionally associated with the manufacture of bows and arrows. Their origin myth relates to them being originally Rajput. They are said to have supplied arrows to the god Rama. The Tirgar of Gujarat claim to have immigrated to the region in the Middle Ages, and were invited by the local Rajput community to manufacture bows and arrows


The Turahiya   caste found in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. They are also known as Turah, Turaha & Turaiha and have scheduled caste status.The Turahiya are a sub-group within the Nishadha, fishermen community caste of India. According to the traditions of the community, The Turahiya were traditional employed to play musical instruments, known as a turahi as well as fishing and over time formed a distinct endogamous group within the fishermen community. They are found mainly in Uttar Pradesh, principally in the districts of western Part.

The Vagri, sometimes pronounced as Bagri are a scheduled caste found in the states of Rajasthanand Gujarat in India, and the province of Sindh in Pakistan.

The Watal are a Kashmiri tribe found in the Indian administered area of Jammu and Kashmir. They are also known as Batal, Battal, and Batul, and the community have been granted Scheduled Castestatus