Sunday, September 25, 2011

Origin of Chamar

चमार कोई नीच जाति नहीँ, बल्कि सनातन धर्म के रक्षक जिन्होंने मुगलोँ का जुल्म सहा मगर धर्म न त्यागा Read more at: http://hindi.revoltpress.com/history/its-chanvar-the-great-kshatriyas-not-chamar/
 आप जानकार हैरान हो सकते हैं कि भारत में जिस जाति चमार बोला जाता है वो असल में चंवरवंश की क्षत्रिय जाति है। यह खुलासा डॉक्टर विजय सोनकर की पुस्तक – “हिन्दू चर्ममारी जाति:एक स्वर्णिम गौरवशाली राजवंशीय इतिहास” में हुआ है। इस किताब में डॉ सोनकर ने लिखा है कि – “विदेशी विद्वान् कर्नल टॉड द्वारा पुस्तक “राजस्थान का इतिहास” में चंवरवंश के बारे में बहुत विस्तार में लिखा गया है।” डॉ सोनकर बताते हैं कि – “इतना ही नहीं बल्कि महाभारत के अनुशासन पर्व में भी इस वंश का उल्लेख है। हिन्दू वर्ण व्यवस्था को क्रूर और भेद-भाव बनाने वाले हिन्दू नहीं, बल्कि विदेशी आक्रमणकारी थे!” जब भारत पर तुर्कियों का राज था, उस सदी में इस वंश का शासन भारत के पश्चिमी भाग में था, उस समय उनके प्रतापी राजा थे चंवर सेन। इस राज परिवार के वैवाहिक सम्बन्ध बप्पा रावल के वंश के साथ थे। राणा सांगा और उनकी पत्नी झाली रानी ने संत रैदासजी जो कि चंवरवंश के थे, उनको मेवाड़ का राजगुरु बनाया था। वे चित्तोड़ के किले में बाकायदा प्रार्थना करते थे। इस तरह आज के समाज में जिन्हें चमार बुलाया जाता है, उनका इतिहास में कहीं भी उल्लेख नहीं है। डॉक्टर विजय सोनकर के अनुसार प्राचीनकाल में ना तो यह शब्द पाया जाता है, ना हीं इस नाम की कोई जाति है। ऋग्वेद में बुनकरों का उल्लेख तो है, पर वहाँ भी उन्हें चमार नहीं बल्कि तुतुवाय के नाम से सम्बोधित किया गया है। सोनकर कहते हैं कि चमार शब्द का उपयोग पहली बार सिकंदर लोदी ने किया था। ये वो समय था जब हिन्दू संत रविदास का चमत्कार बढ़ने लगा था अत: मुगल शासन घबरा गया। सिकंदर लोदी ने सदना कसाई को संत रविदास को मुसलमान बनाने के लिए भेजा। वह जानता था कि यदि संत रविदास इस्लाम स्वीकार लेते हैं तो भारत में बहुत बड़ी संख्या में हिन्दू इस्लाम स्वीकार कर लेंगे। लेकिन उसकी सोच धरी की धरी रह गई, स्वयं सदना कसाई शास्त्रार्थ में पराजित हो कोई उत्तर न दे सके और संत रविदास की भक्ति से प्रभावित होकर उनका भक्त यानी वैष्णव (हिन्दू) हो गए। उनका नाम सदना कसाई से रामदास हो गया। दोनों संत मिलकर हिन्दू धर्म के प्रचार में लग गए। जिसके फलस्वरूप सिकंदर लोदी ने क्रोधित होकर इनके अनुयायियों को अपमानित करने के लिए पहली बार “चमार“ शब्द का उपयोग किया था। उन्होंने संत रविदास को कारावास में डाल दिया। उनसे कारावास में खाल खिचवाने, खाल-चमड़ा पीटने, जूती बनाने इत्यादि काम जबरदस्ती कराया गया। उन्हें मुसलमान बनाने के लिए बहुत शारीरिक कष्ट दिए गए लेकिन उन्होंने कहा :- ”वेद धर्म सबसे बड़ा, अनुपम सच्चा ज्ञान, फिर मै क्यों छोडू इसे, पढ़ लू झूठ कुरान। वेद धर्म छोडू नहीं, कोसिस करो हज़ार, तिल-तिल काटो चाहि, गोदो अंग कटार॥” यातनायें सहने के पश्चात् भी वे अपने वैदिक धर्म पर अडिग रहे और अपने अनुयायियों को विधर्मी होने से बचा लिया। ऐसे थे हमारे महान संत रविदास जिन्होंने धर्म, देश रक्षार्थ सारा जीवन लगा दिया। शीघ्र ही चंवरवंश के वीरों ने दिल्ली को घेर लिया और सिकन्दर लोदी को संत को छोड़ना ही पड़ा। संत रविदास की मृत्यु चैत्र शुक्ल चतुर्दशी विक्रम संवत १५८४ रविवार के दिन चित्तौड़ में हुई। वे आज हमारे बीच नहीं है लेकिन उनकी स्मृति आज भी हमें उनके आदर्शो पर चलने हेतु प्रेरित करती है, आज भी उनका जीवन हमारे समाज के लिए प्रासंगिक है। हमें यह ध्यान रखना होगा की आज के छह सौ वर्ष पहले चमार जाती थी ही नहीं। इतने ज़ुल्म सहने के बाद भी इस वंश के हिन्दुओं ने धर्म और राष्ट्र हित को नहीं त्यागा, गलती हमारे भारतीय समाज में है। आज भारतीय अपने से ज्यादा भरोसा वामपंथियों और अंग्रेजों के लेखन पर करते हैं, उनके कहे झूठ के चलते बस आपस में ही लड़ते रहते हैं। हिन्दू समाज को ऐसे सलीमशाही जूतियाँ चाटने वाले इतिहासकारों और इनके द्वारा फैलाए गये वैमनस्य से अवगत होकर ऊपर उठाना चाहिए l सत्य तो यह है कि आज हिन्दू समाज अगर कायम है, तो उसमें बहुत बड़ा बलिदान इस वंश के वीरों का है। जिन्होंने नीचे काम करना स्वीकार किया, पर इस्लाम नहीं अपनाया। उस समय या तो आप इस्लाम को अपना सकते थे, या मौत को गले लगा सकते था, अपने जनपद/प्रदेश से भाग सकते थे, या फिर आप वो काम करने को हामी भर सकते थे जो अन्य लोग नहीं करना चाहते थे। चंवर वंश के इन वीरों ने पद्दलित होना स्वीकार किया, धर्म बचाने हेतु सुवर पलना स्वीकार किया, लेकिन विधर्मी होना स्वीकार नहीं किया आज भी यह समाज हिन्दू धर्म का आधार बनकर खड़ा है। नोट :- हिन्दू समाज में छुआ-छूत, भेद-भाव, ऊँच-नीच का भाव था ही नहीं, ये सब कुरीतियाँ मुगल कालीन, अंग्रेज कालीन और भाड़े के वामपंथी व् हिन्दू विरोधी इतिहासकारों की देन है। 

चंवरवंश के क्षत्रिए जिन्‍हें सिकंदर लोदी ने 'चमार' बनाया और हमारे-आपके हिंदू पुरखों ने उन्‍हें अछूत बना कर इस्‍लामी बर्बरता का हाथ मजबूत किया!

संदीप देव। आज जिन्‍हें आप 'चमार' जाति से संबोधित करते हैं, उनके साथ छूआछूत का व्‍यवहार करते हैं, दरअसल वह वीर चंवरवंश के क्षत्रिए हैं। 'हिंदू चर्ममारी जाति: एक स्‍वर्णिम गौरवशाली राजवंशीय इतिहास' पुस्‍तक के लेखक डॉ विजय सोनकर शास्‍त्री लिखते हैं, विदेशी विद्वान कर्नल टाड ने अपनी पुस्‍तक ' राजस्‍थान का इतिहास' में चंवरवंश के बारे में विस्‍तार से लिखा है। महाभारत के अनुशासन पर्व में भी इस राजवंश का उल्‍लेख है। तुर्क आक्रांतों के काल में इस राजवंश का शासन भारत के पश्चिमी भाग में था और इसके प्रतापी राजा चंवरसेन थे। इस क्षत्रिय वंश के राज परिवार का वैवाहिक संबंध बाप्‍पा रावल वंश के साथ था। राणा सांगा व उनकी पत्‍नी झाली रानी ने चंवर वंश से संबंध रखने वाले संत रैदासजी को अपना गुरु बनाकर उनको अपने मेवाड़ के राजगुरु की उपाधि दी थी और उनसे चित्‍तौड के किले में रहने की प्रार्थना की थी।

वर्तमान हिंदू समाज में जिनको चमार कहा जाता है, उनका किसी भी रूप में प्राचीन भारत के साहित्‍य में उल्‍लेख नहीं मिलता है। डॉ विजय सोनकर शास्‍त्री के अनुसार, प्राचीनकाल में न तो यह शब्‍द था और न ही इस नाम की कोई जाति ही थी। ऋग्‍वेद के दूसरे अध्‍याय में में बुनाई तकनीक का उल्‍लेख जरूर मिलता है, लेकिन उन बुनकरों को 'तुतुवाय' नाम प्राप्‍त था, चमार नहीं। 
'अर्वनाइजेशन' की लेखिका डॉ हमीदा खातून लिखती हैं, मध्‍यकालीन इस्‍लामी शासन से पूर्व भारत में चर्म एवं सफाई कर्म का एक भी उदाहरण नहीं मिलता है। हिंदू चमड़े को निषिद्ध व हेय समझते थे, लेकिन भारत में मुसलिम शासकों ने इसके उत्‍पादन के भारी प्रयास किए थे।

डॉ विजय सोनकर शास्‍त्री के अनुसार, मुस्लिम आक्रांताओं के धार्मिक उत्‍पीड़न का अहिंसक तरीके से सर्वप्रथम जवाब देने की कोशिश संत शिरोमणी रैदास ने की थी, जिनको सिकंदर लोदी ने बलपूर्वक चर्म कर्म में नियोजित करते हुए 'चमार' शब्‍द से संबोधित किया और अपमानित किया था। 'चमार शब्‍द का प्रचलन वहीं से आरंभ हुआ।
डॉ विजय सोनकर शास्‍त्री के मुताबिक, संत रैदास ने सार्वजनिक मंच पर शास्‍त्रार्थ कर मुल्‍ला सदना फकीर को परास्‍त किया। परास्‍त होने के बाद मुल्‍ला सदना फकीर सनातन धर्म के प्रति नतमस्‍तक होकर हिंदू बन गया। इससे सिकंदर लोदी आगबबूला हो गया और उसने संत रैदास को पकड कर जेल में डाल दिया था। इसके प्रतिउत्‍तर में चंवर वंश के क्षत्रियों ने दिल्‍ली को घेर लिया था। इससे भयभीत हो सिकलंदर लोदी को संत रैदास को छोड़ना पड़ा था।
संत रैदास का यह दोहा देखिए:
बादशाह ने वचन उचारा । मत प्‍यारा इसलाम हमारा ।।
खंडन करै उसे रविदासा । उसे करौ प्राण कौ नाशा ।। 
 .......
जब तक राम नाम रट लावे । दाना पानी यह नहीं पावे ।।
जब इसलाम धर्म स्‍वीकारे । मुख से कलमा आपा उचारै ।।
पढे नमाज जभी चितलाई । दाना पानी तब यह पाई ।। 
समस्‍या तो यह है कि आपने और हमने संत रविदास के दोहों को ही  नहीं पढा, जिसमें उस समय के समाज का चित्रण है। बादशाह सिकंदर लोदी के अत्‍याचार, इस्‍लाम में जबरदस्‍ती धर्मांतरण और इसका विरोध करने वाले हिंदू ब्राहमणों व क्षत्रिए को निम्‍न कर्म में धकेलने की ओर संकेत है। समस्‍या हिंदू समाज के अंदर है, जिन्‍हें अंग्रेजों और वामपंथियों के लिखे पर इतना भरोसा हो गया कि उन्‍होंने खुद ही अपना स्‍वाभिमान कुचल लिया और अपने ही भाईयों को अछूत बना डाला।


आज भी पढे लिखे और उच्‍च वर्ण के हिंदू जातिवादी बने हुए हैु, लेकिन वह नहीं जानते कि यदि आज यदि वह बचे हुए हैं तो अपने ऐसे ही भईयों के कारण जिन्‍होंने नीच कर्म करना तो स्‍वीकार किया, लेकिन इस्‍लाम को नहीं अपनाया। जो इस्‍लामी आक्रांतों से डर गए वह मुसलमार बन गए और जिन्‍होंने उसका प्रतिरोध किया या तो वह मारा गया या फिर निम्‍न कर्म को बाध्‍य किया गया। जो उच्‍च वर्गीय हिंदू आज हैं, उनमें से अधिकांश ने मुस्लिम बादशाहों के साथ समझौता किया, उनके मनसब बने, जागीरदार बने और अपनी व अपनी प्रजा की धर्मांतरण से रक्षा की।

प्‍लीज अपना वास्‍तविक इतिहास पढिए, अन्‍यथा कहीं आपके बच्‍चे भी कल को किसी नए निम्‍न कर्म में न ढकेल दिए जाएं और मार्क्‍स, मसीह, मोहम्‍मद के अनुयायी कहें यह तो हिंदू समाज का दोष है। वैसे कुछ मसीह के अनुयायियों ने सच भी लिखा है। जैसे- प्रोफेसर शेरिंग ने अपनी पुस्‍तक 'हिंदू कास्‍ट एंड टाईव्‍स' में स्‍पष्‍ट रूप से लिखा है कि '' भारत के निम्‍न जाति के लोग कोई और नहीं, बल्कि ब्राहमण और क्षत्रिय ही हैं।'' अब तो भरोसा कीजिए, क्‍योंकि आपको तो उसी पर भरोसा होता है, जिसका प्रमाण पत्र यूरोप और अमेरिका देता है। आप विवेकानंद को कहां स्‍वीकार कर रहे थे। वो तो धन्‍य है अमेरिका कि उसे विवेकानंद में प्रज्ञा दिखी और पीछे पीछे आपमें भी विवेकानंद में प्रज्ञा दिखनी शुरू हो गई। अपनी अज्ञानता समाप्‍त कीजिए, प्‍लीज....

धर्मांतरण रोकने के लिए जिन्‍होंने शस्‍त्र उठाया, सूअर पाला, हिंदुओं ने उन्‍हें ही अछूत बना डाला!

संदीप देव। इतिहास जब पढने बैठता हूं तो काफी तकलीफों से घिर जाता हूं। आखिर किस तरह से अंग्रेज व वामपंथी-कांग्रेसी इतिहासकारों ने हमारे गर्व को कुचला है और हमें अपने ही भाईयों से जुदा कर दिया है, अधकचरा इतिहास लिख-लिख कर। खासकर हिंदू समाज को छिन्‍न-भिन्‍न करने का काम जिस तरह से मध्‍यकाल में इस्‍लामी अक्रांताओं ने किया, उसी तरह ब्रिटिश ने हम पर मानसिक गुलामी थोपी और आजादी के बाद वामपंथी-कांग्रेसियों ने उस गुलामी को हर संभव बनाए रखने का प्रयास किया और यह सब केवल मुस्लिम तष्टिकरण के लिए किया गया जबकि सच्‍चाई यह है कि यहां के मुसलमान कोई विदेशी नहीं हैं, बल्कि हमारे ही रक्‍त, हमारे ही भाई है।
खटिक जाति का इतिहास पढ़ रहा था। आज जिसे दलित और अछूत आप मानते हैं न, उस जाति के कारण हिंदू धर्म का गौरव पताका हमेशा फहराता रहा है। खटिक जाति मूल रूप से वो ब्राहमण जाति है, जिनका काम आदि काल में याज्ञिक पशु बलि देना होता था। आदि काल में यज्ञ में बकरे की बलि दी जाती थी। संस्‍कृत में इनके लिए शब्‍द है, 'खटिटक'।
मध्‍यकाल में जब क्रूर इस्‍लामी अक्रांताओं ने हिंदू मंदिरों पर हमला किया तो सबसे पहले खटिक जाति के ब्राहमणों ने ही उनका प्रतिकार किया। राजा व उनकी सेना तो बाद में आती थी। मंदिर परिसर में रहने वाले खटिक ही सर्वप्रथम उनका सामना करते थे। तैमूरलंग को दीपालपुर व अजोधन में खटिक योद्धाओं ने ही रोका था और सिकंदर को भारत में प्रवेश से रोकने वाली सेना में भी सबसे अधिक खटिक जाति के ही योद्धा थे। तैमूर खटिकों के प्रतिरोध से इतना भयाक्रांत हुआ कि उसने सोते हुए लाखों खटिक सैनिकों की हत्‍या करवा दी और एक लाख सैनिकों के सिर का ढेर लगवाकर उस पर रमजान की तेरहवीं तारीख पर नमाज अदा की।
मध्‍यकालीन बर्बर दिल्‍ली सल्‍तनत में गुलाम, तुर्क, खिलजी, तुगलक, सैयद, लोदी वंश आदि और बाद में मुगल शासनकाल में जब डरपोक हिंदू जाति मौत या इस्‍लाम चुनने में से इस्‍लाम का चुनाव कर रही थी तो खटिक जाति ने खुद के धर्म और अपनी बहु बेटियों को बचाने के लिए अपने घर के आसपास सूअर बांधना शुरू किया। इस्‍लाम में सूअर को हराम माना गया है और खटिकों ने मुस्लिम शासकों से बचाव के लिए सूअर पालन शुरू कर दिया। उसे उन्‍होंने हिंदू के देवता विष्‍णु के वराह (सूअर) अवतार के रूप में लिया। मुस्लिम जब गो हत्‍या करने लगे तो उसके प्रतिकार स्‍वरूप खटिकों ने सूअर का मांस बेचना शुरू किया और धीरे धीरे यह स्थिति आई कि वह अपने ही हिंदू समाज में पददलित होते चले गए। कल के शूरवीर ब्राहण आज अछूत और दलित श्रेणी में हैं।
1857 की लडाई में मेरठ व उसके आसपास अंग्रेजों के पूरे के पूरे परिवार को मौत के घाट उतारने वालों में खटिक समाज सबसे आगे था। इससे गुस्‍साए अंग्रेजों ने 1891 में खटिक जाति को अपराधि जाति घोषित कर दिया। अपराधी एक व्‍यक्ति होता है, पूरा समाज नहीं। लेकिन जब आप मेरठ से लेकर कानपुर तक 1857 के विद्रोह की दासतान पढेंगे तो रोएं खडे हो जाए्ंगे। जैसे को तैसा पर चलते हुए खटिक जाति ने न केवल अंग्रेज अधिकारी, बल्कि उनकी पत्‍नी बच्‍चों को इस निर्दयता से मारा कि अंग्रेज थर्रा उठे। क्रांति को कुचलने के बाद अंग्रेजों ने खटिकों के गांव के गांव को सामूहिक रूप से फांसी दे दिया गया और बाद में उन्‍हें अपराधि जाति घोषित कर समाज के एक कोने में ढकेल दिया।
आजादी से पूर्व जब मोहम्‍मद अलि जिन्‍ना ने डायरेक्‍ट एक्‍शन की घोषणा की थी तो मुसिलमों ने कोलकाता शहर में हिंदुओं का नरसंहार शुरू किया, लेकिन एक दो दिन में ही पासा पलट गया और खटिक जाति ने मुस्लिमों का इतना भयंकर नरसंहार किया कि बंगाल के मुस्लिम लीग के मुख्‍यमंत्री ने सार्वजनिक रूप से कहा कि हमसे भूल हो गई। बाद में इसी का बदला मुसलमानों ने वर्तमान बंग्‍लादेश में स्थित नाओखाली में लिया।
आज हम आप खटिकों को अछूत मानते हैं, क्‍योंकि हमें ननका सही इतिहास नहीं बताया गया है, उसे दबा दिया गया है। आप यह जान लीजिए कि दलित शब्‍द का सबसे पहले प्रयोग अंग्रेजों ने 1931 की जनगणना में 'डिप्रेस्‍ड क्‍लास' के रूप में किया था। उसे ही बाबा साहब अंबेडकर ने अछूत के स्‍थान पर दलित शब्‍द में तब्‍दील कर दिया। इससे पूर्व पूरे भारतीय इतिहास व साहित्‍य में 'दलित' शब्‍द का उल्‍लेख कहीं नहीं मिलता है।
हमने और आपने मुस्लिमों के डर से अपना धर्म नहीं छोडने वाले, हिंसा और सूअर पालन के जरिए इस्‍लामी आक्रांताओं का कठोर प्रतिकार करने वाले एक शूरवीर ब्राहमण खटिक जाति को आज दलित वर्ग में रखकर अछूत की तरह व्‍यवहार किया है और आज भी कर रहे हैं। हमें शर्म भी नहीं आती, जिन लोगों ने हिंदू धर्म की रक्षा की, वो लोग ही हमारे समाज से बहिष्‍कृत हैं। आप अपना इतिहास पढिए, नहीं तो आपके पूर्वज आपको माफ नहीं करेंगे और आपकी अगली पीढ़ी सेक्‍यूलर के नाम पर कुत्सित और डरपोक होती चली जाएगी....

साभार: 1) हिंदू खटिक जाति: एक धर्माभिमानी समाज की उत्‍पत्ति, उत्‍थान एवं पतन का इतिहास, लेखक- डॉ विजय सोनकर शास्‍त्री, प्रभात प्रकाशन
2) आजादी से पूर्व कोलकाता में हुए हिंदू मुस्लिम दंगे में खटिक जाति का जिक्र, पुस्‍तक 'अप्रतिम नायक: श्‍यामाप्रसाद मुखर्जी' में आया है। यह पुस्‍तक भी प्रभात प्रकाशन द्वारा प्रकाशित है।

डॅा विजय सोनकर शास्त्री के अनुसार तुर्क आक्रमणकारियों के काल में चंवर राजवंश का शासन भारत के पश्चिमी भाग में था और इसके प्रतापी राजा चंवरसेन थे | इस क्षत्रिय वंश के राज परिवार का वैवाहिक संबंध बाप्पा रावल वंश के साथ था | राणा सांगा व उनकी पत्नी झाली रानी ने चंवरवंश से संबंध रखने वाले संत रैदासजी को अपना गुरु बनाकर उनको मेवाड़ के राजगुरु की उपाधि दी थी और उनसे चित्तौड़ के किले में रहने की प्रार्थना की थी |
संत रविदास चित्तौड़ किले में कई महीने रहे थे | उनके महान व्यक्तित्व एवं उपदेशों से प्रभावित होकर बड़ी संख्या में लोगों ने उन्हें गुरू माना और उनके अनुयायी बने | उसी का परिणाम है आज भी विशेषकर पश्चिम भारत में बड़ी संख्या में रविदासी हैं | राजस्थान में चमार जाति का बर्ताव आज भी लगभग राजपूतों जैसा ही है | औरतें लम्बा घूंघट रखती हैं आदमी ज़्यादातर मूंछे और पगड़ी रखते हैं |
संत रविदास की प्रसिद्धी इतनी बढ़ने लगी कि इस्लामिक शासन घबड़ा गया सिकन्दर लोदी ने मुल्ला सदना फकीर को संत रविदास को मुसलमान बनाने के लिए भेजा वह जानता था की यदि रविदास इस्लाम स्वीकार लेते हैं तो भारत में बहुत बड़ी संख्या में इस्लाम मतावलंबी हो जायेगे लेकिन उसकी सोच धरी की धरी रह गयी स्वयं मुल्ला सदना फकीर शास्त्रार्थ में पराजित हो कोई उत्तर न दे सका और उनकी भक्ति से प्रभावित होकर अपना नाम रामदास रखकर उनका भक्त वैष्णव (हिन्दू) हो गया | दोनों संत मिलकर हिन्दू धर्म के प्रचार में लग गए जिसके फलस्वरूप सिकंदर लोदी आगबबूला हो उठा एवं उसने संत रैदास को कैद कर लिया और इनके अनुयायियों को चमार यानी अछूत चंडाल घोषित कर दिया | उनसे कारावास में खाल खिचवाने, खाल-चमड़ा पीटने, जुती बनाने इत्यादि काम जबरदस्ती कराया गया उन्हें मुसलमान बनाने के लिए बहुत शारीरिक कष्ट दिए | लेकिन उन्होंने कहा :-
वेद धर्म सबसे बड़ा, अनुपम सच्चा ज्ञान,
फिर मै क्यों छोडू इसे, पढ़ लू झूठ कुरान.
वेद धर्म छोडू नहीं, कोसिस करो हज़ार,
तिल-तिल काटो चाहि, गोदो अंग कटार   (रैदास रामायण)
संत रैदास पर हो रहे अत्याचारों के प्रतिउत्तर में चंवर वंश के क्षत्रियों ने दिल्ली को घेर लिया | इससे भयभीत हो सिकन्दर लोदी को संत रैदास को छोड़ना पड़ा था | संत रैदास का यह दोहा देखिए :-
बादशाह ने वचन उचारा | मत प्यारा इसलाम हमारा ||
खंडन करै उसे रविदासा  | उसे करौ प्राण कौ नाशा ||
जब तक राम नाम रट लावे | दाना पानी यह नहींपावे ||
जब इसलाम धर्म स्वीकारे | मुख से कलमा आपा उचारै ||
पढे नमाज जभी चितलाई | दाना पानी तब यह पाई ||
समस्या तो यह है कि आपने और हमने संत रविदास के दोहों को ही नहीं पढ़ा, जिसमें उस समय के समाज का चित्रण है जो बादशाह सिकंदर लोदी के अत्याचार, इस्लाम में जबरदस्ती धर्मांतरण और इसका विरोध करने वाले हिंदू ब्राहमणों व क्षत्रियों को निम्न कर्म में धकेलने की ओर संकेत करता है |
चंवर वंश के वीर क्षत्रिय जिन्हें सिकंदर लोदी ने 'चमार' बनाया और हमारे-आपके हिंदू पुरखों ने उन्हें अछूत बना कर इस्लामी बर्बरता का हाथ मजबूत किया | इस समाज ने पददलित और अपमानित होना स्वीकार किया, लेकिन विधर्मी होना स्वीकार नहीं किया आज भी यह समाज हिन्दू धर्म का आधार बनकर खड़ा है |
आज भारत में 23 करोड़ मुसलमान हैं और लगभग 35 करोड़ अनुसूचित जातियों के लोग हैं | जरा सोचिये इन लोगों ने भी मुगल अत्याचारों के आगे हार मान ली होती और मुसलमान बन गये होते तो आज भारत में मुस्लिम जनसंख्या 50 करोड़ के पार होती और आज भारत एक मुस्लिम राष्ट्र बन चुका होता | यहाँ भी जेहाद का बोलबाला होता और ईराक, सीरिया, सोमालिया, पाकिस्तान और अफगानिस्तान आदि देशों की तरह बम-धमाके, मार-काट और खून-खराबे का माहौल होता | हम हिन्दू या तो मार डाले जाते या फिर धर्मान्तरित कर दिये जाते या फिर हमें काफिर के रूप में अत्यंत ही गलीज जिन्दगी मिलती |

History of Chamar http://books.google.co.in/books?id=mba9NlbOwd0C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false

Shudro Ka Itihas

आज कल हमारे भारत के स्कूलों और कॉलेजों में जो भारत का इतिहास पढाया जाता है, उस इतिहास और वास्तविक इतिहास में बहुत अंतर है । वेदों और पुराणों में जो इतिहास वर्णित है, वो भी मात्र एक कोरा झूठ है । क्या कभी किसी ने सोचा जो भी इतिहास हमारे पुराणों, वेदों और किताबों में वर्णित है उस में कितना झूठ लिखा है । जो कभी घटित ही नहीं हुआ उसे आज भारत का इतिहास बना कर भारत की नयी पीढ़ी को गुमराह किया जा रहा है । पुराणों-वेदों में वर्णित देवता और असुरों का इतिहास? क्या कभी भारत में देवता का हुआ करते थे‌? जो हमेशा असुरों से लड़ते रहते थे. आज वो देवता और असुर कहाँ है? भारत में कभी भी ना तो कभी देवता थे, ना है और ना ही कभी होंगे । ना ही भारत में कभी असुर थे, ना है और ना ही कभी होंगे । ये शास्वत सत्य है । shudro-ka-itihasआज नहीं तो कल पुरे भारत को यह बात माननी ही होगी । क्योकि इन बातों का कोई वैज्ञानिक आधार ही नहीं है । जिन बातों का कोई वैज्ञानिक आधार ही नहीं है, उन बातों को इतिहासकारों ने सच कैसे मान लिया? इतिहासकारों ने बहुत घृणित कार्य किया है । उन्होंने बिना किसी वैज्ञानिक आधार पर बिना कोई शोध किये देवी-देवताओं को भारत के इतिहास की शान बना दिया । देवता भी इसे अजीब अजीब की कोई भी बुद्धिमान व्यक्ति विश्वास ही नहीं कर सकता । विष्णु जो एक अच्छा खासा इन्सान हुआ करता था, आज वेदों और पुराणों के झूठ के कारण सारी दुनिया का पालक भगवान् बना बैठा है । ऊपर से विष्णु के नाम के साथ ऐसे ऐसे कार्य जोड़ दिए है कि आज स्वयं विष्णु इस धरती पर आ जाये तो बेचारा शर्म के मारे डूब मरे । ये सिर्फ एक विष्णु की ही बात नहीं है, कुल मिला कर 33 करोड़ ऐसे अजीब नमूने हमारे इतिहास में भरे पड़े है । ऊपर से इतिहास में ब्राह्मणों के ऐसे कृत्य लिखे हुए है, अगर ब्राह्मणों में शर्म नाम की और मानवता नाम की कोई चीज होती तो आज पूरा ब्राह्मण समाज डूब के मर जाता । क्या पूरा देश सिर्फ एक ही वर्ग के लोगों ने चलाया? क्या पिछले 2000 सालों में समाज के दुसरे वर्गों ने भारत के लोगों के लिए कुछ भी नहीं किया? अगर किया.. तो इतिहासकारों ने दुसरे वर्गों के बारे क्यों नहीं लिखा? और जो लिखा है उस में इतना झूठ क्यों? इन सब बातों का एक ही अर्थ निकालता है कि भारत के इतिहासकार बिकाऊ थे और आज भी भारत के बिकाऊ इतिहासकार चंद सिक्को के बदले पुरे देश की जनता की भावनाओं से खेल रहे है । हमारे समाज के 5% ब्राह्मणों, राजपूतों और वैश्यों को दुनिया की सबसे ऊँची जाति लिख कर बाकि सभी जातियों (95% लोगों) के साथ इन इतिहासकारों ने नाइंसाफी की है । अगर किसी से पूछा जाये कि ईसा से 3200 साल पहले के इतिहास का कोई वर्णन क्यों नहीं है? तो उत्तर मिलाता है इस पहले कोई विवरण कही नहीं है । लेकिन हम पूछते है, क्या इतिहासकरों ने कोई अच्छा शोध किया? इतिहासकारों ने इतिहास लिखने से पहले पुराणी किताबों को पढ़ा? क्या इतिहासकारों ने देश के सभी एतिहासिक स्थानों पर शोध किये? अगर किये तो वो शोध साफ़ और स्पष्ट क्यों नहीं है? तो कहा है भारत का इतिहास? आज भारत के बाहर निकालो तो सारी दुनिया को भारत का इतिहास पता है । अगर कोई भारतीय विदेशियों को अपना इतिहास बताता है तो सभी विदेशी बहुत हंसते है, मजाक बनाते है । सारी दुनिया को भारत का इतिहास पता है, फिर भी भारत के 95% लोगों को अँधेरे में रखा गया है । क्योकि अगर भारत का सच्चा इतिहास सामने आ गया तो ब्राह्मणों, राजपूतों और वैश्यों द्वारा समाज के सभी वर्गों पर किये गए अत्याचार सामने आ जायेंगे, और देश के लोग हिन्दू नाम के तथाकथित धर्म की सचाई जानकर हिन्दू धर्म को मानने से इनकार कर देंगे । कोई भी भारतवासी हिन्दू धर्म को नहीं मानेगा । ब्राह्मणों का समाज में जो वर्चस्व है वो समाप्त हो जायेगा ।
बहुत से लोग ये नहीं जानते कि भारत में कभी देवता थे ही नहीं, और न ही असुर थे । ये सब कोरा झूठ है, जिसको ब्राह्मणों ने अपने अपने फायदे के लिए लिखा था, और आज भी ब्राह्मण वर्ग इन सब बातों के द्वारा भारत के समाज के हर वर्ग को बेबकुफ़ बना रहा है । अगर आम आदमी अपने दिमाग पर जोर डाले और सोचे, तो सारी सच्चाई सामने आ जाती है । ब्राह्मण, राजपूत और वैश्य ईसा से 3200 साल पहले में भारत में आये थे । आज ये बात विज्ञान के द्वारा साबित हो चुकी है । लेकिन ब्राह्मण, राजपूत और वैश्य इतने चतुर है कि वो विज्ञान के द्वारा प्रमाणित इतिहास और जानकारी भारत के अन्य लोगों के साथ बांटना ही नहीं चाहते । क्योकि अगर ये जानकारी भारत के लोगो को पता चल गई तो भारत के लोग ब्राह्मणों, राजपूतो और वैश्यों को देशद्रोही, अत्याचारी और अधार्मिक सिद्ध कर के देश से बाहर निकल देंगे । भारत के लोगों को सच्चाई पता ना चले इस के लिए आज भी ब्राह्मणों ने ढेर सारे संगठन जैसे राष्ट्रीय स्वयं सेवक संघ, विश्व हिन्दू परिषद्, बजरंग दल, दुर्गा वाहिनी, शिवसेना और भारतीय जनता पार्टी बना रखे है. हजारों धर्मगुरु बना रखे है. जो सिर्फ ढोग, पाखंड और भारत के लोगों को झूठ बता कर अँधेरे में रखते है, क्यों रखते है? ताकि भारत के 95% लोगों को भारत का सच्चा इतिहास पता ना चल जाये । और वो 95% लोग ब्राह्मणों को देशद्रोही करार दे कर भारत से बाहर ना निकल दे । भारत से ब्राह्मणों का वर्चस्व ही ख़त्म ना हो जाये ।
यह भारत के सच्चे इतिहास की शुरुआत है तो यहाँ कुछ बातों पर प्रकाश डालना बहुत जरुरी है । ताकि लोगों को थोडा तो पता चले कि आखिर ब्राह्मणों, राजपूतों और वैश्यों ने भारत में आते ही क्या किया जिस से उनका वर्चस्व भारत पर कायम हो पाया: 1.ईसा से 3200 साल पहले जब भारत में रुद्रों का शासन हुआ करता था । भारत में एक विदेशी जाति आक्रमण करने और देश को लूटने के उदेश्य आई । वह जाति मोरू से यहाँ आई जिनको “मोगल” कहा जाता था । मोरू प्रदेश, काला सागर के उत्तर में यूरेशिया को बोला जाता था । यही यूरेशियन लोग कालांतर में पहले “देव” और आज ब्राह्मण कहलाते है । यूरेशियन लोग भारत पर आक्रमण के उदेश्य से यहाँ आये थे । लेकिन भारत में उस समय गण व्यवस्था थी, जिसको पार पाना अर्थात जीतना युरेशिनों के बस की बात नहीं थी । भारत के मूल-निवासियों और यूरेशियन आर्यों के बीच बहुत से युद्ध हुए । जिनको भारत के इतिहास और वेद पुराणों में सुर-असुर संग्राम के रूप में लिखा गया है । भारत की शासन व्यवस्था दुनिया की श्रेष्ठतम शासन व्यवथा थी । जिसे गण व्यवस्था कहा जाता था और आज भी दुनिया के अधिकांश देशों ने इसी व्यवस्था को अपनाया है । ईसा पूर्व 3200 के बाद युरेशियनों और मूल निवासियों के बीच बहुत से युद्ध हुए जिन में यूरेशियन आर्यों को हार का मुंह देखना पड़ा। 2.पिछले कई सालों में भारत में इतिहास विषय पर हजारों शोध हुए । जिस में कुछ शोधों का उलेख यहाँ किया जाना बहुत जरुरी है । जैसे संस्कृत भाषा पर शोध, संस्कृत भाषा के लाखों शब्द रूस की भाषा से मिलते है । तो यह बात यहाँ भी सिद्ध हो जाती है ब्राहमण यूरेशियन है । तभी आज भी इन लोगों की भाषा रूस के लोगों से मिलती है । कालांतर में यूरेशिया में इन लोगों का अस्तिव ही मिट गया तो भारत में आये हुए युरेशियनों के पास वापिस अपने देश में जाने रास्ता भी बंद हो गया और यूरेशियन लोग भारत में ही रहने पर मजबूर हो गए । युरेशियनों को मजबूरी में भारत में ही रहना पड़ा और आज यूरेशियन भारत का ही एक अंग बन गए है, जिनको आज के समय में ब्राह्मण, राजपूत और वैश्य कहा जाता है । 3.ईसा पूर्व 3200 में यूरेशिया से आये लोगों की चमड़ी का रंग गोरा था, आँखों का रंग हल्का था और इनकी खोपड़ी लम्बाई लिए हुए थी । ब्राह्मण, राजपूत और वैश्य यूरेशिया से आये है. यह बात 2001 में प्रसिद्ध शोधकर्ता माइकल बामशाद ने वाशिंगटन विश्वविद्यालय में भारत की सभी जातियों के लोगों का DNA परिक्षण करके सिद्ध कर दी थी । DNA परिक्षण में यह बात साफ़ हो गई थी कि क्रमश: ब्राह्मण का 99.90%, राजपूत का 99.88% और वैश्य का 99.86% DNA यूरेशियन लोगों से मिलता है । बाकि सभी जाति के लोगों का DNA सिर्फ भारत के ही लोगों के साथ मिलाता है । 4.जब यूरेशियन भारत में आये तो यह आक्रमणकारी लोग नशा करते थे । जिसको कालांतर में “सोमरस” और आज शराब कहा जाता है । यूरेशियन लोग उस समय सोमरस पीते थे तो अपने आपको “सुर” और अपने समाज को “सुर समाज” कहते थे । यूरेशियन लोग ठंडे प्रदेशों से भारत में आये थे, ये लोग सुरापान करते थे तो इन लोगों ने भारत पर कुटनीतिक रूप से विजय पाने के लिए अपने आपको देव और अपने समाज को देव समाज कहना प्रारम्भ कर दिया । 5.भारत के लोग अत्यंत उच्च कोटि के विद्वान हुआ करते थे । इस बात का पता गण व्यवस्था के बारे अध्ययन करने से चलता है । आज जिस व्यवथा को दुनिया के हर देश ने अपनाया है, और जिस व्यवस्था के अंतर्गत भारत पर सरकार शासन करती है । वही व्यवस्था 3200 ईसा पूर्व से पहले भी भारत में थी । पुरे देश का एक ही शासन कर्ता हुआ करता था । जिसको गणाधिपति कहा जाता था । गणाधिपति के नीचे गणाधीश हुआ करता था, और गणाधीश के नीचे विभिन्न गण नायक हुआ करते थे जो स्थानीय क्षेत्रों में शासन व्यवस्था देखते या संभालते थे । यह व्यवस्था बिलकुल वैसी थी । जैसे आज भारत का राष्ट्रपति, फिर प्रधानमंत्री और प्रधानमंत्री के नीचे अलग अलग राज्यों के मुख्मंत्री । कालांतर में भारत पर रुद्रों का शासन हुआ करता था । भारत में कुल 11 रूद्र हुए जिन्होंने भारत पर ईसा से 3200 साल के बाद तक शासन किया। सभी रुद्रों को भारत का सम्राट कहा जाता था और आज भी आप लोग जानते ही होंगे कि शिव से लेकर शंकर तक सभी रुद्रों को देवाधिदेव, नागराज, असुरपति जैसे शब्दों से बिभुषित किया जाता है । रुद्र भारत के मूल निवासी लोगों जिनको उस समय नागवंशी कहा जाता था पर शासन करते थे । इस बात का पता “वेदों और पुराणों” में वर्णित रुद्रों के बारे अध्ययन करने से चलता है । आज भी ग्यारह के ग्यारह रुद्रों को नाग से विभूषित दिखाया जाता है । नागवंशियों में कोई भी जाति प्रथा प्रचलित नहीं थी । इसी बात से पता चलता है कि भारत के लोग कितने सभ्य, सुशिक्षित और सुशासित थे । इसी काल को भारत का “स्वर्ण युग” कहा जाता था और भारत को विश्व गुरु होने का गौरव प्राप्त था । 6.असुर कौन थे? ये भी एक बहुत ही महत्वपूर्ण प्रश्न है । क्योकि भारत के बहुत से धार्मिक गर्न्थो में असुरों का वर्णन आता है । लेकिन ये बात आज तक सिद्ध नहीं हो पाई कि असुर थे भी या नहीं । अगर थे, तो कहा गए? और आज वो असुर कहा है? इस प्रश्न का उत्तर पाने के लिए हमे वेदों और पुराणों का अध्ययन करना पड़ेगा । आज भी हम खास तौर पर “शिव महापुराण” का अध्ययन करे तो असुरों के बारे सब कुछ स्पष्ट हो जाता है । असुराधिपति भी रुद्रों को ही कहा गया है । शिव से लेकर शंकर तक सभी रुद्रों को असुराधिपति कहा जाता है । आज भी रुद्रों को असुराधिपति होने के कारण अछूत या शुद्र देवता कहा जाता है । कोई भी ब्राह्मण रूद्र पूजा के बाद स्नान करने के बाद ही मंदिरों में प्रवेश करते है या गंगा जल इत्यादि अपने शरीर पर छिड़क कर दुसरे देवताओं की पूजा करते है । नागवंशी लोग सांवले या काले रंग के हुआ करते थे और नागवंशी सुरापान नहीं करते थे । आज भी आपको जगह जगह वेदों और पुराणों में लिखा हुआ मिल जायेगा कि नाग दूध पीते है कोई भी नाग “सूरा” अर्थात शराब का सेवन नहीं करते थे । अर्थात भारत के मूल निवासी कालांतर में असुर कहलाये और आज उन्ही नागवंशियों को शुद्र कहा जाता है । 7.युरेशियनों ने भारत कूटनीति द्वारा भारत की सता हासिल की और पहले तीन महत्वपूर्ण नियम बनाये जिनके करना आज भी ब्राहमण पुरे समाज में सर्वश्रेठ माने जाते है: 8.वर्ण-व्यवस्था: युरेशियनों ने सबसे पहले वर्ण-व्यवस्था को स्थापित किया अर्थात यूरेशियन साफ़ रंग के थे तो उन्हों ने अपने आपको श्रेष्ठ पद दिया । यूरेशियन उस समय देवता कहलाये और आज ब्राह्मण कहलाते है । भारत के लोग देखने में सांवले और काले थे तो मूल निवासियों को नीच कोटि का बना दिया गया । 400 ईसा पूर्व या उस से पहले भारत के मूल निवासियों को स्थान और रंग के आधार पर 3000 जातियों में बांटा गया । आधार बनाया गया वेदों और पुराणों को, जिनको यूरेशियन ने संस्कृत में लिखा । भारत के मूल निवासियों को संस्कृत का ज्ञान नहीं था तो उस समय जो भी यूरेशियन बोल देते थे उसी को भारत के मूल निवासियों ने सच मान लिया । जिस भी मूल निवासी राजा ने जाति प्रथा का विरोध किया उसको युरेशियनों ने छल कपट या प्रत्यक्ष युद्धों में समाप्त कर दिया । जिस का वर्णन सभी वेदों और पुराणों में सुर-असुर संग्रामों के रूप में मिलाता है । लाखों मूल निवासियों को मौत के घाट उतारा गया । कालांतर में उसी जाति प्रथा को 3000 जातियों को 7500 उप जातियों में बांटा गया । 9.शिक्षा-व्यवस्था: इस व्यवस्था के अंतर्गत युरेशियनों ने भारत के लोगों के पढ़ने लिखने पर पूर्ण पाबन्दी लगा दी । कोई भी भारत का मूल-निवासी पढ़ लिख नहीं सकता था । सिर्फ यूरेशियन ही पढ़ लिख सकते थे । भारत के लोग पढ़ लिख ना पाए इस के लिए कठोर नियन बनाये गए । मनु-स्मृति का अध्ययन किया जाये तो यह बात सामने आती है । कोई भी भारत का मूल निवासी अगर लिखने का कार्य करता था तो उसके हाथ कट देने का नियम था । अगर कोई मूल-निवासी वेदों को सुन ले तो उसके कानों में गरम शीशा या तेल से भर देने का नियम था । इस प्रकार भारत के लोगों को पढने लिखने से वंचित कर के युरेशियनों ने वेदों और पुराणों में अपने हित के लिए मनचाहे बदलाव किये । ये व्यवस्था पहली इसवी से 1947 तक चली । जब 1947 में देश आज़ाद हुआ तो डॉ भीमा राव अम्बेडकर के प्रयासों से भारत के मूल-निवासियों को पढ़ने लिखने का अधिकार मिला । आज भी ब्राह्मण वेदों और पुराणों में नए नए अध्याय जोड़ते जा रहे है और भारत के मूल निवासियों को कमजोर बनाने का प्रयास सतत जारी है । 10.धर्म व्यवस्था: धर्म व्यवस्था ही भारत के मूल निवासियों के पतन के सबसे बड़ा कारण था । धर्म व्यवस्था कर के युरेशियनों ने अपने आपको भगवान् तक घोषित के दिया । धर्म व्यवस्था कर के युरेशियनों ने खुद को देवता बना कर हर तरह से समाज में श्रेष्ठ बना दिया । धर्म व्यवस्था में “दान का अधिकार” बना कर युरेशियनों ने अपने आपको काम करने से मुक्त कर दिया और अपने लिए मुफ्त में ऐश करने प्रबंध भी इसी दान के अधिकार से कर लिया । धर्म व्यवस्था के नियम भी बहुत कठोर थे । जैसे कोई भी भारत का मूल निवासी मंदिरों, राज महलों और युरेशियनों के आवास में नहीं जा सकता था । अगर कोई मूल निवासी ऐसा करता था तो उसको मार दिया जाता था । आज भी यूरेशियन पुरे भारत में अपने घरों में मूल निवासियों को आने नहीं देते । आज भी दान व्यवस्था के चलते भारत के मंदिरों में कम से कम 10 ट्रिलियन डॉलर की संम्पति युरेशियनों के अधिकार में है । जो मुख्य तौर पर भारत में गरीबी और ख़राब आर्थिक हालातों के लिए जिमेवार है । संम्पति के अधिकार हासिल कर के तो युरेशियनों ने मानवता की सारी सीमा ही तोड़ दी । यहाँ तक भारत में रूद्र शासन से समय से पूजित नारी को भी संम्पति में शामिल कर लिया । नारी को संम्पति में शामिल करने से भी भारत के मूल निवासियों का पतन हुआ । संम्पति के अधिकार भी बहुत कठोर थे । जैसे यूरेशियन सभी प्रकार की संम्पतियों का मालिक था । भारत के मूल निवासियों को संम्पति रखने का अधिकार नहीं था । यूरेशियन भारत की किसी भी राजा की संम्पति को भी ले सकता था । यूरेशियन किसी भी राजा की उसके राज्य से बाहर निकल सकता था । यूरेशियन किसी की भी स्त्री की ले सकता था । यहाँ तक युरेशियनों को राजा की स्त्री के साथ संम्भोग की पूर्ण आज़ादी थी । अगर किसी राजा के सन्तान नहीं होती थी तो यूरेशियन राजा की स्त्री के साथ संम्भोग कर बच्चे पैदा करता था । जिसे कालांतर में “नियोग” पद्धति कहा जाता था । इस प्रकार राजा की होने वाली संतान भी यूरेशियन होती थी । शुद्र व्यवस्था के द्वारा तो युरेशियनों ने सारे देश के मूल निवासियों को अत्यंत गिरा हुआ बना दिया । हज़ारों कठोर नियम बनाये गए । मूल निवासियों का हर प्रकार से पतन हो गया । मूल निवासी किसी भी प्रकार से ऊपर उठने योग्य ही नहीं रह गए । मूल निवासियों पर शासन करने के लिए और बाकायदा मनु-स्मृति जैसे बृहद ग्रन्थ की रचना की गई । आज भी लोग 2002 से पहले प्रकाशित के मनु-स्मृति की प्रतियों को पढेंगे तो सारी सच्चाई सामने आ जाएगी ।
ये कुछ महत्वपूर्ण बातें थी जिन पर भारत का इतिहास लिखने से पहले प्रकाश डालना जरुरी था । यही कुछ बातें है जिनका ज्ञान भारत के मूल निवासियों को होना बहुत जरुरी है । अगर भारत के मूल निवासी युरेशियनों के बनाये हुए नियमों को मानने से मना कर दे । युरेशियनों की बनायीं हुई वर्ण व्यवस्था, जाति व्यवस्था, संम्पति व्यवस्था, वेद व्यवस्था, धर्म व्यवस्था को ना माने । सभी मूल निवासी ब्राह्मणों के बनाये हुए जातिवाद के बन्धनों से स्वयं को मुक्त करे और सभी मूल निवासी नागवंशी समाज की फिर से स्थापना करे । सभी मूल निवासी मिलजुल कर देश का असली इतिहास अपने लोगों को बताये । सभी नागवंशी अपनी क़ाबलियत को समझे । तभी भारत के मूल निवासी पुन: उसी विश्व गुरु के पद को प्राप्त कर सकते है और भारत में फिर से स्वर्ण युग की स्थापना कर सकते है । जल्दी ही भारत का विस्तृत इतिहास अलग अलग अध्यायों के रूप में प्रस्तुत किया जायेगा । हमारी टीम रात दिन भारत के इतिहास पर हुए हजारों शोधों और पुस्तकों का अध्ययन कर रही है, और भारत का सच्चा इतिहास लिखा जा रहा है ।
आप सभी से विनम्र प्रार्थना है कि भारत का इतिहास सभी लोगों तक पहुंचाए । हमारे इस प्रयास को सार्थक बनाने में हमारा सहयोग करे । “मूलनिवासी फाउंडेशन” आपसे सहयोग की अपेक्षा करता है । खुद भी जागो, और को भी जगाये..!! आओ अम्बेडकर के सपनों का भारत बनाये…!!

Dalit in accient India

Who are the real Dalits of India then? When the British arrived on the subcontinent, they found, as many other invaders had discovered before them, that the biggest stumbling block to a strong grip on India were the Hindus and that they could not govern such a huge country without splitting this community. They thus used three tools: 1. The Aryan invasion theory, of two civilisations, that of the low caste Dravidians and the high caste Aryans, always pitted against each other -- which has endured, although it is now totally disproved, as it is still today being used by some Indian politicians -- and has been enshrined in all history books, Western, and unfortunately also Indian. Thus were born wrong 'nationalistic' movements, such as the Dravidian movement against Hindi and the hatred against the much-maligned Brahmins, who actually represent today a minority, which is often underprivileged. Many Brahmins were chased out of Tamil Nadu in the early sixties. It is also very difficult nowadays for a Brahmin, however qualified, to find a job in the government as many posts are reserved for Dalit and backward castes, even if they are underqualified. This Aryan invasion theory has also made India look Westwards, instead of taking pride in its past and present achievements. I am a Westerner and a born Christian, but I always wonder why there is such great fascination for Sonia Gandhi [ Images ], a White-Skinned Westerner. Is she unconsciously perceived as a true Aryan by the downtrodden Dravidians and a certain fringe of that Indian intelligentsia which is permanently affected by an inferiority complex towards the West? This fake Aryan invasion may even have given a colour fixation to this country, where women will go to extremes to look 'fair.' But isn't black beautiful? 2. The vilifying of the caste system: 'Caste was originally an arrangement for the distribution of functions in society, just as much as class in Europe, but the principle on which this distribution was based was peculiar to India,' wrote Sri Aurobindo. But the British and Christian missionaries quickly targeted the Adivasis and the Dalits for conversion by telling them: 'You are the first inhabitants of India and you were colonised by the bad Brahmins, during the Aryan invasion. By converting to Christianity, they continued, you will become free from the grip of your masters, who have enslaved you both socially and religiously.'Thus they set the Dalits and Adivasis against the mainstream of Hindu society and sowed the seeds of an explosive conflict which is ready to blow-up today. Missionaries have also always been advocating covertly a breaking-up of the country. Kancha Ilaiah has been lobbying hard at the UN so that the Adivasis and Dalits are recognised as 'the original settlers of India.' Belgium historian Koenraad Elst writes that the missionaries were ultimately all set to trigger a Christian partition in India: 'At the time of Independence, Christian mission centres had dreamed up a plan for a Christian partition in collaboration with the Muslim League. The far Northeast, Chota Nagpur and parts of Kerala were to become Christian states, forming a non-Hindu chain with the Nizam's Hyderabad and with Pakistani Bengal.' 3. The weaning away of the Muslims from the Hindu majority which ended in the Partition of India. The British used to the hilt the existing divide between Hindus and Muslims. The Congress was weak; it accepted what was forced down its throat by Jinnah and Mountbatten, even though many of its leaders, including Nehru, and a few moderate Muslims, disagreed with the principle of partition. It was also Gandhi's policy of non-violence and gratifying the fanatical Muslim minority, in the hope that it would see the light, which did tremendous harm to India and encouraged Jinnah to harden his demands. Today the Congress has taken up this dangerous game again, witness the Andhra assembly which just approved a 5 per cent job reservation for Muslims; and Sonia Gandhi wants all other Congress-ruled states to follow Andhra Pradesh in providing Muslims with education and job quotas.It is a measure of how the British and the missionaries were successful in planting the seeds of dissent, even amongst Indians, that this misinformation endures today in India and finds a sympathetic ear in the US Congress.
 
CHAMAR.CO.IN
Background
INDIAN history is history of invasions by foreigners on India , listed below in order of invasion time:* Aryans ...Today's Brahmins* Aryans ...Today's Brahmins Army* Scythians and Kushans...Today's Jat Gurjar and Ahir(yadav)* Huns... some savage community, not written record found* Muslims... Turk,Arab,Afgan,Mongolian* Europeons... Portugues,Danish,Dutch,French and ENGLISHAryans were first invaders who invaded India son of soil-Dravidians and pushed them towards south,some of major community which do not moved to south remained in North India itself but were bare handed as all of their land, assets and belongings was taken away by aryans as a result of their defeat.Now these defeated warriors do not have any means to survive,so they started surviving on unrequired materials of ARYANS in which main waste was dead Animals/cattles.Hence they came into business of manufacturing, processing and trading in leather and leather goods and ultimately known as CHAMAR Charm(leather)+kar(worker). Later physco peoples like MANU make their condition even worse by preparing written laws (for example dividing community in 4 groups-Bramins,kshtrias,vaishas and Sudras).These defeated and ill treated warriors came into catogory of Sudras the lowest one in social heirerchy.Chamar were basically engaged in manufacturing, processing and trading in leather and leather goods. Apart from that farming is also their most important occupation, either in full ownership or on share cropping basis, by which they used to get 1/3rd or a quarter of the farm produce. They do not belong to any one particular group, clan or area, but are those people from various castes and tribes who joined the Chamar community from time to time for various reasons and purposes such as employment, political, and religion etc. For example Baluch Mochis and Chamars are also classed as Jat meaning camel rider . Tanning being the profession of Chamars in the past, they could be both from the original tribes who were living in India even before the creation of the caste system where tribes interacted with each other. Historians believe they are true HindusIn Punjab:The most politically and socially influential Chamars are from the state of Punjab, where they form 11% of the population (2.8 million), with Dalits comprising 27% of the population. In the Punjab they are divided into various groups, such as Ad-Dharm, Ravidasi, Ramdasia and Chamar. In Majha they share the same gotras as Saraswati and MohyalBrahmins, they share family names with Jats and Rajputs.In Malwa most Chamars turned to Sikhism, whereas in Doaba most of them did not opt for Sikhism. In Majha they are called Arya (Aryan)and Ravidasia, in Doaba they are called Adi Dharmi. They are highly concentrated in the Doaba region of Punjab, where they form over 40% of the populationIn Uttar Pradesh:Most Chamars reside in west Uttar Pradesh are known as Jatav. Total Chamar population in this state is almost 20 million and form 13-14% of the population. In this state, the political party of Chamars Bahujan Samaj Party has its political base and this has led to Bahujan Samaj Party to win the state elections and chief minister post by Ms Mayawati 4 times since 1990In Rajasthan:The castes which were involved in leather work in past (before independence) were termed "Chamar". Chamars in Rajasthan can only be identified in the districts adjoining to the states of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The districts of Bikaner, Shriganganagar, Hanumangarh, Churu, Jhunjhunu, Alwar, Bharatpur and Dhaulpur are inhabited by Chamars. In the districts of Bharatpur, Dhaulpur and parts of Alwar (adjoining to Bharatpur) they are known as Jatav. Regar (leather tanners) and Mochi (shoe makers) are other two castes related to the leather profession.In Haryana:The total Chamar population in Haryana is more than 2,079,132, about 9% of the Population. Most Chamars in the districts of Hisar, Jind, Panipat, Karnal, Sonepat, Rohtak, Kaithal are Julaha Chamars. They are similar to the Kori Julahas of Western Uttar Pradesh and have family relationships with them. 
Who are the real Dalits of India then?
When the British arrived on the subcontinent, they found, as many other invaders had discovered before them, that the biggest stumbling block to a strong grip on India were the Hindus and that they could not govern such a huge country without splitting this community.
They thus used three tools:
1. The Aryan invasion theory, of two civilisations, that of the low caste Dravidians and the high caste Aryans, always pitted against each other -- which has endured, although it is now totally disproved, as it is still today being used by some Indian politicians -- and has been enshrined in all history books, Western, and unfortunately also Indian.
Thus were born wrong 'nationalistic' movements, such as the Dravidian movement against Hindi and the hatred against the much-maligned Brahmins, who actually represent today a minority, which is often underprivileged.
Many Brahmins were chased out of Tamil Nadu in the early sixties. It is also very difficult nowadays for a Brahmin, however qualified, to find a job in the government as many posts are reserved for Dalit and backward castes, even if they are underqualified.
This Aryan invasion theory has also made India look Westwards, instead of taking pride in its past and present achievements. I am a Westerner and a born Christian, but I always wonder why there is such great fascination for Sonia Gandhi [ Images ], a White-Skinned Westerner.
Is she unconsciously perceived as a true Aryan by the downtrodden Dravidians and a certain fringe of that Indian intelligentsia which is permanently affected by an inferiority complex towards the West? This fake Aryan invasion may even have given a colour fixation to this country, where women will go to extremes to look 'fair.' But isn't black beautiful?
2. The vilifying of the caste system: 'Caste was originally an arrangement for the distribution of functions in society, just as much as class in Europe, but the principle on which this distribution was based was peculiar to India,' wrote Sri Aurobindo.
But the British and Christian missionaries quickly targeted the Adivasis and the Dalits for conversion by telling them: 'You are the first inhabitants of India and you were colonised by the bad Brahmins, during the Aryan invasion. By converting to Christianity, they continued, you will become free from the grip of your masters, who have enslaved you both socially and religiously.'
Thus they set the Dalits and Adivasis against the mainstream of Hindu society and sowed the seeds of an explosive conflict which is ready to blow-up today. Missionaries have also always been advocating covertly a breaking-up of the country.
Kancha Ilaiah has been lobbying hard at the UN so that the Adivasis and Dalits are recognised as 'the original settlers of India.'
Belgium historian Koenraad Elst writes that the missionaries were ultimately all set to trigger a Christian partition in India: 'At the time of Independence, Christian mission centres had dreamed up a plan for a Christian partition in collaboration with the Muslim League. The far Northeast, Chota Nagpur and parts of Kerala were to become Christian states, forming a non-Hindu chain with the Nizam's Hyderabad and with Pakistani Bengal.'
3. The weaning away of the Muslims from the Hindu majority which ended in the Partition of India. The British used to the hilt the existing divide between Hindus and Muslims. The Congress was weak; it accepted what was forced down its throat by Jinnah and Mountbatten, even though many of its leaders, including Nehru, and a few moderate Muslims, disagreed with the principle of partition.
It was also Gandhi's policy of non-violence and gratifying the fanatical Muslim minority, in the hope that it would see the light, which did tremendous harm to India and encouraged Jinnah to harden his demands.
Today the Congress has taken up this dangerous game again, witness the Andhra assembly which just approved a 5 per cent job reservation for Muslims; and Sonia Gandhi wants all other Congress-ruled states to follow Andhra Pradesh in providing Muslims with education and job quotas.
It is a measure of how the British and the missionaries were successful in planting the seeds of dissent, even amongst Indians, that this misinformation endures today in India and finds a sympathetic ear in the US Congress.
 
 Writers Views : 

According to a legend, five brothers, Brahmans, while out walking one day, saw the carcass of a cow by the roadside. Four of the brothers passed it by, but the fifth removed the body. Thereupon he was excommunicated by his brothers. His descendants continue to remove the carcasses of cattle.

 These traditions, both ancient and modern, do not, however, account for the origin of the Chamar. They merely show how some persons were degraded into the leather-working group. The caste itself had its origin in that occupational class on the borders of the ancient village. This group, essentially non-Aryan, has maintained itself through the centuries in its traditional occupation. But the caste is to-day a very large one, and it would be difficult to account for it merely on the ground that it has been self-propagating. As now constituted, the caste is made up of a heterogeneous group of peoples. This is illustrated, in the first place, by the fact that most of the sub-castes of the Chamars are found in fairly well defined areas, and these may be described as local groups. Further- more, some sub-caste names, such as Azamgarhiya Banaudhiya, Kalkattiya, Ujjaini, Saksena, Chandariya, Guliya, Aharwar, and Jhusiya, are specifically local; while other sub-caste names, such as, Gangapari, Purabiya, Uttaraha, and Dakkhinaha, point to definite geographical origins. Some of the local groups of Chamars are of recent origin.

For example, there were no Chamars in the Gorakhpur District four hundred years ago.  Furthermore, there are good reasons for believing that the caste has received large recruitments from above. This is illustrated by the case of the Gorakhpur Chamars. Again, there are some rather pronounced variations in the features of members of the caste. This may be illustrated from places as widely separated as Ballia and Meerut. It has been noted that many Chamar women have fine features, and that some Chamars have a better cast of features .

The Jatiya, for example, is of a higher physical type than some other sub-castes and of lighter complexion. The explanation in his case may be that some occupational demand drew Jats into this lower form of work ; or, more likely, that some pressure or penalty resulted in their degradation. Some Jatiyas claim to be descendants of Jats, and many of this sub-caste do resemble these taller and fairer complexioned neighbors. Such sections of the caste as possess markedly superior features must be accounted for through conquest. The subjugation of tribe after tribe has been a recurring phenomenon in India. These movements have occurred over wide areas, and over limited portions of the country as well. Local history fully illustrates this fact, and we may picture the flux of rising and falling tribes and clans under repeated foreign and local waves of conquest, and the consequent reconstruction, in more or less detail, of the social distri- bution of races and clans as a fairly constant process. This means that the fixed status of an occupational group may go hand in hand with the repeated recruitment of the group by those who have been degraded from better posi- tions.

In some instances this may mean that certain clans were unable to maintain their identity and prestige with the changing erder, and that consequently they have sunk to lower levels. These contentions are borne out by many got, or family, and sub-caste names ; for example, Banau- dhiya,Ujjaini,Chandhariya, Sarwariya  Kandujiya, Chauhan, Chandel, Saksena, Sakarwar, Bhadarauriya, and Bundela. These are names of Rajput clans, and, as applied to the Chamar, suggest dependency. This may mean also more or less racial admixture, as in the case of the latiya. Sub- caste names such as Kori and Turkiya point also to the wide range of racial elements in the caste.

On the other hand, there have been large accessions to the caste from below. Got and sub-caste names show that many Chamars have sprung from the Dom, the Kanjar, the Habura, the Kol, the Jaiswar* and other casteless tribes. This movement of peoples upwards through successive stages is a well-known phenomenon.

 Chamar is a Hindu. In the Census Report for 1901, * certain castes which fall below the twice-born were grouped as follows :

Those from whom hands Brahmans will take water ;
those from whom hands some of the higher castes will take water ;
those from whom the twice-born cannot take water, but who are not untouchable ;
those whose touch defiles, but who do not eat beef ;
and those who eat beef and vermin and whose touch defiles. In this last class the Chamar belongs. He occupies an utterly degraded position in the village life, and he is regarded with loathing and disgust by the higher castes. His quarters (chamrauti, chamarwdrd) abound in l kinds of abominable filth. His foul mode of living is proverbial. Except when it is absolutely necessary, a clean- living Hindu will not visit his part of the village. The author of Hindu Castes and Sects says that the very touch of a Chamar renders it necessary for a good Hindu to bathe with all his clothes on.  The Chamar’s very name connects him with the carcasses of cattle. Besides, he not only removes the skins from the cattle that have died, but also he eats the flesh. The defilement and degrada- tion resulting from these acts are insurmountable. The fact that the Chamar is habitually associated in thought with these practices may partially explain why the large non-leather-working sections of the caste are still rated as untouchable.

Among all the sections of the Chamar of the United Provinces, two great sub-castes predominate. These are the JATIYA and the JAISWAR. The former, which includes more than twenty per cent, of the total Chamar population, is found almost entirely in the north and west of the Provinces, in the Meerut, Agra and Rohilkhand Divisions, being most numerous in Meerut, Agra, Moradabad, and Badaun Districts ; and the latter, numbering about one million persons, are found chiefly in the Allahabad, Benares,


The Jatiya, or Jatua, is found in large numbers, not only in the central and upper Doab, and in Rohilkhand, but also in the Punjab in the neighbourhood of Delhi and Gurgaon. He is a field-labourer, a cultivator, a dealer in hides, and a maker of shoes. Some of the cultivating sections of this sub-caste do not make leather, and do not allow their women to practise midwifery. Some of the shoemaking sections do not mend shoes. In some places, notably in the Punjab, the latiya works in horse and camel hides, and refuses to touch the skins of cattle.  Some of the dealers in hides are wealthy, and live as com- fortably as do high-caste Hindus. About one half of the sub-caste eat carrion. Some, at least, refuse to eat beef or pork.


Two suggestions have been made as to their origin. Some say that their name is derived from the word jat, meaning a camel-driver ; others, that their name connects them with the Jat caste. It is sometimes said that they are descendants from the marriages of Jats with Chamars. Nesfield suggests that they may be an occupational offshoot from the Yadu tribe from which Krishna came. Although the Jatiya of the Punjab works in camel and horse hides, which is an abomination to the Chandar,he employs Gaur Brahmans, and is, for this reason, in that part of India, considered the highest sub-caste of Chamars.


The Jaiswar is found almost exclusively in the eastern part of the Provinces. From his ranks many menial servants and house-servants for Europeans are recruited in the towns and cities. Many are grasscuts and grooms ; indeed many of the grooms (sals) from Calcutta to Peshawar are laiswars of launpur and Azamgarh. Some of this sub-caste are tanners, some of them make shoes, and many are day-labourers. Some Jaiswars were with the troops that fought with Clive at Plassey. It is said that they have a custom which requires that they, becauseof an oath in the name of the goddess Mai Ram (Kali), carry burdens on their heads but not on their shoulders. They worship the halter as a fetish, and consider it an act of sacrilege to tie up a dog with it, because the dog is unclean. For the most part they eat carrion and pork, but their leading men do not.


Chamar is found almost exclusively in the Meerut and Rohilkhand Divisions. He is most numerous in the Saharanpur, Bijnor, and Muzaffarnagar Districts, and he is found in considerable numbers in the Meerut, Moradabad, and Bulandshar Districts. He is counted amongst the lowest of all the sub-castes. In fact the tanning sections of the Chamars, of whom the Chamar is one, seem to occupy the lowest level wherever they are found. He is a cultivator, a shoe-maker, and a tanner. His women practise midwifery. He eats pork.


The DOHAR is a numerous group of the Chamars found in a section running right across the Provinces, from the Districts of Philibhit and Kheri, through those of Shahjahanpur, Hardoi, Farrukhabad, Cawnpore, and Etawah, to Jalaun. He is most numerous in the Hardoi District, where he forms more than half of the Chamar population. He does not keep pigs, but he eats pork.


The KURIL is found chiefly in the Allahabad and Lucknow Divisions. He is most numerous in the Unao District where he comprises nearly the whole of the Chamar community. He is found in considerable numbers in the neighbouring Districts of Cawnpore, Lucknow, and Rae Bareilly, and in small numbers in nearly every district in the Provinces, being in this respect, with the exception of the Jaiswar, the most widely distributed sub-caste in the Provinces. He claims to have been brought to Lucknow from Fatehpur Haswa several generations ago. He is a leather-worker and field labourer. He keeps pigs and eats carrion. He will not touch dead camels or horses. The Kurils who live to the west of the Ganges have no social intercourse with those who live on the other side of that stream. The two sections do not intermarry. The women of the former wear skirts and those of the latter wear loin-cloths (dhoti).


The PURBIYA  name is geographical. He is found chiefly in the Sitapur and Kheri Districts, being most numerous in the former. There are fairly large numbers of this sub-caste in the territory lying to the east of these districts. Few are found in the western parts of the Provinces.


The KORI or KOLI Chamar is found almost exclusively in the Gorakhpur and Lucknow Divisions. About 100,000 are found in the Sultanpur District alone, while more than 50,000 are found in the District of Basti, and more than 80,000 in the two Districts of Fyzabad and Partabgarh. He is a shoe-maker, a field-labourer, a groom, and a weaver. 1 He will not touch dead camels or horses. In the Punjab, where he does not work in leather, and where he does not perform menial tasks, he is called a Chamar-Julaha, i.e., Chamar weaver. The Kori (Weaver) ften lives alongside of him, and was undoubtedly formerly a Chamar. In some places people still remember when the Kori and the Kori Chamar ate together and intermarried. In Mirzapur the Kori is known as Chamar-Kori.


The AHARWAR is found chiefly in Bundelkhand, where in some districts, as in Jhansi and in Hamirpur, he comprises about ninety per cent, of the Chamar population. There are important communities of Aharwars in the Districts of Farukhabad, Hardoi, and Bulandshahr. In some places, he does not make leather, nor does his wife practise midwifery. Many Aharwars are cultivators, and some are petty contractors.


The DHUSIYA or JHUSIYA is found almost exclusively in the Benares Division and in the adjoining District of Gorakhpur. He is most numerous in the District of Ballia - where he forms about sixty-five per cent, of the Chamar population. Nearly forty-five per cent, of this sub-caste are found in the Ballia District alone. The only other Districts where he is found in considerable

numbers are Benares and Gorakhpur. In the Ballia and Benares Districts are found nearly three quarters of the whole sub-caste. Colonies of Dhusiyas are found in the Districts of Saharanpur and Bulandshahr and there are large settlements df them in the Punjab. Although he is a shoe and harness maker, he is chiefly a day labourer. Some of the sub-caste are tanners. He sometimes serves as a musician. House-servants of Europeans are often from this sub-caste. Occasionally he cultivates his own fields. In the east, e.g., in Bihar, he keeps pigs and chickens. His women practise midwifery. In the Punjab he is counted as a sub-division of the Mochi.

The CHAMKATIYA is found chiefly in the Bareilly District, where nearly eighty per cent, of the sub-caste is found. There are a few thousands, all told, found in a section running through the Districts of Fatehpur, RaeBareilly, Sultanpur, Fyzabad, and Basti. Chamkatiyas are scarcely found elsewhere. It is said that from this sub-caste both Nona Chamari and Rai Das came.


The DOSADH or DUSADH, found in the Lucknow and Gorakhpur Divisions and in the lower Doab, is a weaver, a groom, and a field-labourer. He keeps pigs. In Bengal the Dosadh claims to be of higher standing than the Chamar. Formerly, in the east, he was reckoned as a Chamar, but now he assumes an independent position. He no longer works in leather, nor does he eat carrion, nor does his wife practise midwifery. He often works as a house-servant. He is on very friendly terms with the Chamars and lives next to them in the villages. Many Dosadhs have gone to the cities to work in the factories.


From the AZAMGARHYA, or BIRHIRUYA, of the orakhpur Division, come many servants of Europeans. They also tend swine.


The KAIYAN of Bundelkhand and Sagar is sometimes rated as a criminal. He is related to the Bohra, a trader and usurer of Brahman, or Rajput, origin.


There are some groups of Chamars that are often spoken of as sub-castes, which are not strictly such. The RANGIYA is a good example. It is an occupational division of certain sub-castes. As the name suggests, he is a dyer, or tanner, of leather, and, as such, is a low type of Chamar. Some of them make shoes. Another group that is often spoken of as a sub-caste is the RAIDASI. With the possible exception of those in the Karnal and its neighbourhood, this group is not a sub-caste. In some parts of the provinces all Chamars call themselves Rai is, and many bearing this name are found as religious groups in a number of sub-castes. Followers of Rai Das are found all over the provinces. There are other religious bodies amongst the Chamars which are not sub-castes.

On the other hand the SATNAMIS, a religious group in the Central Provinces, have become practically a new sub-caste. These Chamars, who make up the largest and oldest Chamar group in this part of India, have given up leather work entirely, and have become cultivators. Many of them have tenant rights, and a number of them have obtained villages. Likewise the ALAKHGIR, a group formed by Lalglr, has become a separate sub-caste.
While it is unnecessary to name all the sub-castes of the Chamars, a number of groups may be added to those already enumerated. The MANGATIYA is a beggar who receives alms from the Jaiswars only. Once a year he makes his rounds, taking a pice and a roti from each house. The CHANDAUR makes but does not mend shoes, and sews canvas and coarse cloth. The NONA Chamar is found in the neighbourhood of Cawnpore. The DHENGAR and the NIKHAR, tribes of the Etawah District, are Chamars. The former serves as a groom, but the latter does not. Their wives do not practise midwifery.

The SAKARWARS are tanners, shoe-makers and cultivators. They keep pigs. The KAROL is a small tribe of shoe  makers found in the Bahraich, Aligarh, Bulandshahr, and Benares Districts. Then, there are the DHUMAN, DOMAR, RAJ KUMARI, NIGATI, DHINGARIYA, GHORCHARHA, and PACHHWAHAN.

Among the minor sub-castes may be noted the GOLE of Etawah ;
the DOLIDHAUWA, or palanquin bearer of Partabgarh ;
the DHUNYAL-JULAHA, who makes cloth ; the LASHKARIYA, who makes shoes, often of the English style, and the GHARAMI, of Dehra Dun, who is a thatcher. The RAJ or RAJ-MISTRI, found every- where in the United Provinces, a purely occupational caste of masons and bricklayers, is largely recruited from the Chamars. This caste is of comparatively recent origin.

The CHAIN, who is in some areas, e.g., in Ballia, rated as a Chamar, is also considered a separate caste. He is described as a criminal, a thief, a swindler, an impostor, and a pick-pocket. He is decidedly the criminal among the Chamars, making long expeditions with the object of looting and robbing. He is a terror to law-abiding citizens and a thorn in the flesh of the police. He is often under police supervision.


The DHANUK is sometimes classed as a Chamar.  He eats carrion and the leavings of food from other castes, and his women act as midwives.


There are a number of minor castes that work in leather. The DAFALI makes the drums called tabld and tdla, and the BHAND, or jester, makes the drums called daikkd. There are also the DHOR, who makes buckets and dyes leather ; the KALAN, who cobbles shoes and makes tents ; the DABGAR, found in Bengal and in the east of the United Provinces, as well as in the Punjab, who makes large raw-hide vessels, beaten raw camel’s hide bottles for ghee and oil, and also drum-heads, leather sheaths for swords, and shields ; the DHALGAR, a maker of leather shields ; the CHAKKILIYAN, the Dom of the hill tracts, and the KORAL are also workers in leather. The KHATJK makes drum-heads. The CHARKATA is a Mohammadan leather-worker. The bihteti, who is sometimes a Chamar, also works in leather.


The CHIK, CHIKWA, is a Mohammadan who turns out goat and sheep skins.


In the Punjab  still other sub-castes of Chamars are found. The CHANDAR, whose origin is traced to Benares, is sometimes reckoned as the highest of the sub-castes. He does no tanning. He forms the principal sub-caste in the Hisar and Sirsa regions. The CHAMRANG is a tanner who works in ox and buffalo hides only, and who does not work up the leather which he tans. One section of this group, which keeps pigs, is separated from the other, which dyes and tans hides.


The RAMDASI is a weaver. The CHAMBAR is the principal sub-caste about Jalandar and Ludhiana. Besides, there are the CHAMAR, the CHAMARWA, CHANWAR, and the JATA.


The last is the descendant of the wife of Rim Das, In Patfala we have the endogamous BAGRI and DESI. The former is an immigrant from Bagar, and the latter consists of two groups, Chamars who make shoes, and the BONAS, weavers of blankets, who are Sikhs. Among the allied castes in the Punjab are the DHED, who is a separate caste in the Central Provinces, and in Gujarat ; but who does there much that is really Chamar work ; the BUNIYA and the RUHTIYA, both Sikh Chamars, who have taken to weaving; the BILAI (known as a Chamar in the Punjab), a groom and a village messenger, and, in the Central Doab, a weaver and labourer ; the DOSADH, an eastern tribe of Chamars ; the RAMDASI, or SIKH, who is usually a weaver, and who does not eat carrion ; and the KHATIK. Besides these there is the MOCHI, who is, for the most part, a Mussulman Chamar. He works in leather, graining it and giving it a surface stain. In the west he is a worker in leather, whether it be as a skinner, as a tanner, or as a shoemaker. The name mochi is often applied to the more skilled workman of the towns and

cities. The Mochi is not usually a weaver. In the west he does not occupy as important a place in agriculture as in the east. He does not render menial services. Where the Chamar is not numerous, his place is taken by the Mochi.

The KHATIK, the PASI, and the CHANAL are traditionally connected with leather worker. The latter is a professional skinner in the Simla hills and corresponds to the Chamar of the plains. 


In Bihar and Bengal the MOCHI and the CHAMAR are one caste.


In the Central Provinces 2 we have the CHAMARS, the greater portion of whom are in the Chhattisgarh Division. Here many villages contain none but Chamars, from the landlord down ; and seventy per cent, of these Chamars have given up leather work entirely. Among the subcastes in these Provinces, the SATNAMI is the most important. Other Chamars are termed paikahd as opposed to he Satnami.


The KANAUJIYA and the AHARWAR are tanners and leather workers. They make shoes in a peculiar way. The Kanaujiya eats pork but does not raise pigs. The Aharwar claims to be a descendant of Rai Das. The JAISWAR is a groom. There are a number of territorial groups whose names have geographical significance, among whom are the BUNDELKHANDI, the BHADORIYA, the ANTERVEDI, the NGAPARI, the PARDESHI, DESA, or DESWAR, MAHOBIA, KHAIJRAHA, LADSB for LADVI, MARATHI, PARVARHIYA, BERARIA and DAKHINI. There are also a number of groups whose names are of occupational significance. These are the BUDALGIRS, makers of leather bags (budla); the DAIJANIYAS whose women folk are midwives (ddl)\ the KATUAS, or leather-cutters ; the GOBARDHUAS, who collect the droppings of cattle on the threshing floors, and wash out and eat the undigested grain ; the MOCHI, or shoe-maker ; and the JINGAR, the saddle-maker and book-binder.


The Jingar claims to be superior to the Mochi, although the latter claims to be of Rajput origin ; and some under the name, JIRAYAT, are separating from the main caste and are forming a higher social group. They are skilled artisans who handle guns and other delicate instruments. At the other extreme of the social scale is the DOHAR, who is a grass-cutter and doer of odd jobs. Besides, there is the aboriginal worker in leather, the SOLHA, a very small group.


The KOR-CHAMARS are weavers. In Berar we find the superior ROMYA or HARALYA Chamar.

Two groups of beggars are the MANGYA and the NONA Chamars.
 In Raipur the Chamars have become regular cattle-dealers and are known as KOCHIAS. In Central India we find the ALAHIS, one section of whom are weavers, and the other, carrion-eaters, who skin animals and deal in skins. (In the Punjab the Chamars engaged to manure the fields and some who take up groom’s work are called Balahis or Balais.)

In the eastern parts of Rajputana, the leather-worker is a Mohammadan. Other leather-workers of this area are BANUBHI, BOLA, MEGHWAL, RAIGAR, JATIYA, CHANDOR, SUKARIYA, MOWANPURIYA, KAUSOTIYA, and DAMARIYA.,  In Bikaneer the BALAI is the leather-worker. 


In the Bombay Presidency are found, as in North India, seven main divisions of leather-workers. Of these, the SATRANGAR and the HALALBHAKT are dyers of skins, the former working in sheepskins ; the PARADOSH- PARDESI manufactures tents ; and the DABALI, the Woji, and the CHAUR are lower in the social scale than the others, and eat the flesh of bullocks and of other animals. Besides these, there is the MARATHI CHAMAR and the KALPA. All of these, except the Paradoshpardesi, are shoemakers. There is also the JINGAR, or saddle and harness maker, and the RANGARI, or tanner. In addition to these we have the DHOR, a maker of leather buckets and a dyer of skins ; the KATAI, a cobbler and tent-maker ; and the DAPHGAR, a bottle-maker. The two last-named eat carrion. In Gujarat 2 we find the KALPA, a skinner and tanner, and the MOCHI, a maker of leather and of shoes.


The leather-worker of the Tamil country is the CHAKALLiYAN. 8 He is a dresser of leather and a maker of slippers, harness, and other articles of leather. He is a devil-worshipper. He holds sacred the avaram (cassia aureculata) tree. It is to be noted that the bark of this tree is a most

valuable tanning agent. The men of this caste are drunkards. They eat flesh, and are more detested than the Pariah. As a usual thing their girls are not married before puberty. Widows are re-married. Divorce is common and is easily secured. Their women are beautiful, and from
amongst them is usually chosen the woman for the coarser form of sakti worship. The women are noted also for their intrigues with landlords and other rich men.

The great leather-working caste of the Telugu country is the MADIGA.* He lives on the outskirts of the village. He is described as coarse and filthy, as an eater of unclean food, and as a user of obscene language. He works in leather, and serves as a menial and as a scavenger. Many ADIGAS are practically serfs. Most of them are field labourers. They beat drums at festivals. In some parts of the country they still have their perquisites (jajmdn), but these are disappearing under competition. They perform the revolting parts of bloody sacrifices, and aid in removing the demons of disease. Their girls are often dedicated to temple service (basavis). The caste is divided into a num- ber of endogamous divisions with exogamous septs, some of which seem to be totemistic. Widows are re-married. Divorce is easily secured. They have a panchayat, or council. They both bury and burn their dead. In 1902 ten per cent, of the Madigas were returned as Christians.

 In Gorakhpur there are no Koris, but Kori-Chamars. The KARWAL, a vagrant tribe, is found also as a sub-caste under the Chamar.  The Darzi, the Banjara, the Barhai and the Sonar each have a Chamar sub-caste.  The Kayastha Mochi, who makes saddles and harness, claims to be of superior origin, and says that the term, "Mochi" refers merely to his occupation. There are other sub-castes of Chamars and allied castes which now form more or less separate bodies and claim to be distinct castes. Even the Jaiswar, for example, claims, in some places, to be a
separate caste. The Dusadhs of Bihar are another example. The Kori (Hindu weaver) is probably another instance of caste fissure.

A notable example of a caste formed from the Chamar is the Mohammadan weaver, the Julaha. He is distributed over the United Provinces in considerable numbers, and is found also in other parts of India, especially in the Punjab.  He is a typical illustration of how a group of people may rise in the social scale within the Brahmanic system. Originally a Chamar, he secured a better position by taking to weaving. He eats no carrion, touches no carcasses, does not work in impure leather, and has separated himself entirely from the other sections of the Chamar. In taking to the comparatively high occupation of weaving, he has reached the border of the respectable artisan class. In many places this separation took place a good while ago; but Ibbetson reported instances of this process still going on. His numbers are recruited from several groups, as the following names show: Chamar- Julaha, Koli-Julaha, Mohammadan-Julaha and Rai Das- Julaha. In many instances now the caste prefix has been dropped. Ninety-two per cent, of the Julahas are Mohammadans. Among the Hindu Julahas are many Kabir-panthis and Ramdasis. Kabir was a Julaha.


Still more important is the Mochi, a purely occupational off-shoot from the Chamar. The word "mochi," which is applied to those who make shoes, leather aprons, buckets, .harness, portmanteaux, etc., denotes occupation rather than caste. Mochis are divided into two main classes, those who make and cobble shoes, who are real Chamars; and those who make saddles and harness. These latter call themselves Sirbdstab-Kdyasths, with whom they intermarry and agreq in manners and customs.


In some places the Mochis of the towns are divided into functional  castes, such as saddlers, embroiderers of saddle-cloth, ghi bucket-makers, makers of spangles and of shields and scabbards. These sub-castes rise in rank as their calling requires greater skill or more costly materials. While the Mochi is an offshoot from the Chamar, as a caste he is quite distinct. However, this holds good in certain areas only.

The Mochi does not eat carrion or pork, and his wife does not serve as a midwife. His touch is not polluting. The maker of leather is considered lower in the scale than he who works in prepared leather. As a class he is well off, and socially superior to the Chamar.  The Gorakhpur Mochi has received medals at Melbourne and Paris for embossed deerskins, made up as table-cloths, table-mats, carpets, etc. The Bengali Mochi is a Chamar, but he tans only cow, buffalo, goat, and deer hides. Many Mochis are Mohammadans. The Census of 1891 returned
twenty-seven divisions of Mohammadan Mochis.

The Mochi of Garhwal is from the non-Aryan race called the pom and is an endogamous group ; and in Almora this group includes Chandal (Chamar), and Mochi or Sarki (tanner).  In the Punjab, the Mochi, who is a Chamar, works in tanned leather. 5 He also grains leather. In some

places the name Mochi denotes a Mussulman Chamar. As a rule the Chamar chooses his wife locally, outside his own village group, but within his own sub-caste. Although the sub-castes are essentially endogamous groups, marriages are occasionally arranged between members of
different sub-castes. For example, Dhusiyas and Kana- ujiyas intermarry,  and Jatiyas and Kaiyans sometimes do.

Occupation may become a bar to marriage, sometimes even within the endogamous group. Thus, those who remove manure and night-soil cannot intermarry with those who serve as grooms. Rai Dasis (in the Punjab) will not marry with latiyas who skin dead animals. Jatiyas in the Delhi territory, who work in the skins of "unclean" animals, are refused marriage by some clans of the Sutlej. In some places Kurils who tan do not marry with Kurils who make shoes.


In some places a marriage is not arranged with any family from which a mother, a grandmother or a great-grandmother has come.  A man may marry two sisters, but in general may not have them both as wives at the same time, and the second sister must be younger than the first. He may not marry the daughter of a brother-in- law. Marriages are always arranged by the parents or relatives of the parties, and women are never contracting parties. Of course, the female relatives hav a voice in the discussion of the marriage arrangements, and their opinion carries weight. Marriage is considered a sacrament and not a contract. Still, in some places, a bride- price as high as twenty or thirty rupees, and occasionally as high as one hundred, is paid ; but the amount exacted is usually that fixed by custom. Nowadays this price generally takes the form of a contribution made by the groom’s family towards the expenses of the wedding. Besides money, it includes gifts of clothes, food, sugar (gur)y cooking utensils, and ornaments. A marriage is binding when the ceremony is performed, even if the consent of the parties has not been expressed or implied ; but the consent of the relatives of both parties to a marriage must in every case be obtained. In case the marriage does not take place until after puberty, or where some other unfortunate circumstances ‘have occurred, the bride may be given away. Daughters are married in order of seniority. When a girl may not be married, on account

of some infirmity, or for some other equally valid reason, the younger sister is allowed to marry. The younger sister may be married first, if the older is already betrothed. 

Under the principles of concubinage and polygamy, the practice of keeping more than one woman is common. There is no general objection to polygamy, provided a man is financially able to support more than one wife. Where the first wife is barren, a second marriage is usually

sanctioned by the council. Furthermore a man may buy a widow or a younger woman. Widow-marriage often contributes to polygamy, especially where the younger brother takes the widow of his deceased brother. Although a second wife is often bought, she is not always regularly married. In some places, when a man takes a second wife, the first leaves him, and desertion under such circumstances is recognized as according to tribal custom. If the second woman live with the man for twelve years, she will have the same rights as the first. If the husband die, and the two women live at peace, both will inherit, provided he make a will. Rival wives, however, as a usual thing, do not get on together, and the quarrelling arising out of this condition has a special name, sautiyd ddh. There is a saying, ** Even a co-wife of wood is an evil." Concubinage (lauihdi, bambdi, rakhni, rdmdi, bithdl) is widely practised, especially where men are able to support a large establishment, and the practice is not considered wrong. Two or three concubines are quite common, and some keep even more. They are obtained by pur-
chase.

Chamars in 1891 were included in the group in which widows were comparatively few. The following table, taken from the census of 1911,  shows that the marriage of widows between the ages of twenty and forty is almost universal. Rremarriage of widows is legal and the tribal council may declare the children rightful heirs. The limits for such marriages are the same as for virgins. If the widow be young, and there be a younger brother of her former husband, of suitable age, they usually marry. There are traces of the levirate, in the right of the younger brother to take the widow in marriage. There is no idea of raising up seed for the dead brother. If the widow have brothers-in-law (brothers of her late husband), she must marry one of them, unless they choose to sell her, or make another arrangement for her. An older brother may take her. She may be married to the husband of an elder sister provided the latter be willing, or if the latter has died. If she is old enough to decide for herself, and if she has a child, het consent to the arrangements is taken; otherwise her relatives will decide. No ceremony is per- formed. The children by the former marriage may remain in the father’s family, except in the case of an infant. Sometimes the woman takes all of the children with her, but then they do not inherit from their father. The settle- ment of the inheritance is usually made by the council. If there be no younger brother of suitable age, she may marry someone, usually a widower of the tribe, by an

informal rite, but not by the Sadi ceremony.  If she marries outside of the family, the bride-price must be paid to her former husband’s relatives, and she loses the property and the children by the previous marriage. If the groom is not a widower, some form of mock marriage may be performed. By this ceremony the groom and the bride are placed upon the same level. It seems
as if the widow were inherited by the levir, or bought by the outsider ; as if she were property to be inherited, or to be sold. Of course her marriage is arranged for her by her own family, and the family of her late husband must agree to the marriage.

As a caste rises, the remarriage of widows and the levirate disappear together. For example, well-to-do Chamars in Cawnpore are prohibiting widow-marriage. Young widows (children) are mere household drudges, and are often ill-treated, poorly fed, and generally neglected.


Divorce is common. A man with the consent of the anchayat may turn his wife out for unfaithfulness, but she cannot get a separation on the same ground, if he feed and clothe her properly. A woman may desert her husband if he take a second wife. Impotency "proved to the satisfaction of the council is another valid reason for a wife’s abandoning her husband. In some places, a woman may not secure a divorce on the ground of disease or physical defect in her husband, provided his relatives continue to support her. The discovery of physical defects in the bride after marriage would be sufficient grounds for a divorce ; and if a separation occurs on such grounds, the husband is usually satisfied if marriage fee is returned. The divorced parties may marry others. Separation for adultery if the woman does not stay at home, and also for certain forms of disease, such as insanity, may be sanctioned. As a usual thing, the woman who is thus turned out of doors by her husband is either abandoned or sold. If she be sold, she may be married by the sagai rite, and the issue of such a marriage can inherit. The principal causes of separation are when the woman leaves her husband and returns to her parents and when she goes to live with another man. In both cases the former husband receives back his wedding expenses. Divorce is legalized by the panchayat. Sometimes the woman breaks a straw as a sign that her marriage has been dissolved.


The Chamar is not fastidious about his food. He eats the leavings from nearly all castes, except the Dhobi and Pom. The death of a buffalo or of a cow in the village is his opportunity for a feast. This is almost universally true, although there are sub-castes some of whose members do not eat carrion, and the number of such is growing. There is, however, not a single sub-caste that is free from this practice. Sometimes the chief men of a sub-caste may refuse to share in such food. Further- more, many Chamars eat pork. In general the flesh of fowls and of cloven-footed animals goes to the Chamar, while that of such animals as do not divide the hoof goes to the Dom or Bhariigi. The Chamar in general will not touch the carcasses of ponies, camels, cats, dogs, squirrels, and monkeys. Those are delegated to the Bharngl. Strange as it may seem, in some places (e.g., the Punjab, in Hindu communities), while he eats dead cattle, the Chamar may be excommunicated for eating beef. In Mohammadan communities there is no such scruple.


Printed at the Wcsleyan Mission Press, Mysore City.




History

Originally Hindus, and the majority still accept their Hindu ancestry. Due to the oppression caused by the caste system of India more prominent amongst the Hindus, many Chamars have converted to other religions such, mainly Sikhism, Islam, Christianity and Buddhism. Many Chamars have also joined smaller yet influential Hindu religious groups such as the Ad-Dharm Movement, Ravidasi, Arya Samaj. Others joined Deras such as Nirankari & Radhaswami.Ravidasia ChamarsSikh converts from the community working professionally in leather are usually referred to as Ravidasia Sikhs. The term Ravidasi is an adaptation from Ravidasias, as some Chamar castes came to be called.The spiritual enlightenment of Saint Guru Ravidas attracted many people toward Ravidassia sect. Saint Ravidass was one of those few saints who were directly linked to God without being stuck to false and hoaxful rites. It was due to such top-graded spiritual enlightenment of Saint Ravidass that many people became his disciples.The teachings of the Sikh gurus, with their rejection of the caste system and emphasis on ethnic equality of all human beings, appealed to them. Of special significance for them was the canonization of the hymns of Shri Guru Ravidas Ji in the Sikh Scripture. Consequently, many Chamars converted to Sikhism and were, as a class, given the respectable name of Ravidassia Chamars.Conversion of Hindu Chamars to Sikhism accelerated towards the end of the nineteenth century. This was due to the rise of the Singh Sabha movement, launched in 1873 for the restoration and propagation of Sikh teachings, including the removal of caste distinctions. The number of Chamars who declared Sikhism as their religion increased from 100,014 in 1881 to 155,717 in 1931.Meanwhile, the term Ravidasias was no longer confined to Sikh Chamars. During the census of 1931, many Hindu Chamars registered themselves as Ravidasias. Nearly 52.8 percent of all Ravidasias declared themselves Sikhs.PoliticsThe Chamar Community are one of the most involved and influential castes involved in Indian politics. The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), a dalit-dominated political party, is very powerful in U.P and is expanding all over India. The BSP is one of the most powerful political parties of India. It was founded by Kanshi Ram and is led today by Mayawati Kumari, a Chamar. The BSP was created and is dominated by the dalits but currently includes all castes.MilitaryThe Chamar Community has a history of military service and have their exclusive regiment in Indian army called Sikh Light Infantry. Many Chamar families are descended from Kshatriya communities, which is why they share common family names, for example Bhatti, Chauhan, Toor, Bar gujjar and a number of others. Many Chamars were recruited in British Indian Army during World War I and World War II on various ranks. Their contribution in these great wars was exemplary as mentioned in their discharge certificates. They received many medals and stars in recognition of their bravery and honest contribution in these wars after being recruited in various regiments of British India Army. The 1st Chamar Regiment was awarded the Battle Honor of Kohima for its distinguished role in the 2nd World War. The Chamar Regiment was later disbanded but Chamars still continue to display their valor in various other regiments.During World War II, the Chamar Regiment was created and was involved on the Japanese front. The Chamar Regiment was disbanded after the war. Former Pakistani Leader Ayub Khan was an officer of the Chamar Regiment.Many Chamars have played an active role in the events of 1857. The bravery of Banke Chamar of Village Kurarpur, Distt. Jaunpur (UP) is highlighted by the historians. This revolutionary laid down his life for the country and was ordered to be hanged by the British for his role in the events of 1857. Chetram (Jatav) and Belluram also sacrificed their life for being the moving force behind Barrackpur revolutionChamar-Satnami kingdomThere was a Satnami Kingdom of Narnaul (Haryana). The Satnami sect of Hinduism was founded in 1657 in Narnaul (a town in today’s Indian state of Haryana, situated about 100 km south-west of Delhi), by a saint names Birbhan. They are considered to be an offshoot of the followers of the great saint Ravidas. The name Satnami reflects the major religious activity of the sect-which is the chanting and meditation of the true name (satnam, names of God), especially the names of Rama and Krishna. Fixing the mind devotedly on divine names, the fluctuations of the consciousness are stabilised, which makes one fit to receive higher intuitive knowledge of the divine. The sect is comprised mostly, but by no means exclusively, of the lower strata of Hindu society-particularly the leather working, sweeper, carpenters, and goldsmith communities-and they observe no caste distinctions-judging people only be their actions. They were known to have dressed simply like saints, and keep shaved heads (and were hence also called mundiyas), and abstain from intoxicants and animal foods. These tenets are still practiced by many today. Today the sect numbers over 15 million, and followers are to be found in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra. This huge spread is because those who survived the genocide following their rebellion against the Moghuls spread out into small units over vast tracts of land.The Satnami revolt occurred in the reign of the Moghul Emperor Aurungzeb. Many Hindus resented Aurungzeb’s strict Islamic policies-which included reviving the hated Islamic Jiziya tax (poll tax on non-Muslim subjects), banning music and art, and destroying Hindu temples. The revolt began in 1672 when a Moghul soldier killed a Satnami. Other Satnamis took revenge on the Moghul soldier, and in turn the Moghul soldiers went about repressing the Satnamis. The result was that about 5,000 Satnamis were up in arms. They routed the Moghul troops situated in the town, drove away the Moghul administrators and set up their own administration in its place. The uprising gained the enthusiasm of Hindus in Agra and Ajmer also. Though totally lacking in weaponry and money, the Satnamis inflicted several defeats on the Moghul forces. The contemporary Moghul chronicler, Saqi Mustaid Khan, expressed amazement as to what came over this "destitute gang of goldsmiths, carpenters, sweepers and tanners and other… artisan castes that their conceited brains became so overclouded? Rebellious pride having found a place in their brains, their heads became too heavy for their shoulders." The resentment of the Satnami’s against the Moghul persecution meant that they even enacted revenge by destroying mosques in the area. It was only with great difficulty that any Muslim soldiers could be brought to face the Satnamis, such was the wrath of the Satnamis at the time. It was only when Aurungzeb himself took personal command and sent 10,000 troops with artillery that the Satnamis fell. They put up a brave defense. According to Saqi Mustaid Khan they believed that they were re-enacting scenes from the Mahabharata war. 2,000 Satnamis were slain on the battlefield and many more were slain in pursuit. What followed was an attempt to slay every remaining member of the Satnamis, and destroy all their homes. The remnants of the Satnamis fled in all directions and for a long time were totally disorganized and leaderless


THE CHAMAR
       A book written by Geo W. Briggs titled, "Religious Life of India - The Chamar". He defines The Chamar as under-
       'The tanner of leather, preparers of skin, manufacturer of leather articles and the maker of shoes'  are Chamar.'
      These occupational groups may be traced back to very early time. Tanner ( charmamna) are mentioned in Rig Ved . Ox-hidesere used in the pressing of the soma, and ox-hides and antelope and tiger skins are used in sacramental and ceremonial rites. The use of skin for clithing is mentioned in Satpatha.The sword was sheathed in leather. 
      The word leather (hide) , charman, charma is known in both the older and later portion of ths Rig Veda,
in the Atharva Veda, in the books of the Yajur Vedic school, in the Brahmans and in the later literature.
      From the Mahabharat we learnt that leather was used for the hand guard of the bow. Great kettle drums were fationed with leather head.
      Old literature also knows the shoemaker, charmakara, charmakrit, padukara, padukrit.Shoes made of leather and skin is mentioned in Brahamanas in Manu and the older law books like Mahabharat, Ramayan and Vishnu Puran.
      Probably from early Aryan times village life of India was organised some-what as to-day, with its cultivators resident within the village and the lower orders of the labourers attached to its outskirts.
      A casual reading of law books reveals the fact that fairly sharp line of distinction was drawn between the general communities in the village and the hetots who lived beyong village border. Manu's famous passage is :
"All those tribes in the world which are excluded from those born from the mouth, the arms, the thighs, and the feets called Dasyus, whether they speak the language of Miecchas(barbarians) or that of the Aryas." This excluded group composed of mixed caste and of aborigines. Some general term as Chandal was applied to those who were of polluted Aryan blood and that of Dasyus, whom Aryan had conquered. Dasyu was looked upon as inferior and unclean even in Vedic time.
      Occupaionally today the chamar correspond to charmamna or charmamla and the charmakara of he past. some brahmical tradition gives the Chamar a respectable ancestry. and atribute his out-caste condittion to voilation of Aryan law. Much current tradition ascribes to Chamar a good ancestry. For example there was but one family of men and they were all the highest caste. They work in the field and followed other callings.   One day a pet the cow died and body lay in the yard untill evening  . Since no one could be found to remove the cascass. Three older brother of the family agreed that their younger brother should carry the body. The younger one drag the body of cow to the jungle. When he returned home after taking bathe his brother refuse to receive him and compell him to live at a distance from them.. They told himhenceforth  to work of Chamar. It happens on another day that a buffalo died, its body was heavy. Chamar then said to his brothers, ""I am not strong enough to remove carcass" The body lay in the yard untill noon. Meanwhile Shiva, who was lookingafter welfare of men passed that way, three brother complain to him that chamar was unable to remove the body of buffalo. They asked help from Shiva. Shiva said that let one of you come forward and help him. The brothers all protested . Shiva then commanded the Chamar to collect the pile of refuse(kurd). When this was done, Shiva directed Chamar to urinate upon it and as he obeyed, staightway from heap, astron men arose. From this man a Kuril a sub-caste of Chamar sprang.
      Another legend, current from Aggrawal Baniyas, relates that there was once a Raja who has two daughters, Chamu and Bamft each of whom had a son of great phisical power. One day an elephant died in tthe Raja's groung. As he did not wish to cut its body to pieces, he enquired if there was  anyone strong enough to carry the carcass away and burry it. Chamu's son perform the task, whereupon Bamft's son declare him an out-caste.
      According third legend, five brothers, Brahamans while out working one day saw the carcass of a cow by the  roadside, four of the brother passed it by, but the the fifth removed the body. Thereupon he was excommunicated by his brothers. His descentant continue to remove carcass of cattle.
      Other historian says the origin of Chamars as a group goes back to the era of nomadic tribal living and and came into existence with the outcome of the inter-tribal wars. Tribes used to own onnly cattle as property. After some time few tribes learn to cultivation and now have the another property as crops and settling down. The tribes generally fight each other due to numerous  reason . In the main four reasons , the first reason was , tribes send their cattle to gaze in the area of other tribes , second being they used to steal other's crops, third being getting away with the other tribes cattle and the most important being they used to pick up other tribes women forcibly. In the war one being victorious while other being looser.In tyhe looser few killed in fight, some of them being prisoners of war, some of from  looser who saved life from war were broken from the original tribes and were used to be called as Broken men. The settled tribes temporarily gives them land  for shelter and food and live on tne outskirts of village..Those broken men of that day called Chamar.
      Some of local group of Chamars are of recent origin. It is said that 400 hundred years back there were no any Chamar in Gorakhpur. In Saharanpur every fifth man is Chamar.
      In 1891 the sub-caste of Chamar is figured 1156.
     Chamars  are known by various names in each state and are listed along with other synonyms and subgroups. In Uttar Pradesh they are known as Raidas; in Bihar as Charmkar, Mochi or Ravidas; in Chandigarh as Jatia Chamar or Ramdasi; in Himachal Pradesh as Arya or Mochi; in Punjab as Ramdasi or Raigar; and in Haryana as Jatav or Jatia. Some of these subgroups, such as the Satnami of Madhya Pradesh, prefer not to identified with Chamars and maintain a separate identity.
      They belong to a caste group of heterogeneous people who are not racially or socially homogenous. They are a conglomeration of a large number of people groups from the lowest caste regarded as untouchable according to Hindu social and religious belief. The Indian Constitution abolished the Chamar’s untouchable status and was listed in a schedule with all other lower castes (from which the term Scheduled Caste is derived) and made them eligible to receive special benefits from the government’s developmental schemes. In spite of this legislation, social stigma remains and higher castes still do not drink or eat food and water from Chamars, especially in rural areas. UP has the largest percentage (21%) and number (37 million) of the Oppressed Dalits (a collective term used for people groups considered untouchables by Hindus). The Chamar live in almost all the states of northern, central and western India.

CustomsThe Chamar marry within their community but maintain exogamy at village or clan level. In Uttar Pradesh, marriages between cousins are acceptable, preferably with the daughter of a mother’s brother. Marriage is arranged by negotiation between families. Child marriages are becoming less common. Marriage symbols are vermilion on the forehead, bangles and toe-rings. A dowry is given by the bride’s family though a few Chamar pay a cash bride price. Divorce is permitted on grounds of maladjustment, adultery or cruelty. Widows and divorced women are allowed to remarry.

          Chamar’s live apart from their parents and in joint families. A son is entitled to an equal share of inheritance; the oldest succeeds his father as head of the family. Daughters receive no inheritance and have a low status. In villages, the women tend domestic animals, collect cow dung and make ‘pats’ that is used as fuel and sometimes also work as laborers to contribute to the family’s income. They participate in social and religious events that relate to family and community.

What Are Their Beliefs?
Chamar communities are mainly Hindu but some are Buddhist and Sikh. In North India, most Hindu Chamar belong to the Raidasi sect and worship guru Ravidas, a disciple of Ramananda, who is known as a champion for promoting change for the oppressed Chamar. Other gods, family and village deities are also worshipped.
The Jatav, a subgroup of the Chamar famous for leather craftsmanship, live in the districts of Agra and Mathura and disassociate their community from other Chamar. The Jatav continue mass conversions to Buddhism since 1956, when Dr. Ambedkar, a champion for India’s disadvantaged people, embraced Buddhism. Festivals for his birth and death anniversaries are held in his honor.
In Haryana, some Chamar, influenced by Dr. Ambedkar, converted to Buddhism, while others are Christian and Sikh. Sociologists have found that despite calling themselves Buddhists, old Hindu beliefs are so ingrained that they coexist with their belief in Ambedkar and Buddha. Some Chamar communities also believe in spirits and the ‘evil eye’ and consult sorcerers. Bihari deities include Sati, and Sitala Mata, while in Goa, Ganesh and Shiva are worshipped. Most Chamar in Punjab and Chandigarh are Sikh and are called Ramdasi after Guru Ramdas the fifth Sikh Guru. They bow down before the Guru Granth Sahib, the holy book of the Sikhs. The Nirankari and Radhasaomi sects advocate worship to an omnipresent Supreme Being who is without form, does away with rituals and idolatry and provides close fellowship within equals.
In appearance, Chamars resemble the local population and region. Chamars of Kashmir are very light-skinned, while those in Punjab look like typical Punjabis; may be very light skinned or of darker complexions".

CHAMAR TRIBES

The Chamar tribes are usually found in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana and Maharashtra. They are also known as Chamari, Chambar Boli and Chambari. They are considered untouchables, and most of them know nothing else their entire lives. With a population of over 50 million, they are among the largest untouchables, or Dalit communities in the Hindu world. The Chamars are also known as Bhambi, Asadaru, Khalpa, Machigar, Lingayat, Mochi and Rohit. They are mostly distributed in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Gujarat.

Chamars are the tanner and leather workers of north-western India and the western parts of Punjab. Chamar is the name derived from the Sanskrit word ‘charmakira’ which means ‘worker in hides’. In the east of Punjab, they are far more than leather workers, They are the general coolies and field laborers of the villages. They do miscellaneous work such as cutting grass, carrying wood and bundles and acting as watchmen. They take the hides of all the dead cattle and the flesh of all clove-footed animals. They make and mend shoes, thongs for the cart, whips and other leather work. A share of the produce in the fields is given to them in return for the work done. The Chamars are by and large weavers in the eastern and south eastern parts of Punjab. The Chamars are by religion Hindus or Sikhs.Origin Tanning being profession of Chamars in past, they could be both from the original tribes who were living in India even before the Aryan Invasion and they were also Aryans who came from the Central Asia. Historians believe they are true Hindus. The spiritual enlightenment of Saint Guru Ravidass attaracted many people toward Ravidassia Sect. Saint Ravidass was one of those few saints who were directly linked to God witout being stuck to false and hoaxful rites. It was due to such top graded spiritual enlightenment of Saint Ravidass that many people became his disciple. Language The Chamar tribal Community speak the language of Chamari. The Chamar use the Devanagari script and speak Kannada, Gujarati and Hindi along with regional languages.

Culture The Chamar are Hindus and they belong to the Shiva and Bhagvat sects. Their deities are Bahiroba, Janai, Kandova of Jejori and Bhawani of Tuljapur. They follow the spiritual teachings of Ravidass and are very much fond of reciting mythological tales and sing songs from the religious epics. They celebrate the festivals such as Diwali, Panchami, Ganesh Chaturthi, Kartik, Holi and Hannami. There is a slightly higher degree of responsiveness to the gospel among the Chamars than among other Dalits. The Chamar practice monogamy in marriage. Dowry is largely prevalent and is paid in cash and kind. Remarriage is allowed for widowers but not for the widows. The dead body of a bachelor is buried lying on its back with the head facing the south, whereas others are cremated and their mortal remains are immersed in sacred water. Rice balls are offered to the dead and to ancestors on the tenth day after death.

Occupation

The traditional occupation of this Chamar tribe was processing, manufacturing and trading in leather and leather goods, but agriculture is another important occupation in which they engage, either as owners or as tenants who farm property on a share-cropping basis

Food The Chamars will eat food prepared by any tribe except the Khakrob, Kanjar, Sansi and Nat. Their staple cereals are rice and jowar. Men occasionally drink alcohol. Politics The Chamar Community is one of the most involved and influential castes involved in Indian politics. The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), a dalit-dominated political party, is very powerful in U.P and is expanding all over India. The BSP is one of the most powerful political parties of India. It was founded by Kanshi Ram and is led today by Mayawati Kumari, a Chamar. The BSP was created and is dominated by the dalits but currently includes all castes. Military The Chamar Community has a history of military service and has their exclusive regiment in Indian army called Sikh Light Infantry. Many Chamar families are descended from Kshatriya communities, which is why they share common family names, for example Bhatti, Chauhan, Toor, bar gujjar and a number of others. Many Chamars were recruited in British Indian Army during World War I and World War II on various ranks.

 

 
 
 


History
Originally Hindus, and the majority still accept their Hindu ancestry. Due to the oppression caused by the caste system of India more prominent amongst the Hindus, many Chamars have converted to other religions such, mainly Sikhism, Islam, Christianity and Buddhism. Many Chamars have also joined smaller yet influential Hindu religious groups such as the Ad-Dharm Movement, Ravidasi, Arya Samaj. Others joined Deras such as Nirankari & Radhaswami.Ravidasia ChamarsSikh converts from the community working professionally in leather are usually referred to as Ravidasia Sikhs. The term Ravidasi is an adaptation from Ravidasias, as some Chamar castes came to be called.The spiritual enlightenment of Saint Guru Ravidas attracted many people toward Ravidassia sect. Saint Ravidass was one of those few saints who were directly linked to God without being stuck to false and hoaxful rites. It was due to such top-graded spiritual enlightenment of Saint Ravidass that many people became his disciples.The teachings of the Sikh gurus, with their rejection of the caste system and emphasis on ethnic equality of all human beings, appealed to them. Of special significance for them was the canonization of the hymns of Shri Guru Ravidas Ji in the Sikh Scripture. Consequently, many Chamars converted to Sikhism and were, as a class, given the respectable name of Ravidassia Chamars.Conversion of Hindu Chamars to Sikhism accelerated towards the end of the nineteenth century. This was due to the rise of the Singh Sabha movement, launched in 1873 for the restoration and propagation of Sikh teachings, including the removal of caste distinctions. The number of Chamars who declared Sikhism as their religion increased from 100,014 in 1881 to 155,717 in 1931.Meanwhile, the term Ravidasias was no longer confined to Sikh Chamars. During the census of 1931, many Hindu Chamars registered themselves as Ravidasias. Nearly 52.8 percent of all Ravidasias declared themselves Sikhs.PoliticsThe Chamar Community are one of the most involved and influential castes involved in Indian politics. The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), a dalit-dominated political party, is very powerful in U.P and is expanding all over India. The BSP is one of the most powerful political parties of India. It was founded by Kanshi Ram and is led today by Mayawati Kumari, a Chamar. The BSP was created and is dominated by the dalits but currently includes all castes.MilitaryThe Chamar Community has a history of military service and have their exclusive regiment in Indian army called Sikh Light Infantry. Many Chamar families are descended from Kshatriya communities, which is why they share common family names, for example Bhatti, Chauhan, Toor, Bar gujjar and a number of others. Many Chamars were recruited in British Indian Army during World War I and World War II on various ranks. Their contribution in these great wars was exemplary as mentioned in their discharge certificates. They received many medals and stars in recognition of their bravery and honest contribution in these wars after being recruited in various regiments of British India Army. The 1st Chamar Regiment was awarded the Battle Honor of Kohima for its distinguished role in the 2nd World War. The Chamar Regiment was later disbanded but Chamars still continue to display their valor in various other regiments.During World War II, the Chamar Regiment was created and was involved on the Japanese front. The Chamar Regiment was disbanded after the war. Former Pakistani Leader Ayub Khan was an officer of the Chamar Regiment.Many Chamars have played an active role in the events of 1857.

The bravery of Banke Chamar of Village Kurarpur, Distt. Jaunpur (UP) is highlighted by the historians. This revolutionary laid down his life for the country and was ordered to be hanged by the British for his role in the events of 1857.

Chetram (Jatav) and Belluram also sacrificed their life for being the moving force behind Barrackpur revolution


Social background and origins

In the context of traditional Hindu society, Dalit status has often been historically associated with occupations regarded as ritually impure, such as any occupation involving killing, handling of animal cadavers or night soil (human feces). One million Dalits work as manual scavengers, cleaning latrines and sewers by hand and clearing away dead animals. Engaging in these activities was considered to be polluting to the individual who performed them, and this pollution was considered to be 'contagious'. As a result, Dalits were commonly banned and segregated from full participation in Hindu social life (they could not enter the premises of a temple or a school and stayed outside the village), while elaborate precautions were sometimes observed to prevent incidental contact between Dalits and other Hindus.
There are an estimated 250 million Dalits in India according to Dalitnetwork.org. Most of the Dalits, are bonded workers, many working in slave-like conditions to pay off debts that were incurred generations ago. The majority of Dalits live in segregation and experience violence, murder, rape and atrocities to the scale of 110,000 registered cases a year according to 2005 statistics. No one believes these numbers are anywhere close to the reality of crimes committed against Dalits. Most crimes go unreported, and few registered cases ever get to trial.
There have been studies done to indicate no racial and genetic differences between upper and lower castes. Many sociologists, anthropologists and historians have rejected the racial origins and racial emphasis of caste and consider the idea to be one that has political undertones.
Discrimination against Dalits is not limited to the Hindu community. This situation is exacerbated by the fact that non-Hindu Dalit groups have traditionally not been recognized as Scheduled Castes under hiring quota laws. The Dalit Muslims or "Arzal", as well as Dalit Christians form an integral part of the caste system in South Asia among Muslims and Christians. Many Dalit Muslims are discriminated against by the upper-caste "Ashraf" Muslims, and Dalit Christians are discriminated against by upper caste Christian priests and nuns.
Some Dalits have successfully integrated into urban Indian society, where caste origins are less obvious and less important in public life. In rural India, caste origins are more readily apparent and Dalits remain excluded from local religious life, though this exclusion in its severity is in fact fast diminishing due to changing social norms of acceptable behavior.
Dalits and similar groups are also found in Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh. In addition, the Burakumin of Japan are also compared to Dalits, as are the Baekjeong of Korea. Even Dalits in the USA have suggested that discrimination exists within their ethnic community.


Dalits and religion



Hindu Dalits

The large majority of the Dalits are Hindus, although some in Maharashtra have converted to Buddhism, often called Neo-Buddhism mostly by Hindus to mark the line.


Historical attitudes and discrimination

Traditionally, Dalits were not allowed to let their shadows fall upon a non-Dalit caste member and they were required to sweep the ground where they walk to remove the 'contamination' of their footfalls. Dalits were forbidden to worship in temples or draw water from the same wells as caste Hindus, and they usually lived in segregated neighborhoods outside the main village. However, there have been cases of upper caste Hindus warming to the Dalits and Hindu priests, demoted to outcaste ranks, who continued practising the religion. An example of the latter was Dnyaneshwar, who was excommunicated into Dalit status from society in the 13th century, but continued to compose the Dnyaneshwari, a Dharmic commentary on the Bhagwad Gita. Other excommunicated Brahmins, such as Eknath, fought for the rights of untouchables during the Bhakti period. Historical examples of Dalit priests include Chokhamela in the 14th Century, who was India's first recorded Dalit poet, Raidas, born into Dalit cobblers, and others. The 15th century saint Ramananda also accepted all castes, including untouchables, into his fold. Most of these saints subscribed to the Bhakti movements in Hinduism during the medieval period that rejected casteism. Nandanar, a low-caste Hindu cleric, also rejected casteism and accepted Dalits.
Due to their isolation from the rest of the Hindu society, many Dalits continue to debate whether they are 'Hindu' or 'non-Hindu'. Traditionally, Hindu Dalits or Harijans have been barred from many activities that were seen as central to Vedic religion and Hindu practices of orthodox sects. Among Hindus each community has followed its own variation of Hinduism. The wide variety of practices and beliefs observed in Hinduism makes any clear assessment difficult. Each community, including the Dalit see their importance in the history of Hinduism. For example, Sant Tirumalisai was a Hindu saint and Vidura was the ruler of Hastinapur during the Mahabharata war.
The VHP leader Ashok Singhal has said:
The Ravi Dasis, Passis and Khatiks all have a royal lineage. They were the freedom fighters of the medieval times but were turned into scheduled castes and tribes because they were defeated.


Reform Movements

Some of the movements in Hinduism have welcomed Dalits into their fold, the earliest being the Bhakti movements of the medieval period.
In the 19th Century, the Brahmo Samaj under Ram Mohan Roy and later under Keshub Chunder Sen, actively campaigned against untouchability. The Arya Samaj founded by Swami Dayanand also renounced discrimination against Dalits. Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa's disciple Swami Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission that actively participated in the emancipation of Dalits. Upper caste Hindus, such as Mannathu Padmanabhan also participated in movements to abolish Untouchability against Dalits, opening his family temple for Dalits to worship.
While there always have been places for Dalits to worship, the first "upper-caste" temple to openly welcome Dalits into their fold was the Laxminarayan Temple in Wardha in the year 1928 (the move was spearheaded by reformer Jamnalal Bajaj). Also, the Satnami movement was founded by Guru Ghasidas, a Dalit himself.
Other reformers, such as Jyotirao Phule also worked for the emancipation of Dalits. Ayyankali was a prominent figure in the Dalit emancipation struggle in Kerala in the early 20th century. Another example of Dalit emancipation was the Temple Entry Proclamation issued by the last Maharaja of Travancore in the Indian state of Kerala in the year 1936. The Maharaja proclaimed that "outcastes should not be denied the consolations and the solace of the Hindu faith". Even today, the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple that first welcomed Dalits in the state of Kerala is revered by the Dalit Hindu community.
The 1930s saw key struggles between Mahatma Gandhi and B.R. Ambedkar, most notably over whether Dalits would have separate electorates or joint electorates with reserved seats. The Indian National Congress was the only national organisation with a large Dalit following, but Gandhi failed to gain their commitment. Gandhi however, continued to spread his cause for uplifting the Dalits and began the Harijan Yatra.
Similar padyatras borrowing from Gandhi's example were established to uplift the Harijans including Vishwesha Tirtha Swamiji's Padayatras in Bangalore. The Pradeshika Harijan Sevak Sangha was Gandhi's organization aimed at working on uplifting the backward-castes. Mahatma Gandhi is well respected by the Dalits of today. (A few Dalits, such as those of Bhatra, even worship him.)
Ambedkar, a Dalit himself, developed a deeper analysis of Untouchability, but lacked a workable political strategy: his conversion to Buddhism in 1956, along with millions of followers, highlighted the failure of his political endeavours.
India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, based on his own relationship with Dalit reformer Ambedkar, also spread information about the dire need to eradicate untouchability for the benefit of the Dalit community.
In more contemporary times, India has had an elected Dalit president, K. R. Narayanan, who has stated that he was well-treated in his community of largely upper-caste Hindus. Another popular Harijan includes Babaji Palwankar Baloo, who joined the Hindu Mahasabha and was both a politician and a cricketer. He was an independence fighter. In addition, other Hindu groups have reached out to the Dalit community in an effort to reconcile with them, with productive results. On August 2006, Dalit activist Namdeo Dhasal, engaged in dialogue with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh in an attempt to "bury the hatchet".
Also, the "Pandaram" Hindu priests (a task traditionally reserved for the Brahmins) based largely in Nepal and parts of South India. These Pandaram priests maintain the same tradition as the Brahmin priests, including using Sanskrit for the rituals (a language traditionally reserved for the Brahmins). They perform religious ceremonies from weddings to death rituals. They are not generally as well trained as the Brahmin priests, but are highly respected within their community and are addressed reverentially. Also, Hindu temples are increasingly more receptive to Dalit priests, such as Suryavanshi Das, the Dalit priest of a notable temple in Bihar.
Discrimination against Hindu Dalits is on a slow but steady decline. Many Hindu Dalits have achieved affluence in society, although vast millions still remain poor. Recent episodes of Caste-related violence in India have adversely affected the Dalit community. In urban India, discrimination against Dalits in the public sphere is largely disappeared, but rural Dalits are struggling to elevate themselves. Government organizations and NGO's work to emancipate them from discrimination, and many Hindu organizations have spoken in their favor.
Brahmins like Subramania Bharati also passed Brahminhood onto a Harijan. For example, in Shivaji's Maratha Empire there were the several Dalit Hindu warriors Mahar Regiment and the Scindia Dalit Kingdom. In modern there there are several Dalit Hindu figures BJP leaders Ramachandra Veerappa and Dr. Suraj Bhan.



 CHAMAR TRIBES

 History 

The Chamar tribes are usually found in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana and Maharashtra. They are also known as Chamari, Chambar Boli and Chambari. They are considered untouchables, and most of them know nothing else their entire lives. With a population of over 50 million, they are among the largest untouchables, or Dalit communities in the Hindu world. The Chamars are also known as Bhambi, Asadaru, Khalpa, Machigar, Lingayat, Mochi and Rohit. They are mostly distributed in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Gujarat.
Chamars are the tanner and leather workers of north-western India and the western parts of Punjab. Chamar is the name derived from the Sanskrit word 'charmakira' which means 'worker in hides'. In the east of Punjab, they are far more than leather workers, They are the general coolies and field laborers of the villages. They do miscellaneous work such as cutting grass, carrying wood and bundles and acting as watchmen. They take the hides of all the dead cattle and the flesh of all clove-footed animals. They make and mend shoes, thongs for the cart, whips and other leather work. A share of the produce in the fields is given to them in return for the work done. The Chamars are by and large weavers in the eastern and south eastern parts of Punjab. The Chamars are by religion Hindus or Sikhs.

 Origin 

Tanning being profession of Chamars in past, they could be both from the original tribes who were living in India even before the Aryan Invasion and they were also Aryans who came from the Central Asia. Historians believe they are true Hindus. The spiritual enlightenment of Saint Guru Ravidass attaracted many people toward Ravidassia Sect. Saint Ravidass was one of those few saints who were directly linked to God witout being stuck to false and hoaxful rites. It was due to such top graded spiritual enlightenment of Saint Ravidass that many people became his disciple.


 Language  

The Chamar tribal Community speak the language of Chamari. The Chamar use the Devanagari script and speak Kannada, Gujarati and Hindi along with regional languages.

 Culture 

The Chamar are Hindus and they belong to the Shiva and Bhagvat sects. Their deities are Bahiroba, Janai, Kandova of Jejori and Bhawani of Tuljapur. They follow the spiritual teachings of Ravidass and are very much fond of reciting mythological tales and sing songs from the religious epics. They celebrate the festivals such as Diwali, Panchami, Ganesh Chaturthi, Kartik, Holi and Hannami. There is a slightly higher degree of responsiveness to the gospel among the Chamars than among other Dalits.
The Chamar practice monogamy in marriage. Dowry is largely prevalent and is paid in cash and kind. Remarriage is allowed for widowers but not for the widows. The dead body of a bachelor is buried lying on its back with the head facing the south, whereas others are cremated and their mortal remains are immersed in sacred water. Rice balls are offered to the dead and to ancestors on the tenth day after death.
Place /Location (then and now)
Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Karnataka & Gujarat
Population
50 Million
Languages spoken
Kannad, Gujarati, Hindi & Chamari
Religion/God
Hinduism/ Bahiroba, Janai, Kandova of Jejori and Bhawani of Tuljapur
Food
Rice & Jowar

 People 

In appearance, Chamars resemble the local population and region. Chamars of Kashmir are very light-skinned, while those in Punjab look like typical Punjabis; may be very light skinned or of darker complexions".

 Occupation 

The traditional occupation of this Chamar tribe was processing, manufacturing and trading in leather and leather goods, but agriculture is another important occupation in which they engage, either as owners or as tenants who farm property on a share-cropping basis.

 Food  

The Chamars will eat food prepared by any tribe except the Khakrob, Kanjar, Sansi and Nat. Their staple cereals are rice and jowar. Men occasionally drink alcohol.

 Politics  

The Chamar Community is one of the most involved and influential castes involved in Indian politics. The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), a dalit-dominated political party, is very powerful in U.P and is expanding all over India. The BSP is one of the most powerful political parties of India. It was founded by Kanshi Ram and is led today by Mayawati Kumari, a Chamar. The BSP was created and is dominated by the dalits but currently includes all castes.

 Military  

The Chamar Community has a history of military service and has their exclusive regiment in Indian army called Sikh Light Infantry. Many Chamar families are descended from Kshatriya communities, which is why they share common family names, for example Bhatti, Chauhan, Toor, bar gujjar and a number of others. Many Chamars were recruited in British Indian Army during World War I and World War II on various ranks.



 Tribes in India  

Bagri tribes,Banjara tribesAhir tribesAsur tribesBodo tribesHmar tribesBhutia tribesAndamanese tribes
Khasi tribesBhil tribes, Gaddi tribesDhodia tribesAngami tribesChakmas tribeOran tribeChenchu tribe,Santhal tribeChenchu tribeJarawa tribe
Gujjar tribes,Khond tribes,Munda tribes,Naga tribesGonda tribesLalung tribesChamar tribesToda tribes
















  • History and origin
    The Mochi are Hindu. They are spread across entire India and are found in the states of Punjab, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Gujarat
    mochi word become on the "moja(sock)".because in the chmpaner(pavgadh-gujarat)many century ago mochi person kill to animal and makes sock-moja by using of animal's skin. so that after day-to-day mochi words famouse as a caste(According to tejas mochi).The Mochi of Uttar Pradesh claim to have originated in Rajasthan. Historically, the community was involved in the manufacture of protective leather dresses for soldiers, and the community are closely associated with the Rajput community. They share gotra names with the Rajput community. They have the following sub-groups, the Sinolia, Sasendia, Sonwal, and Nidaria

    Present circumstances

    The Mochi are involved in the manufacture of leather shoes for example Nike, Fila, Adidas, etc. They have Other Backward Class status in Uttar Pradesh and Scheduled Caste status in Punjab and Haryama. The Mochi are an endogamous communities, and maintain gotra exogamy. In Uttar Pradesh, the Hindu Mochi have their own deity by the name of Ramdeo Baba. The Mochi of Haryana are now followers of the Ravidasia sect, and have started to intermarry with other groups within the Chamar community
    The community have a traditional caste council, as is common among many North Indian artisan communities. This caste council acts as an instrument of social control, by punishing those who contravene community norms. Each caste council is headed by a chaudhary, a position that tends to be heredity. The Mochi live in multi-caste villages, but occupy their own distinct quarters.
    The Mochi of Haryana claim to have migrated from Rajasthan, and are found mainly in the cantonment city of Ambala. They still speak the Braj Bhasha dialect. They are strictly endogamous, and practice clan exogamy. There traditional occupation was shoe making, but with the spread of factory manufactured shoes. The majority are landless agricultural labourers, with a small minority now taking up other professions. They enjoy scheduled caste status.
    In Gujarat, the Mochi caste does not enjoy Schedule Caste in Gujarat status except Dangs district and Umargaon Taluka of Valsad district, but is categorized as Backward.In the gujarat many Mochi people live rich life and enjoyfull day.

    Mochi of Punjab

    In Punjab, the members of the Mochi caste are those involved with the working in tanned leather as opposed to a tanner, an occupation associated with the Chamar. Most Mochi are still found in rural Punjab, although there is a steady immigration to the towns and cities, as their traditional occupation is in decline. They are one of the most widespread caste in Punjab, found in almost every district. Most Mochi in Indian Punjab had converted to Islam, and these Muslim Mochis left at the time of the partition of India in 1947. The rump community is largely Hindu, although a small number are Sikh. Many Mochi have now become members of the Arya Samaj sect. The community has now been granted Scheduled Caste status, which allows it to access a number of affirmative actions programmes initiated by the Government of India.  In Gujarat many mochi family stay and many sub caste of mochi like Chauhan, Parmar, Solanki, Chaudhri, vala and many subcaste popular in gujarat The Mochi are strictly endogamous, like other Punjab Hindus strictly practice clan exogamy, as well as in some cases village exogamy as well. There clans, referred to as gotras .


                          Jatav Chamars
    Chamars however are placed at the lowest end of the social hierarchy. They are denied respect and access to resources like education, land and water. For historians the history of Chamars is not significant because their labour and scientific pursuit is never treated as dignified. Yet the community has an interesting history.



    It was the time during the rule of early Mughals in 15th century Agra, also known as the leather capital, the Chamars had began an interesting journey.



    Emperor Babur was the founder of the Mughal Empire in India. However, his son Humayun, lost to dreams and opium, was not a worthy successor. To make matters worse, he had inherited a fractious kingdom and was forced to engage in battle. Sher Khan, a rebellious Afghan chieftain was soon to oust Humayun to become Emperor Sher Shah Suri founding the short-lived Sur dynasty. He led his soldiers to victory against the Mughals. Hunmayun barely escaped with his life, almost drowning in a river nearby. A bhisti, a low caste water carrier, rescued him and ferried the emperor to safety on an inflated buffalo skin. In a typical expression of gratitude, Humayun made him king for a day. The bhisti invited fellow leather workers from all over to participate in his good fortune, establishing the foundation for Agra's considerable low caste population and its famous leather industry.



    However, Agra's leather industry received its main impetus during the time of Emperor Akbar, who decreed that his soldiers wear shoes. Till that time the Mughal army had fought barefoot. Shoe-makers were summoned from all over the empire and work began to produce hundreds of thousands of pairs per year. Besides the hard-wearing leather jootis with slightly turned up toes for the soldiers, there were also a huge demand for more delicate versions for nobles, their ladies and vast entourages. Besides shoes were the Mughal shields which at least for the common soldiers, were made of leather.



    In the British period the Agra Chamars (known as Jatavs) were the first to enter the manufacture of leather goods. Many became millionaires by supplying shoes and belts to the British army during World War II. That continued after independence aswell. But by the 1970s, non-Dalit traders entered the field. They acquired army tenders and began to fabricate leather goods, forcing many Jatav families out of business.

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